both optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. Evidence also indicates that many landscapes in the region have rapidly driedup: it is predicted that the Tigris and Euphrates—the two historic rivers to which Mesopotamian history and civilization in large areas of Syria and Iraq were linked—will have
was evaluated by gradually reducing the water level in the experimental containers under controlled laboratory conditions. Four water level treatments were used: constant high, slow decrease, fast decrease and constant low level. We tested if (i) tadpoles can speed up their development in a drying
in addition covered by a small mound of dry leaves. This nest type is intermediate between the hole-type and the mound-type nest. Hatching occurred from the beginning until midway into the long dry season. One of two egg-containing nests studied was destroyed by predators. In the other nest 18 of 28
ranges of on average 142 m2 (range: 23-3744 m2) in a partially dried-up river bed. Individuals with home ranges on rocky stretches along the river weighed significantly less (35 ± 9 g) and occupied significantly larger home ranges (median: 944 m2) than did individuals found in places along the river
species. In this species, breeding habitat use differs markedly from that of other European anurans since spawning takes place in small pools located in the close vicinity of rivers. Such pools experience high risks of dryingup and flooding. By measuring 8 habitat variables at 187 rock pools along a 250
. lapponicus. The two species live in temporary and permanent pools and have one year life cycles. Emergence and flight periods of both species were restricted to late June and early July in a pool with a short drying-up period. The flight period of A. lapponicus in a permanent pool was from early July to
This book empirically investigates the social practice of ascribing moral responsibility to others for the things they failed to do, and it discusses the philosophical relevance of this practice. In our everyday life, we often blame others for things they failed to do. For instance, we might blame our neighbour for not watering our plants during our vacation. Interestingly, the attribution of blame is typically accompanied by the attribution of causal responsibility. We do not only blame our neighbour for not watering our plants, but we do so because we believe that not watering the plants caused them to dry up and die. In this book, I investigate how we make moral and causal judgments about omissions. I discuss different philosophical perspectives on this matter, and I outline to what extent the actual social practice is in line with philosophical theories.
. Vertical migration of the nematodes to deeper soil layers was observed when the top soil layer driedup. High numbers of nematodes survived at both 0-15 and 16-30 cm depths for 100 days. Then the eld was ploughed under, which caused the soil to dry and the populations to decline. The nematodes survived