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Anna Kreikemeyer

In June 2010, southern Kyrgyzstan was shaken by violent ethnic clashes that neither national nor international security policies were able to address effectively. Rather, these clashes revealed the many dangers to security that exist in the bureaucratic-authoritarian states around Central Asia

Nigel Copsey

understanding developments on the contemporary far right in (Western) Europe, have we really witnessed the emergence of a ‘new’ breed of fascists - a ‘neo-fascism’ that has adapted itself to the norms of multi-ethnic, liberal-democratic society? A ‘designer fascism’ that is fit for the twenty-first century

The Breakdown of State-building: From the Nation to Radicalisation

The Security Aspects of Exclusion and Identity Formation

Peter Knoope and Saré Knoope

and ethnic lines and is steered towards the opposition of the government. Several factors associated with drivers of violent extremism stand out when we consider the final step of the theoretical framework, the step from exclusion to radicalisation. According to a major study done by United Nations

Khalid Basher Mikha Tailche

In this chapter, I examine the essential role of the Arab-Christian immigrants in the Americas during the establishment of the two most important Arab literary movements in diaspora in the early 20th century: The Andalusian League in São Paulo and The Pen League in New York City. Some of the writers in these two movements became well-known not only in the Arab world but also worldwide. Most of these writers were of Arab-Christian origin who came mainly from Syria and Lebanon when the Arab world was still under Ottoman rule. They were very proud of their Arab identity and criticized any religious extremism as a real danger to their societies. Such position was very clear in their writings, which showed their opposition to any occupation of their countries. Nevertheless, they were also able to detect some social problems in their societies. They emphasized the importance of overcoming any internal conflicts by directing the attention of the Arab people to the necessity of modernization and the renewal of the Arab identity. The challenge of understanding the existence of the Christian-Arabs as part of the diversity of the Arab identity is not only problematic in the Arab World, but also in many Western countries where their identity is seen as a syncretic one. Similarly to other religious and ethnic minorities in the Arab world the number of those Arab-Christians is dwindling. Meanwhile, the continuous attempt to classify them only according to their religious beliefs threatens not only their own identity, culture and their significant role in the history of the Arab world, but also the preservation of diversity as an essential element of any society.

Emily B. Baran and Zoe Knox

it classified as extremism. Some items were relatively unsurprising, such as public advocacy of terrorism and the forcible overthrow of the government. Other “extremist” activities, however, were far broader in scope, such as the promotion of social discord on the basis of religion, ethnicity, or

Shereen Fernandez

pass through a chain of authorities and the Prevent Duty prides itself on using this partnership-based model. The Prevent Duty is the first of its kind to pre-emptively tackle extremism and radicalisation and, following this, similar models are being considered in other European states and beyond, such

Muslims Denouncing Violent Extremism

Competing Essentialisms of Islam in Dutch Public Debate

Margaretha A. van Es

, Extremism, and the Domestic War on Terror (London: Verso, 2014); Rytter, Mikkel, and Marianne Holm Pedersen, “A Decade of Suspicion: Islam and Muslims in Denmark after 9/11”, Ethnic and Racial Studies , 37 (13) (2014): 2303-2321. 6 See, for example: Bayoumi, Moustafa, How Does It Feel to Be a Problem

Agnes Callamard

communication. In policy terms, it is translated into the countering ‘violent extremism’ framework. In legal terms, it has resulted in the launching of a wide legal net indeed, aimed at capturing religious—extremist—speech and largely dropping the test of connection to “violence”. This article will briefly

Jennifer Croft

government initiatives, contradictory policies and ambiguous political messages about national identity, extremism and interethnic harmony run the risk of leaving ethnic tensions to simmer without addressing their root causes or, worse, potentially aggravating them further. Checking the rise of nationalism

Sergey Savin and Elisaveta Rodionova

The problem of social inequality, as subjectively understood by the parties involved, one way or another always lies at the root of ethnic conflicts. By ethnic inequality we mean the social differentiation of ethnic groups, linked to natural socioeconomic processes and the specific