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Irccs S. Lucia

; procuring organs from heart-beating donors or anencephalic infants. Theme III: Genetics and Reproductive Technology. The nature of human identity; genome mapping; genetic manipulation and coun- selling ; embryo research; preimplantation and prenatal diagnosis; the legal status of embryos, fetuses, infants

Maria Sophia Quine

conceptualization of the links between the old and the new. 4 In Italy, no clear-cut distinction between the two ever really existed, in any event. It is well to remember in this regard that the Italian Committee for the Study of Eugenics of 1913 was re-founded as the Italian Genetics and Eugenics Society in 1919


Volker Roelcke

The chapter uses the international institutionalization of psychiatric genetics as an exemplary case on two levels: It illustrates the inseparable relations between eugenics and medical genetics until the 1960s; and it addresses some core issues in the trans-national history of eugenics. On the empirical level, the chapter focuses on the emergence of research programmes, institutions, and the activities of historical protagonists in four national contexts: Ernst Rüdin and the German Research Institute of Psychiatry (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie) in Munich, Franz Kallmann and the department of psychiatric genetics at the Institute of Psychiatry in New York, Eliot Slater and the MRC Centre for Psychiatric Genetics in London, and Erik Essen-Möller with the programme in psychiatric genetics at the University of Lund. It is shown that there was a continuous mutual exchange of ideas and practices. Each of the historical actors followed both scientific and political agendas.


Vladimirs Kuznecovs

The founder of Latvian psychiatry Hermanis Buduls and his pupil Verners Kraulis played an important role in the development of Latvian eugenics. In 1933 Buduls’ expert opinion was critical in resisting Nazi Germany’s eugenic law of 1933 (in its Danzig version) as a possible model for a national eugenic law. Settling on Mendel’s genetics principles Buduls proposed conceptual narrowing of the hereditary indications for mass sterilization rejecting biosocial determinism and paternalism of the Nazi sterilization law. Viewing survival interests of a “small nation” in pronatalistic perspective, Kraulis rejected radical sterilization policies of some other European nations headed by Germany. He stressed, by contrast with the latter, the formation of eugenic commissions with only counseling/administrative functions, an absence of the list of specific “hereditary diseases” for mandatory sterilization, and the principle of voluntariness as distinctive features of 1937 Latvian eugenic law.

Baltic Eugenics

Bio-Politics, Race and Nation in Interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940


Edited by Björn M. Felder and Paul J. Weindling

The history of eugenics in the Baltic States is largely unknown. The book compares for the first time the eugenic projects of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and the related disciplines of racial anthropology and psychiatry, and situates them within the wider European context. Strong ethno-nationalism defined the nation as a biological group, which was fostered by authoritarian regimes established in Lithuania in 1926, and in Estonia and Latvia in 1934. The eugenics projects were designed to establish a nation in biological terms. Their aims were to render the nation ethnically, genetically and racially homogeneous. The main agenda was a non-democratic state that defined its population in biological terms. Eugenic policies were to regenerate the nation and to reconstruct it as a “pure” and “original” race, Such schemes for national regeneration contained strong elements of secular religion.

David Redvaldsen

Italians were Nordic, that Jews were not Italians, and that the mixing of Italians with colonial peoples caused deterioration. Almost none of the signatories had been affiliated with the Italian Society for Genetics and Eugenics. Conversely, Corrado Gini, best known for his econometric work on inequality

Richard Cleminson

, Ludmilla . 1984 . Lamarck . Oxford : OUP . Kevles , Daniel . 1985 . In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity . Harmondsworth : Penguin . Leça , Riba . 1934 . “Esterilização, não. Eugenismo, sim.” Brotéria 18 : 305 . Léonard , Yves . 1997 . “Salazarisme et lusotropicalisme, histoire

Magdalena Gawin

communist authorities defi nitively ended the activities of the Eugenics Society, thus sending a signal to withdraw genetics as a subject from higher education curricula. Even though it pertains to Poland, the context outlined above may also be representative of other former Eastern Bloc states, and thus

Paul Weindling

critical campaign against genetics in the Soviet Union, culminating in the execution of the geneticist Vavilov. Th e Papal encyclical Casti connubii of 1930 came out in opposition to eugenics as part of the condemnation of abortion and birth control. Iltis in 1938 was optimistic of support against racial

William de Jong Lambert

an opportunity to understand how the relationship established between genetics and eugenics in the interwar period provided an important point of reference for Lysenko’s supporters. Th e fact that a majority of the Nazi concentration camps were located in Poland, and that Poles comprised a signifi