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culminated in the declarations of the now infamous Synod of Dort (1618–1619). 1 However, some might be unaware that the doctrine of justification was also a flashpoint of controversy. Despite the debate in his own day, a number of historians have concluded that Arminius was orthodox in his doctrine of

In: Church History and Religious Culture

1 Introduction From the standpoint of the early modern Protestant confessions, there can be no doubt that the doctrine of justification by faith alone is a theological commitment of cardinal significance. Certainly, there is an amount of variety in the way this commitment is expressed by the

In: Journal of Reformed Theology

1. Introduction Much of present-day epistemology is divided into two camps. On the one hand, there are the internalists who maintain that the justification of our beliefs comprises only internal factors. On the other hand, there are the externalists who defend external factors instead. The

In: International Journal for the Study of Skepticism
The Development of the Lutheran Doctrine of Justification from Luther to the Formula of Concord (1580)
The unity of the early Lutheran reformation, even in the central themes such as justification, is still an open question. This study examines the development of the doctrine of justification in the works of the prominent first and second generation Lutheran reformers from the viewpoints of divine participation and effectivity of justification. Generally, Luther’s idea of Christ’s real presence in the believer as the central part of justification is maintained and taught by all Reformers while they simultaneously develop various theological frameworks to depict the nature of participation. However, in some cases these developed models are contradictory, which causes tension between theologians resulting in the invention of new doctrinal formulations.