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In a special way the mother is a figure in whom people see great power. The result in religion has been the worship of mother goddesses. Already in the European and Near Eastern Early Paleolithic (40,000–25,000 b.c.), the ability to give life found expression in many female figures with heavily

In: The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online

[German version] Numerous deities were referred to as ‘Mother’. In Greece, the oldest is a Mycenaean ‘Divine Mother’ (Matere teija, in the dative: PY fr. 1202); the most important are Demeter, Rhea and Gaia, as well as the Lycian Leto and, above all, that goddess who actually was called ‘Mother

In: Brill's New Pauly Online

[German Version] The supposed priority of mother symbolism in anthropomorphic ideas of God (God, Representations and symbols of) led many scholars in the past to postulate a “cult of the mother goddess as an archetypal phenomenon” (Heiler, but also van der Leeuw and others). But mother symbolism is

In: Religion Past and Present Online

Within the rock shelter and to the right of the shrine there is a sculpted panel depicting the seven mother goddesses (Fig. 2). The relief is eroded, but still in much better condition than the stylistically similar Saptamātṛ panels at Udayagiri. It shows the goddesses in bhadrāsana on separate

In: Indo-Iranian Journal

see  Cybele;  Mater Magna;  Mother goddesses...

In: Brill's New Pauly Online
A timeless essay on the underlying structures of classical art and architecture.
This fundamental essay in the tradition of Vienna-School Structuralism traces the religious and sexual drives that gave rise to the distinct forms of Greek and Roman art and architecture. Kaschnitz demonstrates how the worship of male ancestors with upright stone monuments led to the Greek temple and classical sculpture--impenetrable forms dominating space and the viewer. Worship of the life-giving fertility of the mother-goddesses required underground, cave-like spaces that underlie the volumetric interiors of Roman and Etruscan temples that surround and enclose the viewer. The extensive bibliography, invoking a wide range of sources, provides invaluable insight into the wide range of disciplines that Kaschnitz explored, from comparative ethnography to folk psychology.

Kaschnitz-Weinbergs Essay von 1944, einer der Grundlagentexte der Strukturforschung, befasst sich mit der Religion und Architektur der Megalithkultur, um zu erklären, warum Griechen und Römer ganz unterschiedliche Konzeptionen von Form und Raum in Architektur und Bildhauerei realisierten.
Kaschnitz setzt die griechische Konzeption mit prähistorischen Kulturen in Beziehung, die Ahnen und Gottheiten in phallischen, aufrechten Monumenten verehrten. Er entdeckt die Vorgeschichte der römischen Konzeption in der Höhle, umhüllenden Räumen, die den Uterus der Mutter Erde evozierten. Dem Originaltext der englischen Erstübersetzung sind eine Einführung des Herausgebers, rekonstruierte Anmerkungen und eine umfassende Bibliographie beigegeben.

despite the claim by Dieterich's Mutter Erde (Mother Earth, 1905), which constructs a theology of a single great goddess, associated with the earth. In fact, there are many goddesses and most of them...

In: Religion Past and Present Online

The avenging hero has been a central theme in mainstream Hindi cinema. The missing avenging heroine reinforces the idea that revenge is accepted as a male prerogative and that wrong and injustice can only be redeemed by male intervention. The archetype of this paradigm may be located in the grand narrative of the epic The Mahabharata in which the husbands of the wronged queen, Draupadi become agents of revenge in a bitterly fought fratricidal war. This stereotype of man taking revenge because a woman has been wronged has rarely been questioned or broken except in a few films. (Insaaf ka Tarazu 1980, Bandit Queen 1994 and more recently Kahani 2012). This chapter takes a critical look at the manner in which these few films make crucial departures from main-stream popular representations. In the contemporary context of the public outrage and anguish that was generated by the ghastly rape of a young woman in the heart of the capital city, and the demand for public hanging of the culprits; it would be pertinent to examine if the woman who takes law in her own hands to avenge a wrong creates a different impression in the viewer’s psyche than if it were a man. In a society that idolises the woman in the form of goddesses; worshiped both as the compassionate mother as well as the ruthless destroyer of evil, the portrayal of the avenging woman in Hindi cinema needs a closer analysis. This chapter attempts to revisit these films of avenging woman with the premise that the films produced and viewed within a society that is deeply entrenched in patriarchal prejudices the narratives actually disturb the viewers with an uncomfortable ‘what if’ and not just titillate with a mere transposition of the man with the woman in a drama of revenge

In: Emotions and Actions of Revenge

The kôṯarātu, apparently ‘the (female) skillful ones’, appear in Ugaritic mythological texts in passages dealing with human conception and in the ‘pantheon’ texts as the equivalent of Mesopotamian mother-goddesses. A biblical reference to these goddesses has been proposed in Ps. 68.7 (e.g. W. F

The kôṯarātu, apparently ‘the (female) skillful ones’, appear in Ugaritic mythological texts in passages dealing with human conception and in the ‘pantheon’ texts as the equivalent of Mesopotamian mother-goddesses. A biblical reference to these goddesses has been proposed in Ps. 68.7 (e.g. W. F