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versatility and pleaded for their increased deployment. 4 In their Mediterranean variant, gendarmeries are police forces with military status. The deployment of gendarmeries as part of multinational operations has mostly occurred in the context of NATO and European Union ( EU ) missions. But the trend

In: Journal of International Peacekeeping

and their Additional Protocols. Compliance with International Humanitarian Law in Multinational Peace Operations Ola Engdahl Research Fellow, Swedish National Defence College Abstract Th e duty to respect international humanitarian law (IHL) in military operations requires eff ective tools of

In: Nordic Journal of International Law
Arrest, Detention and Transfer of Piracy Suspects
Law enforcement at sea has become an increasingly important tool for combating transnational crime. Such law enforcement operations are commonly directed by multinational missions composed of military rather than police forces, and are often carried out in maritime areas not subject to national jurisdiction. Because of these characteristics, maritime law enforcement operations touch upon many unresolved human rights issues. In the present study, counter-piracy operations off the coast of Somalia and in the Indian Ocean serve as the quintessential example of how law enforcement measures taken at sea may fall short of international human rights standards.

An unprecedented number of national and multinational missions have been deployed to counter the phenomenon of piracy off the coast of Somalia and in the region. Their mandate includes the arrest, detention and transfer for prosecution of piracy suspects. The book at hand examines the procedures pertinent to the decision whether to release piracy suspects, prosecute them in the seizing State or transfer them to a third State, and the detention regime pending such decisions. The study provides a critical analysis of the compatibility of these procedures with international law, first and foremost human rights law. Using piracy as an example, it demonstrates that the characteristics of national and multinational law enforcement at sea may lead to a deviation from certain human rights standards – standards that the States in question readily accept and apply in their land-based, territorial law enforcement operations. At the centre of the analysis are two unique case studies, which provide insight into the arrest, detention and transfer procedures in both a multinational context and a purely interstate setting.

This work is a valuable contribution to legal scholarship dealing with the human rights dimension of maritime law enforcement operations. It is a useful, timely and innovative resource for both academics and legal practitioners alike, or any person interested in the applicability and scope of human rights norms in the maritime context.
Editor: Alice H. Henkin
This collection of essays critiques human rights field missions that were part of large UN and other multinational peacekeeping operations during the period 1994 through 1997. The authors served as human rights officers for the missions, including those in El Salvador, Haiti, Cambodia, Guatemala, Rwanda, and Bosnia. The several chapters trace the evolution of the missions, the role of human rights within the peacekeeping process, and the relationship between monitoring abuses and rebuilding the institutions necessary for a rights-respecting civil society. Future peacekeeping ventures should benefit from the analysis of these operations and from the recommendations that conclude each of the two sections of the book.
Debriefing and Lessons
Editor: Nassrine Azimi
This is the third work in the series of conferences held in Singapore on various aspects of United Nations Peacekeeping operations, under the auspices of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), the Institute of Political Studies (IPS) of Singapore and the National Institute for Research Advancement (NIRA) of Japan. The 1997 Conference focused on humanitarian action and peacekeeping operations and brought together key practitioners and scholars from the Security Council, those interested in government, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), other humanitarian NGOs, academics and military personnel.
Since the end of the Cold War, the number and complexity of UN peacekeeping operations have increased dramatically due to profound changes in many areas of the world. The recent trend has seen a shift from inter-state to intra-state conflicts, bringing in its wake a myriad of operational, legal and political questions, such as the very relevance and applicability of the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of the state. Parties to recent conflicts have no central authority and little or no regard for international humanitarian law. Interested and involved parties on the peacekeeping and humanitarian scene have also changed and multiplied. All these factors render humanitarian action more complex, dangerous and difficult for all parties involved.
The book reviews four United Nations peacekeeping operations that have undergone immense difficulties, viz. in Somalia, the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Liberia. It debates the pertinent political framework for humanitarian action in each case. It explores the relationship between humanitarian and military action, of coordination with regional organizations and multinational force, as well as fundamental questions regarding the role and responsibility of the member states of the Security Council. Its findings can provide policy-makers, researchers and analysts of international affairs with a sober and thorough assessment of past experience and lessons for the future.
Host State Sovereignty in an Era of Economic Globalization
This long-awaited new book from Cynthia Day Wallace picks up the thread of her
best-selling Legal Control of the Multinational Enterprise: National Regulatory Techniques
and the Prospects for International Controls
. In the present work she applies herself to
legal and pragmatic aspects of control surrounding MNE operations. The primary
focus is on legal and administrative techniques and measures practised by host states to
control – transparently or less so – foreign MNE activity within their territories, or even
extraterritorially when effects are felt within national boundaries. The primary geographic focus is the six most investment-intensive industrialized states (namely,Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United States and the United Kingdom). At the same time an important message of the present study is precisely the implication for the developing countries as well as for the emerging market economies of central and eastern Europe - and even Asian nations besides Japan, because it is the sharing of this
very ‘experience of years’ that can best serve to facilitate a fuller participation on the part of the up-and-coming economies in the same global market place.
Re-interpreting the Nazi Invasion of Greece in World War II
Swastika over the Acropolis is a new, multi-national account which provides a new and compelling interpretation of the Greek campaign of 1941, and its place in the history of World War II. It overturns many previously accepted English-language assumptions about the fighting in Greece in April 1941 – including, for example, the impact usually ascribed to the Luftwaffe, German armour and the conduct of the Greek Army
Further, Swastika over the Acropolis demonstrates that this last complete strategic victory by Nazi Germany in World War II is set against a British-Dominion campaign mounted as a withdrawal, not an attempt to ‘save’ Greece from invasion and occupation. At the same time, on the German side, the campaign revealed serious and systemic weaknesses in the planning and the conduct of large-scale operations that would play a significant role in the regime’s later defeats.

inter-operability among multinational forces in implementing the responsibility to protect is an enormous challenge. 36 According to the SIPRI Yearbook 2011 on Armaments, Disarmament and International Security , there has been an upward trend in the number of personnel deployed to peace operations

In: Global Responsibility to Protect

cent in the manufacturing sector today. A number of factors contributing to success in this area are pointed out, one of which is the role of the multinational corporations which tend to conduct operations within stricter parameters than those of the national standards, and this helps to raise the

In: The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law

the territory, the operation of seasonal cycles and the active ingredients of plants and minerals and minerals, among others. This knowledge passed on from generation to generation is the foundation of their economic strategies of production, extraction and exchange. Hence, the selection and

In: International Human Rights Law Review