surrounding concepts such as e-diplomacy, digital diplomacy and even virtualdiplomacy. Something unusual is apparently happening within the field of diplomacy. It is technology-driven, closely linked to the spread of the internet and internet connectivity, and, according to several scholars and practitioners
process dynamics, outcomes, and power. The study concludes by identifying areas for further research to support adaptation to virtual venue negotiation and more hybrid engagement.
Venue Choices and International Negotiations
Practitioners and scholars of diplomacy have long recognized that venue
technologies to support virtual or e-diplomacy is not new. 17 Rather, COVID -19 has necessitated their swift, large-scale adoption to enable a semblance of normality and routine to continue. For many diplomats, though, e-diplomacy — particularly videoconferencing — is ‘a poor substitute for in
On 26 March 2020, the Group of 20 (G20) held an online ‘virtual’ summit to discuss the COVID -19 pandemic and the global economic crisis it ushered in. Instead of world leaders standing shoulder to shoulder for the group’s annual family photo, the closest leaders got to one
-presence with virtual interaction in certain instances. As the benefits of the ritual are clear to those who engage in it, however, it is likely that face-to-face interactions will always be a feature of diplomacy.
Moving forward, one potentially important technological development that improves upon the
well as categories reminiscent of the Soviet tradition, namely promoting talented children. More ideological projects, such as the “preservation of historical memory” and the “development of public diplomacy and support of compatriots,” are of lesser importance (as indicated by the smaller grants