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In American Christian Programmed Quaker Ecclesiology: A Foundational Model for Future Empirical and Confessional Approaches, Derek Brown argues that American Christian Programmed Quakerism has inherited a practical and pragmatic ecclesiology at the expense of an ontological understanding of the church. Inspired by the work of Gerben Heitink, Brown proposes a normative, deductive, ontological ecclesiology based on the biblical concept of koinonia, which would act as a 'foundational' model for future confessional, empirical, and practical efforts. To help form the proposed ecclesiology, Brown explores the ecclesiological views of George Fox and Robert Barclay, the adoption of the pastoral system, and the emergence of the Evangelical Friends Church. The ecclesiological writings of Miroslav Volf, Wolfhart Pannenberg, Hans Küng, Jennifer Buck, and C. Wess Daniels are also surveyed.
This book introduces readers to the life, thought, social activism and political conflicts of the Quaker intellectual and peace activist Henry Cadbury (1883-1974). Born into an established Orthodox Philadelphia Quaker family, Cadbury was among the most prominent Quaker intellectuals of his day. During his lifetime, he was well known as a contributor to one of the most important English translations of the Bible (the Revised Standard Version) and wrote scores of articles and books on the early history of Christianity and the history of the Society of Friends. He also had enormous influence over what may be the single best institutional instantiation of the Quaker commitment to nonviolence—the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC), an organization Cadbury helped to found in 1917 and served throughout his long lifetime. When the AFSC was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947, Cadbury was asked to accept the prize on its behalf.
Scholars continue to dispute the foundations of Quakerism. James Nayler, his prophetic Bristol 'sign' of 1656, and George Fox's relation to him have been of especial interest in defining the movement's identity. Conventionally, historians and theologians have taken either a 'traditional' approach which assesses Nayler by the standards of orthodoxy, or a 'revisionist' one which absolves him by the standards of early Quaker relativism and Christology. This study by Euan David McArthur mediates between these positions, finding that Nayler and Fox developed an ambiguous theology, but adopted a consistent approach to Quaker performances. The latter dissuaded against performances such as Nayler's 'sign'; Nayler is argued, instead, to have diverged from other Quaker leaders following disputations between 1655 and 1656. The lessons his person and actions hold for us are concluded to be complex, but worthy of study for a wide range of historians and thinkers.
The book presents an early modern Jesuit attitude towards Hindu and Ethiopian strains of asceticism. The Jesuits’ descriptions of both the yogis and the Ethiopian renunciates were marked by ambivalence. While critical of these ascetics, the missionaries also pointed out admirable facets of their comportment. In both the Society of Jesus’ positive and negative impressions, there are also glaring ethnocentric views that shift the spotlight onto the other’s flaws. Like many historical cases, these perceptions evolved into a sort of inverted mirror image of the self that revealed differences between the European Catholic and the native renunciate.