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Paul F. Grendler

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Paul F. Grendler, noted historian of European education, surveys Jesuit schools and universities throughout Europe from the first school founded in 1548 to the suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1773. The Jesuits were famed educators who founded and operated an international network of schools and universities that enrolled students from the age of eight or ten through doctoral studies. The essay analyzes the organization, curriculum, pedagogy, culture, financing, relations with civil authorities, enrollments, and social composition of students in Jesuit pre-university schools. Grendler then examines the different forms of Jesuit universities. The Jesuits did almost all the teaching in small collegiate universities that they governed. In large civic–Jesuit universities the Jesuits taught the humanities, philosophy, and theology, while lay professors taught law and medicine. The article provides examples ranging from the first Jesuit school in Messina, Sicily, to universities across Europe. It features a complete list of Jesuit schools in France.

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Monika Neugebauer-Wölk

„Kosmologische Religiosität“ nennt Monika Neugebauer-Wölk ein Muster der Religionsgeschichte, das sich auf Räume und Wesen des Kosmos konzentriert und Beziehungen herstellt zur irdischen Existenz und zu den Seelen der Menschen. In ihrer großen Studie richtet die Autorin den Blick auf Magie, Astrologie, Hexenglauben und gelehrte Antikenrezeption im Übergang vom Mittelalter zur Neuzeit.
Neugebauer-Wölk untersucht Modelle des kultischen Kontakts zwischen Menschen, Göttern und Dämonen oder fragt nach dem Einfluß von Platonismus und Hermetik auf die Vorstellungen vom Schicksal der Seelen. Diese und andere Tendenzen Kosmologischer Religiosität nach 1400 werden von Ihren Gegnern als Dechristianisierung wahrgenommen und führen zu offenen Kämpfen zwischen säkularem Milieu und Klerus. Es werden aber auch überraschende Querverbindungen sichtbar, besonders an den zahlreichen Konzilien dieser Zeit zwischen Schisma und dem Wunsch nach Einheit des Glaubens. Als Essenz ihrer langjährigen Forschungsarbeit entfaltet die Autorin souverän das Panorama der Wechselwirkung zwischen Nigromantenszene, Gelehrtendiskurs und kirchenpolitischer Debatte an einer religionsgeschichtlichen Wegscheide.

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Edited by Nedim Zahirović

Die bisher in der Forschung kaum beachteten Erlässe der osmanischen Zentralregierung aus der ersten Hälfte des 17. Jahrhunderts, die die osmanisch-venezianischen diplomatischen Angelegenheiten betreffen, werden im Buch vorgestellt.
Das Manuskript B.or.137 aus der Handschriftensammlung der Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig beinhaltet 136 Befehle, die fast alle die osmanische Zentralregierung auf die Petitionen und Interventionen des venezianischen Botschafters in Istanbul erließen und dann an die Würdenträger in den Provinzen schickte. Geographisch betrachtet beziehen sie sich auf ein weites Territorium im Mittelmeerraum, das sich von Ägypten im Süden bis Dalmatien im Norden, von Tunesien im Westen bis Syrien im Osten erstreckt.

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Ad vivum?

Visual Materials and the Vocabulary of Life-Likeness in Europe before 1800

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Edited by Thomas Balfe, Joanna Woodall and Claus Zittel

The term ad vivum and its cognates al vivo, au vif, nach dem Leben and naer het leven have been applied since the thirteenth century to depictions designated as from, to or after (the) life. This book explores the issues raised by this vocabulary and related terminology with reference to visual materials produced and used in Europe before 1800, including portraiture, botanical, zoological, medical and topographical images, images of novel and newly discovered phenomena, and likenesses created through direct contact with the object being depicted. The designation ad vivum was not restricted to depictions made directly after the living model, and was often used to advertise the claim of an image to be a faithful likeness or a bearer of reliable information. Viewed as an assertion of accuracy or truth, ad vivum raises a number of fundamental questions in the area of early modern epistemology – questions about the value and prestige of visual and/or physical contiguity between image and original, about the kinds of information which were thought important and dependably transmissible in material form, and about the roles of the artist in that transmission. The recent interest of historians of early modern art in how value and meaning are produced and reproduced by visual materials which do not conform to the definition of art as unique invention, and of historians of science and of art in the visualisation of knowledge, has placed the questions surrounding ad vivum at the centre of their common concerns. Contributors include: José Beltrán, Carla Benzan, Eleanor Chan, Robert Felfe, Mechthild Fend, Sachiko Kusukawa, Pieter Martens, Richard Mulholland, Noa Turel, and Daan Van Heesch
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Rudolf Schuessler

In The Debate on Probable Opinions in the Scholastic Tradition, Rudolf Schuessler portrays scholastic approaches to a qualified disagreement of opinions. The book outlines how scholastic regulations concerning the use of opinions changed in the early modern era, giving rise to an extensive debate on the moral and epistemological foundations of reasonable disagreements. The debate was fueled by probabilism and anti-probabilism in Catholic moral theology and thus also serves as a gateway to these doctrines. All developments are outlined in historical context, while special attention is paid to the evolution of scholastic notions of probability and their importance for the emergence of modern probability.
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From Mythos to Logos

Andrea Palladio, Freemasonry, and the Triumph of Minerva

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Edited by Michael Trevor Coughlin

In his new book From Mythos to Logos : Andrea Palladio, Freemasonry and the Triumph of Minerva, Michael Trevor Coughlin provides an interpretive lens to explore how myth was used to encode sixteenth-century, Italian works of architecture and their frescoed interiors with Logos – providing powerful insights that promote a way of being in a world in which peace and freedom are the greatest hallmarks of society. Leaning heavily on the intersection between myth and philosophy, Coughlin convincingly argues Freemasonry began in the Italian city of Vicenza in 1546, offering fresh insight into the origin of Freemasonry, one of the most powerful and longstanding organizations in the world – one in the midst of a popularity and membership boom that is unprecedented.
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Knowledge and Profanation

Transgressing the Boundaries of Religion in Premodern Scholarship

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Edited by Martin Mulsow and Asaph Ben-Tov

Knowledge and Profanation offers numerous instances of profoundly religious polemicists profanizing other religions ad majorem gloriam Dei, as well as sincere adherents of their own religion, whose reflective scholarly undertakings were perceived as profanizing transgressions – occasionally with good reason. In the history of knowledge of religion and profanation unintended consequences often play a decisive role. Can too much knowledge of religion be harmful? Could the profanation of a foreign religion turn out to be a double-edged sword? How much profanating knowledge of other religions could be tolerated in a pre-modern world?

In eleven contributions, internationally renowned scholars analyze cases of learned profanation, committed by scholars ranging from the Italian Renaissance to the early nineteenth century, as well as several antique predecessors.

Contributors are: Asaph Ben-Tov, Ulrich Groetsch, Andreas Mahler, Karl Morrison, Martin Mulsow, Anthony Ossa-Richardson, Wolfgang Spickermann, Riccarda Suitner, John Woodbridge, Azzan Yadin, and Holger Zellentin
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The World of the Siege

Representations of Early Modern Positional Warfare

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Edited by Anke Fischer-Kattner and Jamel Ostwald

The World of the Siege examines relations between the conduct and representations of early modern sieges. The volume offers case studies from various regions in Europe (England, France, the Low Countries, Germany, the Balkans) and throughout the world (the Chinese, Ottoman and Mughal Empires), from the 15th century into the 18th. The international contributors analyse how siege narratives were created and disseminated, and how early modern actors as well as later historians made sense of these violent events in both textual and visual artefacts. . The volume's chronological and geographical breadth provides insight into similarities and differences of siege warfare and military culture across several cultures, countries and centuries, as well as its impact on both military combatants and civilian observers.
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Ingrid Falque

In Devotional Portraiture and Spiritual Experience Ingrid Falque analyses the meditative functions of early Netherlandish paintings including devotional portraits, that is portraits of people kneeling in prayer. Such paintings have been mainly studied in the context of commemorative and social practices, but as Ingrid Falque shows, they also served as devotional instruments.

By drawing parallels between the visual strategies of these paintings and texts of the major spiritual writers of the medieval Low Countries, she demonstrates that paintings with devotional portraits functioned as a visualisation of the spiritual process of the sitters. The books is accompanied by the first exhaustive catalogue of paintings with devotional portraits produced in the Low Countries between c. 1400 and 1550 (in a e-format).
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Exceptional Crime in Early Modern Spain

Taxonomic and Intellectual Perspectives

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Elena del Río Parra

Exceptional Crime in Early Modern Spain accounts for the representation of violent and complex murders, analysing the role of the criminal, its portrayal through rhetorical devices, and its cultural and aesthetic impact.
Proteic traits allow for an understanding of how crime is constructed within the parameters of exception, borrowing from pre-existent forms while devising new patterns and categories such as criminography, the “star killer”, the staging of crimes as suicides, serial murders, and the faking of madness. These accounts aim at bewildering and shocking demanding readers through a carefully displayed cult to excessive behaviour. The arranged “economy of death” displayed in murder accounts will set them apart from other exceptional instances, as proven by their long-standing presence in subsequent centuries.