Richard Pipes and Marc Raeff were two of the most prolific and influential historians of Russia that America ever produced. They met at Harvard in 1946 and went on, for most of the following six decades, to debate history, share ideas, comment on each other's work, and inspire one another intellectually. In Pillars of the Profession: The Correspondence of Richard Pipes and Marc Raeff, Jonathan Daly presents the 158 letters these scholars and friends exchanged from 1948 until 2007. Thoughtful introductory and concluding essays, detailed annotations, a wealth of photographs and other illustrations, a chronology of major events, and four maps make this volume an important addition to Russian historiography.
Kirchenkritik und Apokalyptik im 13. und frühen 14. Jahrhundert
english Der Papst als Antichrist explores the late medieval eschatological framing and the apocalyptic enemy stereotypes, which progressively corroborated the conviction that evil was to take possession of the highest ecclesiastical offices at the end of time. Nelly Ficzel observes a master narrative – established in the aftermath of Joachim of Fiore and first reflected in his spurious works during the 13th century – that heavily effected the paradigms of soteriological alignment: This narrative located the powers of the apocalypse within the Christian community of the Latin West and handed the task of rescuing the Christian message over to an apocalyptic elite which had yet to be defined and would - at the crucial moment - be ready and willing to oppose Rome. german Der Papst als Antichrist untersucht das diskurs- und genreübergreifende eschatologische Framing und die apokalyptischen Feindbilder, die im späten Mittelalter den Verdacht erhärteten, das Böse würde sich am Ende der Zeit der höchsten kirchlichen Ämter bemächtigen. Nelly Ficzel identifiziert eine Meistererzählung, die sich im Anschluss an Joachim von Fiore etablierte und die – angefangen bei den ersten pseudo-joachimischen Werken im 13. Jahrhundert – in die Paradigmen heilsgeschichtlicher Selbstvergewisserung hineinwirkte. Dieses Narrativ verortete die Mächte der Apokalypse innerhalb der Religionsgemeinschaft des lateinischen Westens und legte die Rettung der christlichen Botschaft in die Hände einer noch zu definierenden apokalyptischen Elite, die bereit sein würde, sich im entscheidenden Moment gegen Rom zu wenden.
Essays in Honor of Gerald Christianson
Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464) was active during the Renaissance, developing adventurous ideas even while serving as a churchman. The religious issues with which he engaged – spiritual, apocalyptic and institutional – were to play out in the Reformation. These essays reflect the interests of Cusanus but also those of Gerald Christianson, who has studied church history, the Renaissance and the Reformation. The book places Nicholas into his times but also looks at his later reception. The first part addresses institutional issues, including Schism, conciliarism, indulgences and the possibility of dialogue with Muslims. The second treats theological and philosophical themes, including nominalism, time, faith, religious metaphor, and prediction of the end times.
Marx’s Philosophy of Revolution in Permanence for Our Day, a selection of writings by the Marxist-Humanist philosopher/revolutionary Raya Dunayevskaya, brings out the contemporary urgency of Marx’s work as a philosophy of revolution in permanence. That dialectic permeates the totality of Marx’s body of ideas and activities. Major themes include Marx’s transformation of the Hegelian dialectic; the inseparability of Marx’s economics, humanism, and dialectic; the battle of ideas with post-Marx Marxism, beginning with Engels; Black liberation, internationalism, and women’s liberation; today’s burning question of the relationship between spontaneity, organization, and philosophy; the emergence of counter-revolution from within the revolution; and the problem of what happens after the revolution.
An Annotated Translation of De conversione Indorum et gentilium (1669)
Ineke Loots, Joke Spaans and Johannes Hoornbeeck
Exploration, trade and conquest expanded and upset traditional worldviews of early modern Europeans. Christians saw themselves confronted with a largely heathen world. In the wake of Iberian colonization, Jesuits successfully christianized heathen populations overseas. In his De conversione Indorum et gentilium Johannes Hoornbeeck presents a systematic overview of every aspect of the missionary imperative from a Reformed Protestant perspective. The most attractive part of his book may be the global survey it offers of the various types of heathens, an early example of comparative religion. Of equal interest, however, is his critical approach to mission. Hoornbeeck rejects ecclesiastical hierarchy and top-down imposition of Christianity. In this he is perfectly orthodox, and at the same time startlingly original and a harbinger of modern missions. His practical recommendations offer a flexible framework for missionaries, to fit a wide variety of circumstances.
In A History of Ottoman Political Thought Up to the Early Nineteenth Century, Marinos Sariyannis offers a survey of Ottoman political texts, examined in a book-length study for the first time. From the last glimpses of ghaza ideology and the first instances of Persian political philosophy in the fifteenth century till the apologists of Western-style military reform in the early nineteenth century, the author studies a multitude of theories and views, focusing on an identification of ideological trends rather than a simple enumeration of texts and authors. At the same time, it offers analytical summaries of texts otherwise difficult to find in English.
In The Grey Falcon, Hamza Malik offers an account of the life and teaching of the twelfth century scholar and Sufi of Baghdad, and eponym of the Qadiri order, Shaykh ʿAbd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (1077-1166). The question of whether Jīlānī was a Sufi, or simply a scholar appropriated by later Sufis as has been sometimes suggested, is tackled through an analysis of his three most popular works, the Ghunya li Ṭālibī Ṭarīq al-Ḥaqq, the Futūḥ al-Ghayb, and the Fatḥ al-Rabbānī. Malik identifies and presents Jīlānī’s Sufi thought and theological stance, and furthermore attempts to paint a picture of the character and personality of Jīlānī, as might be ascertained solely from the works analysed.
Essays on Philosophy in the Eighteenth-Century Dutch Republic
Wiep van Bunge
This book is an attempt to assess the part played by philosophy in the eighteenth-century Dutch Enlightenment. Following Bayle’s death and the demise of the radical Enlightenment, Dutch philosophers soon embraced Newtonianism and by the second half of the century Wolffianism also started to spread among Dutch academics. Once the Republic started to crumble, Dutch enlightened discourse took a political turn, but with the exception of Frans Hemsterhuis, who chose to ignore the political crisis, it failed to produce original philosophers. By the end of the century, the majority of Dutch philosophers typically refused to embrace Kant’s transcendental project as well as his cosmopolitanism. Instead, early nineteenth-century Dutch professors of philosophy preferred to cultivate their joint admiration for the Ancients.
Investigating the oeuvre of the Italian humanist Francesco Filelfo (1398-1481), this collection is the first one to make extensive use of the critical editions of Filelfo’s numerous writings – in particular of his Epistolarium, published in 2016 by Jeroen De Keyser, who also edited this volume. Uncovering much new information not previously mentioned in the literature on Filelfo, twelve specialized scholars are drawing attention to long-neglected material, shedding new light on Filelfo’s intellectual endeavors and his literary journey between Greek and Latin, as a prominent protagonist on the scene of fifteenth-century Italy. This illuminating collection offers historians of ideas as well as literary scholars and Neo-Latinists new inroads into Filelfo’s vast oeuvre, and through it to the world of Quattrocento humanism. Contributors include: Jean-Louis Charlet, Guy Claessens, Jeroen De Keyser, Tom Deneire, Ide François, James Hankins, Noreen Humble, Gary Ianziti, Han Lamers, David Marsh, John Monfasani, and Jan Papy.
Mouradgea d’Ohsson and His Masterpiece
Carter Vaughn Findley
Mouradgea d’Ohsson’s Tableau général de l’Empire othoman offered the Enlightenment Republic of Letters its most authoritative work on Islam and the Ottomans, also a practical reference work for kings and statesmen. Profusely illustrated and opening deep insights into illustrated book production in this period, this is also the richest collection of visual documentation on the Ottomans in a hundred years. Shaped by the author’s personal struggles, the work yet commands recognition in its own totality as a monument to inter-cultural understanding. In form one of the great taxonomic works of Enlightenment thought, this is a work of advocacy in the cause of reform and amity among France, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire.