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Jonas van Tol

The course of the French Wars of Religion, commonly portrayed as a series of civil wars, was profoundly shaped by foreign actors. Many German Protestants in particular felt compelled to intervene. In Germany and the French Wars of Religion, 1560-1572 Jonas van Tol examines how Protestant German audiences understood the conflict in France and why they deemed intervention necessary. He demonstrates that conflicting stories about the violence in France fused with local religious debates and news from across Europe leading to a surprising range of interpretations of the nature of the French Wars of Religion. As a consequence, German Lutherans found themselves on opposing sides on the battlefields of France.
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Europe and China in the Cold War

Exchanges Beyond the Bloc Logic and the Sino-Soviet Split

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Europe and China in the Cold War studies Sino-European relations from the establishment of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949 to the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Based on new multi-archival research, the international authorship presents and analyses diplomatic and personal relationships between Europe and China at the political, economic, military, cultural, and technological levels.
In going beyond existing historiography, the book comparatively focuses on the relations of both Eastern and Western Europe with the PRC, and adopts a global history approach that also includes non-state and transnational actors. This will allow the reader to learn that the bloc logic and the Sino-Soviet split were indeed influential, yet not all-determining factors in the relations between Europe and China.
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Textual Strategies in Ancient War Narrative

Thermopylae, Cannae and Beyond

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In this collected volume fourteen experts in the fields of Classics and Ancient History study the textual strategies used by Herodotus and Livy when recounting the disastrous battles at Thermopylae and Cannae. Literary, linguistic and historical approaches are used (often in combination) in order to enhance and enrich the interpretation of the accounts, which for obvious reasons confronted the authors with a special challenge. Chapters drawing a comparison with other battle narratives and with other genres help to establish genre-specific elements in ancient historiography, and draw attention to the particular techniques employed by Herodotus and Livy in their war narratives.
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Byzantium and the Avars, 6th-9th Century AD

Political, Diplomatic and Cultural Relations

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Georgios Kardaras

In this book, Georgios Kardaras offers a global view of the contacts between the Byzantine Empire and the Avar Khaganate, emphasizing the reconstruction of these contacts after 626 (when, in contrast to archaeological evidence, written sources are very few) and the definition of the possible channels of communication between the two powers. The author scrutinizes the political and diplomatic framework, and critically examines issues such as mutual influence on material culture and on warfare, reaching the conclusion that significant contact between Byzantium and the Avars can be proved up until 775.
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Hebrew Literature and the 1948 War

Essays on Philology and Responsibility

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Hannan Hever

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From Nicopolis to Mohács

A History of Ottoman-Hungarian Warfare, 1389-1526

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Tamás Pálosfalvi

In From Nicopolis to Mohács, Tamás Pálosfalvi offers an account of Ottoman-Hungarian warfare from its start in the late fourteenth century to the battle of Mohács in 1526. During this period of one century and a half, the Kingdom of Hungary was the most constant and strongest rival of the expanding Ottoman Empire in Europe, and as such waged constant warfare in defence of its borders.
Based on the extensive use of hitherto unexplored source material, Pálosfalvi not only offers a sound chronology of military events, but also a description of Hungarian military structures and their transformation under constant Ottoman pressure, as well as an analysis of the reasons that lay behind the military breakdown of Hungary in the third decade of the sixteenth century.
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Artillery in the Era of the Crusades

Siege Warfare and the Development of Trebuchet Technology

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Michael S. Fulton

Artillery in the Era of the Crusades provides a detailed examination of the use of mechanical artillery in the Levant through the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Rather than focus on a selection of sensational anecdotes, Michael S. Fulton explores the full scope of the available literary and archaeological evidence, reinterpreting the development of trebuchet technology and the ways in which it was used during this period. Among the arguments put forward, Fulton challenges the popular perception that the invention of the counterweight trebuchet was responsible for the dramatic transformation in the design of fortifications around the start of the thirteenth century.
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Anna Branach-Kallas and Piotr Sadkowski

Comparing Grief in French, British and Canadian Great War Fiction (1977-2014) offers a comparative analysis of twenty-three First World War novels. Engaging with such themes as war trauma, facial disfigurement, women’s war identities, communal bonds, as well as the concepts of mourning and post-memory, Anna Branach-Kallas and Piotr Sadkowski identify the dominant trends in recent French, British and Canadian fiction about the Great War. Referring to historical, sociological, philosophical and literary sources, they show how, by both consolidating and contesting national myths, fiction continues to construct the 1914-1918 conflict as a cultural trauma, illuminating at the same time some of our most recent ethical concerns.
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The Specter of Peace

Rethinking Violence and Power in the Colonial Atlantic

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Specter of Peace advances a novel historical conceptualization of peace as a process of “right ordering” that involved the careful regulation of violence, the legitimation of colonial authority, and the creation of racial and gendered hierarchies. The volume highlights the many paths of peacemaking that otherwise have hitherto gone unexplored in early American and Atlantic World scholarship and challenges historians to take peace as seriously as violence. Early American peacemaking was a productive discourse of moral ordering fundamentally concerned with regulating violence. The historicization of peace, the authors argue, can sharpen our understanding of violence, empire, and the early modern struggle for order and harmony in the colonial Americas and Atlantic World.

Contributors are: Micah Alpaugh, Brendan Gillis, Mark Meuwese, Margot Minardi, Geoffrey Plank, Dylan Ruediger, Cristina Soriano and Wayne E. Lee.

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Brendan Gillis

Abstract

British imperial magistrates applied distinct bodies of law in each colonial context. In contrast, a shared set of conventions for lawful government shaped administrative decision making throughout British world. This chapter highlights the importance of a broad and mutable mandate to keep peace for the exercise of power in Britain and its empire during the eighteenth century. It focuses primarily on two case studies. In December 1763, the so-called Paxton Boys massacred fourteen Conestoga Indians, whom the magistrates of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, protected in the town workhouse. Usually addressed as a violent turning point in colonial policy, this incident is indicative of a wider strategy of magisterial improvisation that shaped the development of imperial law. In South Asia, too, the writings of Magistrate Thomas Perry make clear, rhetoric and practices of peace allowed East India Company officials to impose British norms on Indian social and economic life. Perry and other British imperialists used what they saw as the failure of Mughal government to achieve peaceful society to argue for radical reforms to Indian courts, administrative structures, and patterns of landholding. A historiographical emphasis on legal pluralism has called attention to the varied and diverse bodies of law that divided European empires. This essay shifts focus to conventions and practices associated with legal peace. The project of maintaining order through law allowed local agents to improvise policies that constructed imperial sovereignty and jurisdiction through local practice.