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Edited by Harjinder Singh Majhail and Sinan Dogan

This book offers fascinating insights into the concept of diaspora by presenting a portrait gallery of writers highlighting diasporas on Welsh, Mauritian, Palestinian, Circassian Kurdish, British Sikh, Dutch Hindustani, Indian, Tamil and African experiences. Harjinder Singh Majhail and Sinan Dogan present the world of diasporas in interesting portrayals such as Gulnur’s research into Circassian history lying hidden in Yistanbulako elegy, Enaya’s visits into Milwaukee in Wisconsin where Palestinian Muslim women marry outside their religion because of the non-availability of suitable partners in their community and Harjinder Majhail’s sojourns into J. K. Rowling’s The Casual Vacancy portraying a teenager girl’s brave encounters in British Sikh diaspora. Contributors are Vitor Lopes Andrade, Kimberly Berg, Amenah Jahangeer Chojoo, Gülnur Demirci, Sinan Doğan, Jaswina Elahi, Ruben Gawricharn, Lola Guyot, Nadine Hassouneh, Harjinder Singh Majhail and Enaya Hammad Othman.
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The Portuguese Slave Trade in Early Modern Japan

Merchants, Jesuits and Japanese, Chinese, and Korean Slaves

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Lúcio De Sousa

In The Portuguese Slave Trade in Early Modern Japan: Merchants, Jesuits and Japanese, Chinese, and Korean Slaves Lucio de Sousa offers a study on the system of traffic of Japanese, Chinese, and Korean slaves from Japan. Using the Portuguese mercantile networks, de Sousa reconstructs the Japanese communities in the Habsburg Empire; and analyses the impact of the Japanese slave trade on the Iberian legislation produced in the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries.
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The Peregrine Profession

Transnational Mobility of Nordic Engineers and Architects, 1880-1930

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Per-Olof Grönberg

In The Peregrine Profession Per-Olof Grönberg offers an account of the pre-1930 transnational mobility of engineers and architects educated in the Nordic countries 1880-1919. Outlining a system where learning mobility was more important than labour market mobility, the author shows that more than every second graduate went abroad. Transnational mobility was stronger from Finland and Norway than from Denmark and Sweden, partly because of slower industrialisation and deficiencies in the domestic technical education. This mobility included all parts of the world but concentrated on the leading industrial countries in German speaking Europe and North America. Significant majorities returned and became agents of technology transfer and technical change. Thereby, these mobile graduates also became important for Nordic industrialisation
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Chinese and African Entrepreneurs

Social Impacts of Interpersonal Encounters

Edited by Karsten Giese and Laurence Marfaing

This book offers in-depth accounts of encounters between Chinese and African social and economic actors that have been increasing rapidly since the early 2000s. With a clear focus on social changes, be it quotidian behaviour or specific practices, the authors employ multi-disciplinary approaches in analysing the various impacts that the intensifying interaction between Chinese and Africans in their roles as ethnic and cultural others, entrepreneurial migrants, traders, employers, employees etc. have on local developments and transformations within the host societies, be they on the African continent or in China. The dynamics of social change addressed in case studies cover processes of social mobility through migration, adaptation of business practices, changing social norms, consumption patterns, labour relations and mutual perceptions, cultural brokerage, exclusion and inclusion, gendered experiences, and powerful imaginations of China.

Contributors are Karsten Giese, Guive Khan Mohammad, Katy Lam, Ben Lampert, Kelly Si Miao Liang, Laurence Marfaing, Gordon Mathews, Giles Mohan, Amy Niang, Yoon Jung Park, Alena Thiel, Naima Topkiran.
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Lars Holden and Svetlana Boudko

This article describes the development of the Norwegian Historical Population Register, which is the first open national register. In the period 1735–1964, 9.7 million people lived in Norway, and for them 37.5 million events (such as birth, death, or migration) have been recorded in sources. We link together as many events as possible for the same persons and families, but only include links that have a high probability of being correct. The linking is performed by automatic methods and crowdsourcing. A national population register is important for migration research. It allows us to reconstruct (stepwise) internal migration in Norway, frequently followed by international migration from Norway, as well as return migration to Norway. Many non-Norwegian sources also specify place of birth by country, and this makes it possible to identify individuals in Norwegian sources.

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Gunnar Thorvaldsen and Nils Olav Østrem

The Historical Population Register (HPR) of Norway gives rise to new research opportunities on a large array of topics spanning medicine, social sciences and humanities. This introductory article outlines the contents of the register, the periods it covers, and its use, particularly with respect to the study of geographic mobility. This article introduces the articles in this issue, which concentrate on the emigration to the US and the returnee emigrants.

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Arnfinn Kjelland

In this article I attempt to utilise the vast efforts invested in a particularly Norwegian genre of local history, namely the farm and genealogy books (bygdebok, plural bygdebøker), to analyse aspects of migration, especially remigration from North America, in a micro-historical perspective. Such books, of which a rather large corpus exists, contain detailed longitudinal data on people and holdings within a limited region, usually a rural municipality or parish. Consulting two works from this bygdebok genre as primary sources, I identify and analyse those people who re-migrated to Norway after having been in North America prior to the commission of the 1910 census.

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Gunnar Thorvaldsen

Both the completed transcription of our emigration protocols and the construction of the Norwegian national Historical Population Register, among other developments, make an article about methods for studying emigration from Norway through the last couple of centuries topical. This article starts by discussing the Norwegian and American sources through which we can identify the emigrants’ absence from Norway. In particular, it focuses attention on groups that are difficult to follow because of international migration, and the consequences this has for emigration statistics. A key issue for further research is the degree to which emigration and return migration are reflected in the population registry.

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Evan Roberts

Between 1825 and 1960 900,000 Norwegians emigrated. Before 1930 more than 95 per cent went to the United States. The rate of return to Norway was low in comparison to many other nations who sent large numbers to the US after 1880. High quality census enumerations in both countries, that are now available in electronic format, allow the possibility of reconstructing the lives and voyages of some of these migrants. Even with a low rate of return-migration there were more than 50,000 return migrants. Constructing a large sample of return migrants observed in both Norway and the US becomes more feasible with electronic search and matching strategies. This article gives an overview of available and soon forthcoming sources in the North Atlantic Population Project, the possibility of electronic linkages, and the challenges of this research strategy. Using a group of 448 Norwegian migrants matched between the 1900 American and 1910 Norwegian census, an empirical analysis shows that migration and marital transitions were likely to have been closely linked. Machine-linked records hold the promise of being able to trace several thousand Norwegians across the Atlantic and back again.