Since the 1980’s, States have been increasingly concerned with ensuring appropriate protection of underwater cultural heritage, endangered by anthropogenic activities reaching ever deeper ocean waters. The localisation of certain sites in the high seas has raised jurisdictional claims, sometimes grounded on an extension of connected factors (spatial and “extra-spatial”) already recognized in general international law and in the law of the sea, while other cases are based on hitherto purely factual links. But conventional and customary rules remain insufficient, either for a real delimitation of state’s competences or for regulating the exercise of jurisdiction once authorized in a certain sphere. In La protection internationale du patrimoine culturel de la mer, Marine They provides a details analysis of these critical issues. Depuis les années 1980, les États se montrent de plus en plus soucieux d’assurer une protection adéquate au patrimoine culturel submergé en mer, menacé par les activités anthropiques jusque dans les grands fonds marins. La localisation de certains sites en haute mer a fait naître des revendications de compétence tantôt fondées sur l’extension des rattachements légaux (spatiaux et « extra-spatiaux ») reconnus par le droit international général et par le droit de la mer, tantôt sur des facteurs de rattachement jusqu’ici purement factuels. Insuffisantes aux fins de procéder à une véritable délimitation des compétences en la matière, les règles conventionnelles et coutumières le sont tout autant lorsqu’il s’agit d’encadrer l’exercice des fonctions étatiques dans une sphère de compétence déjà reconnue.
Subsidiary and Proportionality
In the Court of Justice of the European Union, Subsidiarity and Proportionality Kate Shaw sets out how a subsidiarity and proportionality review applied to competences could be anchored by the Court of Justice when balancing the competing interests in cases concerning the residency rights of EU citizens. The book also considers the extent to which a court which is dedicated to enhancing the European project is really able to be an independent arbiter between the EU and the Member States in this context. Both the legal reasoning of the Court and the controversial nature of residency rights of EU citizens are legally and politically very topical at the moment and of interest to legal academics and law students.
The Civilian Courts and the Military in the United Kingdom, United States and Australia
Pauline Therese Collins
Civil-military relations establishes the civilian control over the military to protect democratic values. This book argues analysis of the CMR is distorted by the absence of consideration of the judicial arm, with the ‘civil’ seen as referring only to the executive and/or legislature. The civil courts approach to military discipline and the impact that has for CMR within — the United Kingdom, United States and Australia is investigated. The author concludes that by including the courts in the development of CMR theory militarisation of the civilian domain is discouraged. A paradigm shift acknowledging the fundamental role of all three organs of government in liberal democracies, for control of States’ power is essential for genuine civilian oversight.
National criminal justice systems are slowly integrating in an effort to combat cross border criminality. New Perspectives on the Structure of Transnational Criminal Justice provides a forum for critical perspectives on this evolving system, with the goal of testing and challenging conceptions of transnational criminal law. Collectively, the papers in this special issue investigate the main symbolic and material characteristics of this space of justice, how it is organized and what dynamics shape its functionality and impact.
Comparing Fiscal Federalism investigates intergovernmental financial relations and the current de jure and de facto allocation of financial and fiscal powers in compound states from a comparative and interdisciplinary perspective. The volume combines theoretical approaches with case studies and involves scholars from various disciplines, in order to provide a comprehensive analysis of different approaches, developments and trends. This includes outlining fiscal federalism’s basic principles and overall frameworks, investigating current constitutional/legislative settings and how financial systems function, as well as zooming in on a selection of emerging issues in financial and fiscal relations. The single chapters are based on comparative investigations under the umbrella of a broad definition of fiscal federalism that includes all varieties of federal systems.