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Jeroen Temperman

Article 20(2) of the un’s International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (iccpr) is an odd human rights clause. It provides that “[a]ny advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.” Accordingly, this provision does not appear to codify a fundamental right but rather a sui generis state obligation. The present article aims at providing a legal taxonomy of this international incitement clause, ultimately also answering the question as to whether, despite its unique formulation as speech prohibition, it contains a justiciable right to protection from incitement.

No Access

Zachary R. Calo

This article compares the law and religion jurisprudence of the us Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights across three legal areas: religious symbols and religion-state relations, individual religious freedom, and institutional religious freedom or freedom of the church. Particular focus is given to the manner in which this jurisprudence reveals the underlying structure and meaning of the secular. Although there continues to be significant jurisprudential diversity between these two courts and across these legal areas, there is also emerging a shared accounting of religion, secularity, and moral order in the late modern West.

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Legalities Unbound?

Assessing the Role of Religion and Legal Pluralism at Four un Human Rights Committees

Helge Årsheim

International human rights law (ihrl) has traditionally enjoyed an uneasy relationship with customary, religious, and indigenous forms of law. International courts and tribunals have considered these non-state forms of law to represent both structural and material challenges to the implementation of human rights norms at the domestic level. Over the course of the last decades, however, the theory and practice of human rights has increasingly started recognizing and accommodating multiple legal orders. This article traces the gradually increasing accommodation of legal pluralism in ihrl in the monitoring practice of four un human rights committees over a period of 20 years, looking in particular at the increasing recognition of religious forms of legality across the committees.

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Regulating Religion in Italy

Constitution Does (not) Matter

Pietro Faraguna

This article focuses on state-church relations and on the peculiar implementation of the “idea of secularism” in Italy. First, it explores the formal provisions of the 1848 Constitution. Next, it investigates constitutional provisions that came into force in 1948. Finally, it examines how the actors of the living constitution (legislators, the government, judges, and the Constitutional Court in particular) tried to balance and develop the potentially conflicting principles included in the 1948 Constitution in the area of religious freedom, equality, and state-church relations. The article explores three particularly controversial examples: the teaching of religion in state schools; the display of the crucifix in classrooms; and state funding mechanisms of religious denominations. The main claim of the article is that, with regard to the regulation of religion in Italy, the transformation of the constitutional position of religion did not occur within the formal constitution, but in the “living constitution.”

No Access

Arif A. Jamal and Jaclyn L. Neo

This essay introduces the Special Issue of the Journal. It discusses how changing religious demographics and heightened religious plurality are challenging existing thinking about, and patterns of, state-religion relations and the nature of the ‘secular state’. The essay briefly surveys each of the papers in the Special Issue and highlights that one of the key lessons that emerges from the papers is the importance of context. As the contexts evolve, fresh thinking and new arrangements would be needed.

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The Secular State in a Declining Europe

Beyond the End of the European Universal Dream

Silvio Ferrari

The article provides data that attest to the severity of the European demographic, economic, and political decline, and considers one of its manifestations, the capacity of the secular state to cope with the transformations of the European religious landscape. The secular state has been a European invention, and the decline of Europe has inevitable repercussions for its vitality, in Europe and beyond. In Europe, the weakness of the secular state has been revealed by the diversification of the European religious landscape. A declining Europe is less and less capable of managing diversity using the tools provided by the secular state. Analysis of the different models of secular states implemented in Europe is followed by a reexamination of the issue of the decline of Europe, and of its effect on the reforms that are required to adapt the secular state to the new conditions.

No Access

Edited by Council of Europe

Special missions play an increasing and crucial role in international diplomacy and yet the international law governing them remains to some extent uncertain. This book is based on the responses of States to the questionnaire of the Council of Europe Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law (CAHDI) on ‘Immunities of special missions’, considered against the background of the 1969 United Nations Convention on Special Missions, key judicial decisions and national legislation on special mission immunity, government statements, and other state practice and evidence of opinio juris. The book presents and analyses the international law and practice governing special missions, while identifying remaining areas of uncertainty.

This volume contains an up-to-date analysis of the law and practice on special missions, based on information from a wide range of States. It aims to provide a practical guide on this issue for Governments, judges, practitioners, academics and students alike.

Immunités des missions spéciales
Les missions spéciales jouent un rôle croissant et crucial sur la scène diplomatique internationale et pourtant, le droit international qui les régit reste dans une certaine mesure incertain. Ce livre s’appuie sur les réponses des Etats au questionnaire du Comité des conseillers juridiques sur le droit international public (CAHDI) du Conseil de l'Europe sur les « immunités des missions spéciales », à la lumière de la Convention des Nations Unies sur les missions spéciales de 1969, de la législation nationale et de la jurisprudence sur l'immunité des missions spéciales, des déclarations gouvernementales et d'autres pratiques étatiques et la preuve de l'opinio juris. L’ouvrage présente et analyse le droit international et la pratique régissant les missions spéciales, tout en identifiant les domaines où des incertitudes subsistent.

Ce volume contient une analyse à jour de la législation et de la pratique relatives aux missions spéciales, basée sur des informations provenant de nombreux Etats. Il vise à fournir un guide pratique sur cette question pour les gouvernements, les juges, les praticiens, les universitaires et les étudiants.
No Access

Judiciary as Constituted Power

European Court History from Medieval Canon Law to ECHR

Series:

Ulrike Juliane Maria Müßig

Throughout Europe, the exercise of justice rests on judicial independence by impartiality. In Judiciary as Constituted Power Ulrike Müßig reveals the combination of ordinary judicial competences with procedural rationality, together with the complementarity of procedural and substantive justice, as the foundation for the ‘rule of law’ in court constitution, far earlier than the advent of liberal constitutionalism. The ECHR fair trial guarantee reads as the historically-grown consensus of the functional judicial independence. Both before historical and contemporary courts, justice is done and seen to be done by means of judgements, whose legal requirements combine the equation of ‘fair’ and ‘legal’ with that of ‘legal’ and ‘rational.’ This legal determinability of the judge’s fair attitude amounts to the specific (rational) European idea of justice.
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Edited by Thomas Meckel, Heribert Hallermann, Michael Droege and Heinrich de Wall

Aufgrund der kirchlichen und gesellschaftlichen Veränderungen in den letzten Jahren stehen das Kirchen- und das Religionsrecht vor großen Herausforderungen und Modifikationen. Die Herausgeber haben daher ein neues Lexikon für Kirchen- und Religionsrecht erarbeitet, dessen Ziel es ist, den Nutzern fundierte Orientierung und Informationen auf dem neuesten Stand der Forschung zum geschichtlich gewachsenen, geltenden eigenen Recht der Kirchen und Religionsgemeinschaften und zu deren rechtlichen Verhältnissen zum Staat zu liefern.

Das Lexikon für Kirchen- und Religionsrecht (LKRR) erscheint in vier Bänden, print und online in deutscher Sprache, und bietet in über 2,600 Lemmata bzw. Stichworten zuverlässige und prägnante Informationen zu den grundlegenden Fragen des internen Rechts von Kirchen und Religionsgemeinschaften und des Religionsrechts.

Neben Fragen des staatlichen Rechts und des Kirchenrechts der katholischen und der evangelischen Kirche werden auch zentrale Inhalte des Kirchenrechts der orthodoxen Kirchen sowie des Rechts des Judentums und des Islams behandelt. Das Lexikon ist einer interreligiösen und ökumenischen Perspektive verpflichtet und eröffnet dem Anwender die Möglichkeit, die verschiedenen Rechtsbereiche zu vergleichen. Die Mitarbeit von namhaften Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftlern des staatlichen Rechts, des Religionsrechts sowie des katholischen, evangelischen, orthodoxen, jüdischen und islamischen Rechts garantiert fundierte und kompetente Informationen. Das Lexikon ist sowohl für Theologen als auch für Juristen im Studium, in der Wissenschaft, in der staatlichen und kirchlichen Verwaltung sowie in der Seelsorge und beruflichen Praxis eine verlässliche und unerlässliche Informationsquelle.
No Access

Christopher E. Bailey

This book examines the existing counter-terrorism laws and practices in the six-member East African Community (EAC) as it applies to a range of law enforcement and military activities under various international legal obligations. Dr. Christopher E. Bailey provides a comparative examination of existing national law for EAC countries, including compliance with obligations under international human rights and international humanitarian law, and offers a range of legal reform recommendations. This book addresses two primary, related research questions: To what extent do the current national counter-terrorism laws and practices of the EAC Partner States comply with existing international human rights safeguards? What laws or practices can the EAC adopt to achieve better compliance with human rights safeguards in both civilian and military counter-terrorism operations?