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Languaging Without Languages

Beyond metro-, multi-, poly-, pluri- and translanguaging

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Robin Sabino

Drawing on usage-based theory, neurocognition, and complex systems, Languaging Beyond Languages elaborates an elegant model accommodating accumulated insights into human language even as it frees linguistics from its two-thousand-year-old, ideological attachment to reified grammatical systems. Idiolects are redefined as continually emergent collections of context specific, probabilistic memories entrenched as a result of domain-general cognitive processes that create and consolidate linguistic experience. Also continually emergent, conventionalization and vernacularization operate across individuals producing the illusion of shared grammatical systems. Conventionalization results from the emergence of parallel expectations for the use of linguistic elements organized into syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships. In parallel, vernacularization indexes linguistic forms to sociocultural identities and stances. Evidence implying entrenchment and conventionalization is provided in asymmetrical frequency distributions.
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American Migrant Fictions

Space, Narrative, Identity

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Sonia Weiner

In American Migrant Fictions: Space, Narrative, Identity, Sonia Weiner focuses on novels of five American migrant writers of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, who construct spatial paradigms within their narratives to explore questions of linguistic diversity, identities and be-longings. By weaving visual techniques within their narratives (photography, comics, cartography) authors Aleksandar Hemon, G.B. Tran, Junot Díaz, Boris Fishman and Vikram Chandra convey a surplus of perspectives and gesture towards alternative spaces, spatial in-between-ness and transnational space.
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Barbara Flemming

In Essays on Turkish Literature and History Barbara Flemming makes available essays partly previously published in German. They offer insights gained through decades of scholarship. Although the Ottoman period is central, a wide range is covered, including an early Turkish principality, Mamluk and Ottoman Egypt, and contemporary southeastern Turkey. The essays look into historical and political factors involved in the preoccupation with the world’s ending, into Muslim-Christian dialogue, the sultan’s prayer before battle, and the bilingualism of poets. Of particular interest are the sections on female participation in mysticism, on an anti-Sufi movement in Cairo, on the Ottoman capital’s appeal to collectors and emigrants (Diez, Süssheim, Böhlau), and on the far-reaching effects of alphabet change.
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Trends in E-Tools and Resources for Translators and Interpreters offers a collection of contributions from key players in the field of translation and interpreting that accurately outline some of the most cutting-edge technologies in this field that are available or under development at the moment in both professional and academic contexts.
Particularly, this volume provides a wide picture of the state of the art, looking not only at the world of technology for translators but also at the hitherto overlooked world of technology for interpreters. This volume is accessible and comprehensive enough to be of benefit to different categories of readers: scholars, professionals and trainees.

Contributors are: Pierrette Bouillon, Gloria Corpas Pastor, Hernani Costa, Isabel Durán-Muñoz, Claudio Fantinuoli, Johanna Gerlach, Joanna Gough, Asheesh Gulati, Veronique Hoste, Amélie Josselin, David Lewis, Lieve Macken, John Moran, Aurelie Picton, Emmanuel Planas, Éric Poirier, Victoria Porro, Celia Rico Pérez, Christian Saam, Pilar Sánchez-Gijón, Míriam Seghiri Domínguez, Violeta Seretan, Arda Tezcan, Olga Torres, and Anna Zaretskaya.
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Gloria Corpas Pastor and Isabel Durán-Muñoz

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Gloria Corpas Pastor and Isabel Durán-Muñoz

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Gloria Corpas Pastor and Isabel Durán-Muñoz

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Celia Rico, Pilar Sánchez-Gijón and Olga Torres-Hostench

The emergence of machine translation (mt) in professional translation practice has evolved from a topic of conversation among practitioners to promote a tangible change in the translation industry. The aim of this chapter is, then, to shed light on mt in professional and academic contexts by promoting a fresh approach to teaching using translation technology, and dealing with the needs and expectations of translators. Our work stems from considering the following key question: if the translation industry already considers post-editing as a viable service for almost any translation area, how should the academic world respond to this challenge? This question is addressed from three perspectives: (a) the evolution of translation technology and how post-editing has had an impact on the industry; (b) academic research paths in post-editing; and (c) training post-editors in a higher education context.

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Pierrette Bouillon, Johanna Gerlach, Asheesh Gulati, Victoria Porro and Violeta Seretan

The advance of machine translation in the last years is placing new demands on professional translators. This entails new requirements on translation educational curricula at the university level and exacerbates the need for dedicated software for teaching students how to leverage the technologies involved in a machine translation workflow. In this chapter, we introduce the ACCEPT Academic Portal, a user centred online platform which implements the complete machine translation (mt) workflow and is specifically designed for teaching purposes. Its ultimate objective is to increase the understanding of pre-editing, post-editing and evaluation of machine translation. The platform, publicly available at http://accept-portal.unige.ch/academic, is built around four main modules, namely, the Pre-editing, Machine Translation, Post-editing, and Evaluation module. The Pre-editing module provides checking resources to verify the compliance of the input text with automatic and interactive pre-editing rules, based on a shallow analysis of the text. The Translation module translates the raw and pre-edited versions of the input text using a statistical mt system, and highlights the differences between the two translations for easy identification of the impact of pre-editing on translation. The Post editing module allows users to improve translations by post-editing the output text freely, manually or with the help of interactive and automatic post-editing rules. Finally, the Evaluation module provides support for eliciting user feedback. At the end of the workflow, a summary and statistics on the whole process are made available to users, for reference purposes. The ACCEPT Academic Portal was developed in the framework of the ACCEPT European project and, to the best of our knowledge, it is the only online environment integrating advanced pre-editing and post-editing technology into a complete mt workflow. Through its simple and user-friendly interface, as well as its pedagogically motivated functionalities that enable experimentation, visual comparison and documentation, the ACCEPT Academic Portal is a unique tool allowing to study the interactions between mt-related processes and to assess the contribution of new technologies to translation.