An Assessment of the EU’s Cooperation Efforts
Sixth Revised Edition
Niels M. Blokker
Cultures, Economies and Legal Regimes
Global Action Networks - A Subject Directory and Index
Volume 3 allows readers to locate organizations by subjects or by fields of activity and specialization, and includes an index to Volumes 1 through 3.
Creation, Evolution and Enforcement
Volume 1 (A and B) of the Yearbook of International Organizations covers international organizations throughout the world, comprising their aims, activities and events. This includes names (in English, French and, where available, other languages), abbreviations and descriptions of over 34,000 not-for-profit organizations currently active in every field of human endeavor, as well as references to associated organizations, whose goals cross all economic, political and geographical borders, offering an insight into new, productive relationships.
Volume 1 also allows quick and easy cross-referencing from volumes 2, 3, 4, and 6.
Geographical Index - A Country Directory of Secretariats and Memberships
Volume 2 allows users to locate organizations by the country in which secretariats or members are located.
The anniversary Volume 20 covers 2015 and hosts an Agora on “Court Generated State Practice” in the emergence of customary international law.
The ‘responsibility to protect’ (RtoP) expresses the moral imperative to respond to genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity. So far, the debate on RtoP has focused almost exclusively on conflict resolution through institutional change. Various forms of diplomatic pressure, economic sanctions, and military intervention have been discussed as means to address the institutional roots of violent conflict. What has too often been neglected, however, is the need for more immediate forms of civilian protection. This need emerges from the complexity and uncertainty of conflict resolution: successful conflict resolution takes time, and it is unfortunately rare. Therefore, it is necessary to complement efforts at conflict resolution with more immediate forms of protecting civilians. Traditionally, the right to asylum and humanitarian aid have been the two primary means to provide such protection. In the case of most intra-state conflicts, however, these means are insufficient. When a state engages in genocide, pursues campaigns of ethnic cleansing, or commits war crimes against its own population, it likely has no intention to let people seek the safety of asylum in other countries, or to allow for humanitarian aid. In response to such situations, the community of states has a moral obligation to establish safe areas and provide them with the legal mandate and military resources necessary to offer reliable protection.
Safe areas established by powerful states can improve short-term civilian protection during ethnic civil wars. Paradoxically, however, they may worsen the plight of vulnerable civilians over the medium term. This can occur in three ways. First, when safe areas encompass sizeable territories within a broader conflict zone, they may reduce incentives for protected groups to compromise during peace negotiations, thus prolonging hostilities. Second, there is a nontrivial possibility that protected groups will use the safe areas as a base for launching high-risk offensives, deliberately putting civilians at risk in the hope of drawing the protection forces more deeply into the war. Third, safe areas may embolden protected groups to seek unilateral secession, further increasing the risk of conflict escalation. By elucidating the causal mechanisms involved, this article helps us assess the probability of these outcomes occurring. States that consider intervening militarily to establish safe areas in ethnic civil wars need to weigh the short-term benefits against these possible longer-term downsides.