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The Future of International Competition Law Enforcement

An Assessment of the EU’s Cooperation Efforts

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Valerie Demedts

While forces of globalization have created a genuine global marketplace, global rules safeguarding the competitive process in this marketplace have not emerged. International cooperation among national regulators and enforcers is therefore needed to create a competitive global business-environment. The Future of International Competition Law Enforcement, using the variety of legal instruments available to the EU as a point of departure, undertakes an original assessment of the EU's cooperation agreements in the field of competition law The work’s focus is on the bilateral sphere, often labelled as a mere 'interim-solution' awaiting a global agreement; further attention is given to competition provisions in free trade agreements as well as the main multilateral initiatives in this field, in order to determine their relative value.

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International Institutional Law

Sixth Revised Edition

Niels M. Blokker

This sixth, revised edition of International Institutional Law covers the most recent developments in the field. Although public international organizations such as the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the African Union, ASEAN, the European Union, Mercosur, NATO and OPEC have broadly divergent objectives, powers, fields of activity and numbers of member states, they also share a wide variety of institutional characteristics. Rather than being a handbook for specific organizations, the book offers a comparative analysis of the institutional law of international organizations. It includes chapters on the rules and practices concerning membership, institutional structure, decision-making, financing, legal order, supervision and sanctions, legal status and external relations. The book’s theoretical framework and extensive use of case-studies is designed to appeal to both academics and practitioners.
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The Seal Hunt

Cultures, Economies and Legal Regimes

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Nikolas Sellheim

In The Seal Hunt: Cultures, Economies and Legal Regimes, Nikolas Sellheim offers a deep analysis of the seal hunt worldwide. He engages on a journey from the northern to the southern hemisphere and explores how the seal hunt has shaped cultures all over the world up to this day. By analysing the different national and international regimes dealing with the seal hunt, Sellheim shows how the perception of the seal and the seal hunt has changed over time and space. Focusing on the European Union and the World Trade Organization, the volume offers an account on how opposition towards the seal hunt has found its way onto the international spheres of governance and trade.
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Yearbook of International Organizations 2018-2019, Volume 3

Global Action Networks - A Subject Directory and Index

The Yearbook of International Organizations provides the most extensive coverage of non-profit international organizations currently available. Detailed profiles of international non-governmental and intergovernmental organizations (IGO), collected and documented by the Union of International Associations, can be found here. In addition to the history, aims and acitvities of international organizations, with their events, publications and contact details, the volumes of the Yearbook include networks between associations, biographies of key people involved and extensive statistical data.

Volume 3 allows readers to locate organizations by subjects or by fields of activity and specialization, and includes an index to Volumes 1 through 3.
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Non-State Actors and International Obligations

Creation, Evolution and Enforcement

Non-State Actors and International Obligations looks at the contribution and relevance of non-state actors in the creation and implementation of international obligations. These actors have traditionally been marginalised within international law and ambiguities remain over their precise role. Nonetheless, they have become increasingly important in legal regimes as participants in their implementation and enforcement, and as potential holders of duties themselves. Chapters from academics and practitioners investigate different aspects of this relationship, including the sources of obligations, their implementation, human rights aspects, dispute settlement, responsibility and legal accountability.
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The Yearbook of International Organizations provides the most extensive coverage of non-profit international organizations currently available. Detailed profiles of international non-governmental (NGO) and intergovernmental organizations (IGO), collected and documented by the Union of International Associations, can be found here. In addition to the history, aims and activities of international organizations, with their events, publications, and contact details, the volumes of the Yearbook include networks between associations, biographies of key people involved and extensive statistical data.

Volume 1 (A and B) of the Yearbook of International Organizations covers international organizations throughout the world, comprising their aims, activities and events. This includes names (in English, French and, where available, other languages), abbreviations and descriptions of over 34,000 not-for-profit organizations currently active in every field of human endeavor, as well as references to associated organizations, whose goals cross all economic, political and geographical borders, offering an insight into new, productive relationships.

Volume 1 also allows quick and easy cross-referencing from volumes 2, 3, 4, and 6.
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Yearbook of International Organizations 2018-2019, Volume 2

Geographical Index - A Country Directory of Secretariats and Memberships

The Yearbook of International Organizations provides the most extensive coverage of non-profit international organizations currently available. Detailed profiles of international non-governmental and intergovernmental organizations (IGO), collected and documented by the Union of International Associations, can be found here. In addition to the history, aims and acitvities of international organizations, with their events, publications and contact details, the volumes of the Yearbook include networks between associations, biographies of key people involved and extensive statistical data.

Volume 2 allows users to locate organizations by the country in which secretariats or members are located.
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The Austrian Review of International and European Law is an annual publication that provides a scholarly forum for the discussion of issues of international and European law, with emphasis on topics of special interest for Austria. Each volume of the Review includes general articles, current developments, and the comprehensive annual digest of Austrian practice in international law, encompassing judicial decisions, executive as well as parliamentary documents relating to international law. The concluding parts of the Review contain longer book reviews and shorter book notes.
The anniversary Volume 20 covers 2015 and hosts an Agora on “Court Generated State Practice” in the emergence of customary international law.
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Daniel Jacob

The ‘responsibility to protect’ (RtoP) expresses the moral imperative to respond to genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing, and crimes against humanity. So far, the debate on RtoP has focused almost exclusively on conflict resolution through institutional change. Various forms of diplomatic pressure, economic sanctions, and military intervention have been discussed as means to address the institutional roots of violent conflict. What has too often been neglected, however, is the need for more immediate forms of civilian protection. This need emerges from the complexity and uncertainty of conflict resolution: successful conflict resolution takes time, and it is unfortunately rare. Therefore, it is necessary to complement efforts at conflict resolution with more immediate forms of protecting civilians. Traditionally, the right to asylum and humanitarian aid have been the two primary means to provide such protection. In the case of most intra-state conflicts, however, these means are insufficient. When a state engages in genocide, pursues campaigns of ethnic cleansing, or commits war crimes against its own population, it likely has no intention to let people seek the safety of asylum in other countries, or to allow for humanitarian aid. In response to such situations, the community of states has a moral obligation to establish safe areas and provide them with the legal mandate and military resources necessary to offer reliable protection.

Open Access

Stefano Recchia

Safe areas established by powerful states can improve short-term civilian protection during ethnic civil wars. Paradoxically, however, they may worsen the plight of vulnerable civilians over the medium term. This can occur in three ways. First, when safe areas encompass sizeable territories within a broader conflict zone, they may reduce incentives for protected groups to compromise during peace negotiations, thus prolonging hostilities. Second, there is a nontrivial possibility that protected groups will use the safe areas as a base for launching high-risk offensives, deliberately putting civilians at risk in the hope of drawing the protection forces more deeply into the war. Third, safe areas may embolden protected groups to seek unilateral secession, further increasing the risk of conflict escalation. By elucidating the causal mechanisms involved, this article helps us assess the probability of these outcomes occurring. States that consider intervening militarily to establish safe areas in ethnic civil wars need to weigh the short-term benefits against these possible longer-term downsides.