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Risto Alapuro

By analysing the experience of Finland, Risto Alapuro shows how upheavals in powerful countries shape the internal politics of smaller countries. This linkage, a highly topical subject in the twenty-first century world, is concretely studied by putting the abortive Finnish revolution of 1917-18 into a long historical and a broad comparative perspective. In the former respect the revolution appears as a tragic culmination in the unfolding of a small European state. In the latter respect it appears as one of those crises that new states experienced when they emerged from the turmoils of the First World War.
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Social Welfare Responses in a Neoliberal Era

Policies, Practices and Social Problems

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This book seeks to explore welfare responses by questioning and going beyond the assumptions found in Esping-Andersen’s (1990) broad typologies of welfare capitalism. Specifically, the project seeks to reflect how the state engages, and creates general institutionalized responses to, market mechanisms and how such responses have created path dependencies in how states approach problems of inequality. Moreover, if the neoliberal era is defined as the dissemination and extension of market values to all forms of state institutions and social action, the need arises to critically investigate not only the embeddedness of such values and modes of thought in different contexts and institutional forms, but responses and modes of resistance arising from practice that might point to new forms of resilience.

Contributors: Maria Appel Nissen, Mia Arp Fallov, Vibeke Bak Nielsen, Cory Blad, Rossella Ciccia, Lukasz Czarnecki, Ricardo A. Dello Buono, César Guzmán-Concha, Jayne Malenfant, Naomi Nichols, Frank Ridzi, Pia Ringø, Delfino Vargas Chanes.
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The 38th World Congress of ISS addressed some of the most fundamental issues of sociological inquiry in light of global processes and the development of different fields of knowledge: What does it mean to be human? What is the nature of social as opposed to natural processes? How do efforts to map the social and political world interact with that world and with traditional sociological practices? What can we say about relationships between scientific, political and religious beliefs? This volume sets the stage for a sustained look at what social science can say about the twenty-first century and to address the theme of the congress in 2008: Sociology Looks at the 21th Century. From Local Universalism to Global Contextualism.

Contributors are: Gustaf Arrhenius, Rajeev Bhargava, Craig Calhoun, Shmuel N. Eisentstadt, Yehuda Elkana, Raghavendra Gadagkar, Peter Hedström, Hans Joas, Hannes Klöpper, Ivan Krastev, Steven Lukes, Vinh-Kim Nguyen, Helga Nowotny, Shalini Randeria, Alan Ryan, Jyotirmaya Sharma, Christina Torén, Michel Wieviorka, Björn Wittrock, Petri Ylikoski.
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Revolution and Its Alternatives

Other Marxisms, Other Empowerments, Other Priorities     

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Tom Brass

Against the usual argument heard most frequently on the left, that there is no subject for a radical politics together with its form of political mobilization, there is – but in the absence of a radical leftist project, this subject has in the past, and in many instances is still, transferring his/her support to the radical politics on offer from the other end of the ideological spectrum. The combination of on the one hand a globally expanding industrial reserve army, generating ever more intense competition in the labour markets of capitalism, and on the other the endorsement by many on the left not of class but rather of non-class identities espoused by the ‘new’ populist postmodernism, has fuelled what can only be described as a perfect storm, politically speaking.
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Journalism as a ‘Peacekeeping agent’ at the Time of Conflict’ offers various perspectives to the question ‘Could journalism play a role as a peacekeeping agent in many contexts of conflict?’ with the contribution of academics from different countries. The book deals with media’s current issues through different aspects by presenting comparative studies on peace journalism such as investigative journalism, media freedom, feminist news criticism, alternative media, peace photography, fear culture. Also, in many chapters it provides a roadmap for implementing peace journalism to resolve conflict-oriented problems.

Contributors: Annabel McGoldrick, Aradhana Sharma, Ece Algan, Jake Lynch, Maria Ahmad, Marianne Perez de Fransius, Meah Mostafiz, Rukhsana Aslam, Samuel Peleg, Sevda Alankuş, Shabbir Hussain, Steven Youngblood, Tirşe Erbaysal Filibeli, Yasemin Giritli İnceoğlu.
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Michael Minkov, Pinaki Dutt, Michael Schachner, Janar Jandosova, Yerlan Khassenbekov, Oswaldo Morales, Carlos Javier Sanchez and Ben Mudd

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There are few large-scale studies that compare how parents socialize children across the globe and the implications of the different types of socialization. To fill this gap, the authors used data from a new study across 52,300 probabilistically selected respondents from 54 countries. They were asked what advice they would give to their children to instill desirable values and traits in them. Aggregated to the national level, the responses yield two main dimensions of national culture. The first (collectivism-individualism) captures differences approximately along the South-North geographic axis of the Earth and is strongly correlated with differences in economic and gender inequality. The second (monumentalism-flexibility) captures cultural differences approximately on the West-East geographic axis of the world and is strongly associated with national differences in educational achievement. Thus, some of the most important national differences worldwide are strongly related to cultural differences in parental ideologies for the socialization of their children, suggesting that culture has objective societal outcomes.

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Baris Cayli, Philip Hodgson and Dave Walsh

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The present study explores police violence during the riots in London and Gezi Park protests in Istanbul. This study puts forth that the rise of social injustice in the uk and the erosion of plural democracy in Turkey clarify the paradox of state intervention because the two states prioritized rapid repression of uprising without consolidating public trust and social justice in the society. This comparative study reveals that the liberal and non-religious elements of the capitalist ruling system in the uk contain similar fractions of state repression when compared to the authoritarian and religious elements of the capitalist ruling system in Turkey. The authors conclude that police violence endures the social control of dissident communities while it maintains the sustainability of different capitalist ruling systems in the periods of social unrest.

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José Luís Casanova

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After the financial crisis in 2008 significant changes occurred in the European Union, particularly in the countries that had adjustment programmes. According to empirical work by Hofstede, Inglehart and Schwartz it’s predictable that societal changes have a cultural impact. Data from European Social Survey since 2002 show that changes in political orientations are bigger than in Human Values, and deepen after 2008. Changes on countries that had adjustment programmes diverge significantly from those in the rest of the Eurozone, mainly on political orientations. Bigger challenges to the eu come from the extensive fall on trust in politics, the European Parliament and satisfaction with democracy, the rise of the values of Tradition and Security, and the decrease of Self-direction. This evolving cultural conservatism associated with continued degradation of democracy is nurturing nationalism and authoritarianism.

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Francesco Veri

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The parameter of fits in fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), which includes consistency and coverage, evaluate the strength of the empirical support for theoretical arguments describing set relations. Social scientist Charles Ragin proposed a formula for coverage intended to calculate how much of the variation in an outcome can be explained by causal conditions. However, this formula fails to determine empirical relevance from the analysis of sufficiency because it does not consider the set-theoretic information contained in each fuzzy value. The inaccuracies are primarily due to the inability of the coverage formula to fully grasp the quantifiable and qualitative dimensions of the concept of coverage. In this article, the author proposes a new calculation of coverage able to aggregate the quantifiable and qualitative analytical dimension of coverage in fuzzy terms.