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Edited by Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen

This is the first book to collect research on game-theoretic tools in the analysis of language with particular reference to semantics and pragmatics. Games are significant, because they pertain equally to pragmatics and semantics of natural language. The book provides an overview of the variety of ways in which game theory is used in the analysis of linguistic meaning and shows how games arise in pragmatic as well as semantic investigations. The book is a balanced combination of philosophical, linguistic, logical and mathematical argumentation. The book has an introductory and a concluding chapter, written by the editor, to give a gentle introduction to the topics covered in the book and to provide wider conclusions and prospects arising from the individual essays.
The major topics covering the field of game theory and linguistic meaning included in the book are: language games, Wittgenstein evolutionary language games communication games, Grice games of partial information equilibrium semantics game-theoretic semantics logical modelling, and generalised quantifiers the semantics/pragmatics distinction. It includes international contributions from known leaders in the field. It is part of the Current Research in Semantics/Pragmatics Interface series.

F. Rodenas, P. Mayo, D. Ginestar and G. Verdú

One method successfully employed to denoise digital images is the diffusive iterative filtering. An important point of this technique is the estimation of the stopping time of the diffusion process. In this paper, we propose a stopping time criterion based on the evolution of the negentropy of the ’noise signal’ with the diffusion parameter. The nonlinear diffusive filter implemented with this stopping criterion is evaluated by using several noisy test images with different statistics. Assuming that images are corrupted by additive Gaussian noise, a statistical measure of the Gaussianity can be used to estimate the amount of noise removed from noisy images. In particular, the differential entropy function or, equivalently, the negentropy are robust measures of the Gaussianity. Because of computational complexity of the negentropy function, it is estimated by using an approximation of the negentropy introduced by Hyv¨arinen in the context of independent component analysis.

T.E. Simos

In this paper we investigate the connection between closed Newton-Cotes formulae, trigonometrically-fitted differential methods, symplectic integrators and efficient solution of the Schr¨odinger equation. Several one step symplectic integrators have been produced based on symplectic geometry, as one can see from the literature. However, the study of multistep symplectic integrators is very poor. Zhu et. al. [1] has studied the symplectic integrators and the well known open Newton-Cotes differential methods and as a result has presented the open Newton-Cotes differential methods as multilayer symplectic integrators. The construction of multistep symplectic integrators based on the open Newton-Cotes integration methods was investigated by Chiou and Wu [2]. In this paper we investigate the closed Newton-Cotes formulae and we write them as symplectic multilayer structures. We also develop trigonometrically-fitted symplectic methods which are based on the closed Newton-Cotes formulae. We apply the symplectic schemes to the well known one-dimensional Schr¨odinger equation in order to investigate the efficiency of the proposed method to these type of problems.

F. Costabile and A. Napoli

For the numerical solution of the second order nonlinear two-point boundary value problems a family of polynomial global methods is derived.

Numerical examples provide favorable comparisons with other existing methods.

S. Korotov

We show how commonly used gradient averaging techniques can be successfully applied to estimation of computational errors evaluated by linear (goal-oriented) functionals for linear elliptic type problems. General scheme for construction of corresponding estimators is described and effectivity of the proposed approach is demonstrated in numerical tests.

V.N. Glushkov

A singe Slater determinant consisting of restricted and unrestricted, in spins, parts is proposed to construct a reference configuration for singlet excited states having the same symmetry as the ground one. A partially restricted Hartree-Fock approach is developed to derive amended equations determining the spatial molecular orbitals for singlet excited states. They present the natural base to describe the electron correlation in excited states using the wellestablished spin-annihilated perturbation theories. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by calculations of electronic excitation energies for the Be atom and LiH molecule.


Quantum Chemical DFT and Spectroscopic UV-Vis-NIR Analysis of a Series of Push-Pull Oligothiophenes End-Capped by Amino/Cyanovinyl Groups

María Moreno Oliva, Mari Carmen Ruiz Delgado, Juan Casado, M. Manuela M. Raposo, A. Maurício C. Fonseca, Horst Hartmann, Víctor Hernández and Juan T. López Navarrete

series of push-pull chromophores built around thiophene-based . π-conjugating spacers and bearing various types of amino-donors and cyanovinyl-acceptors have been analyzed by means of UV-Vis- NIR spectroscopic measurements. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have also been performed to help the assignment of the most relevant electronic features and to derive useful information about the molecular structure of these NLO-phores. The effects of the donor/acceptor substitution in the electronic and molecular properties of the .π -conjugated spacer have been addressed. The effectiveness of the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) has also been tested as a function of the nature of the end groups (i.e., electron-donating or electron-withdrawing capabilities).

Zeshui Xu

We are mainly concerned with the decision-making problem with fuzzy preference relation. The key of this issue is how to derive the priority vector of fuzzy preference relation. In this paper, we establish two linear programming models. By solving the model, we can get the priority vector of fuzzy preference relation. The effectiveness and practicality of the developed two models are illustrated with a numerical example.