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The Pathogenesis of Fear

Mapping the Margins of Monstrosity

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Edited by Elizabeth Ann Hollis Berry

The Pathogenesis of Fear gathers together diverse conversations about cultural constructions of the monstrous. Interdisciplinary essays map the margins of monstrosity as follows: the cannibalistic paradox in Kleist’s late-Romantic Penthesilea; intersections of the monstrous-feminine and the new Victorian psycho-physiology of consciousness in George Eliot’s early novels; the monster-formed citizens of Dickensian and later dystopias; the killing of African Americans targeted as monstrous entities in US cities; the post-human anguish of a television zombie-world; the monstrous mutilations of a Spanish horror film; psychosocial aberration in Martin Millar’s werewolf fiction; the demonization of the Other on the war-torn streets of Ireland; Derridean devouring sovereignty. Discursively correlated with different categories of body and mind, monstrosity, these essays argue, persists in taking many forms. Contributors are Elizabeth Hollis Berry, Niculae Gheran, Sarah Harris, Fiona Harris-Ramsby and Mubarak Muhammad, Michaela Marková, Kimberley McMahon Coleman, Judith Rahn, Cindy Smith and Marita Vyrgioti.
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Abstracts from the 6th Visual Science of Art Conference (VSAC)

Trieste, Italy, August 24th–26th, 2018

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Susanne Yvette Young, Martin Kidd and Soraya Seedat

Substance Use Disorders (SUD) lead to brain structural and functional deficits associated with cognitive and social functioning in affected individuals and can impact on treatment outcomes. The lack of behavioural autonomy is underpinned by direct reward, high impulsivity and difficulties in planning behaviour. The motor cortex — as part of a neural mechanism accounting for action and intention — plays a fundamental role in complex cognition, motor performance and coordination. The study sample consisted of 74 abstinent patients, aged 18–60 years, diagnosed with alcohol and/or cocaine dependence who were all inpatients at a private treatment programme for drug/alcohol dependence in South Africa. The main questions addressed were whether motor timing abilities would improve over time (as a function of recovery) in patients admitted to a rehabilitation programme for SUD, and if there were between-group differences. Timing abilities in SUD improved with prolonged abstinence. Timing in decision making (cognitive control) did not improve over time, nor did movement coordination. Rhythmic abilities and synchronisation with external events, as well as spatial abilities, improved with prolonged abstinence. The recovery of rhythmic and synchronisation abilities differed between the groups. This study shows for the first time that motor timing abilities can recover significantly with prolonged abstinence with differences in recovery between SUD populations. Improvements in interval timing only (both in time and in space) were observed. Not all motor timing abilities, and not every type of SUD, recovered equally, thereby suggesting that different substances may affect the brain differently with regard to timing abilities. These findings suggest that motor timing should further be investigated in different clinical settings.

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Norifumi Kishimoto

Abstract

With advances in cognitive psychology and cognitive linguistics, the so-called Whorfian hypothesis, that the structure of a language influences its speakers’ thoughts and perceptions, has been drawing attention again. In this article, a linguistic structure called subject drop will be discussed. The Japanese language has a strong tendency to omit the subject, which influences the way of being and functioning of ego. Japanese language has a structure which makes the boundary between you and I or between the object and the subject thinner by keeping the subject from becoming apparent. This contributes to form a sense of connectedness with others unconsciously, although it functions as unconscious bonds and sometimes causes troubles. It is necessary to take the linguistic structure and its influence on the ego functioning into consideration if we try to understand the Japanese mind through Jung’s concept and theory.

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Maria Kostyszak

Abstract

The article concerns the problem of the one-sidedness of European culture dominated by consciousness (Jung) and by technology (Heidegger). The vicious impact of that one-sidedness blurs adequate recognition. People overpowered and subjected by it imagine they are open to multisidedness. In fact they are more and more closed. Jung’s travels around the world helped him to describe precisely limitations of the Eurocentric culture. Heidegger’s analysis of poietic language in art pointed to different possibilities of existence than those dictated by instrumental reason dominating in technology. The comparison of these two thinkers aimed at emphasizing the necessity of cooperation between psychology and philosophy. Apart from differences between idioms of these two areas, their interdisciplinary research could contribute to some mental transformation.

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Megumi Yama

Abstract

I would like to understand Jung’s life as an attempt to be a bridge between the West and the East. Since his early childhood, he seems to have been attracted by and searching for something that compensate for what the West had long devaluated and repressed. For a long time, I have been interested in ego consciousness and the difference between how a subject is established in Japanese versus the Western psyche. In this study, I would like to present some characteristic of the Japanese psyche, firstly through exploring the characteristics of the traditional Japanese arts in a broader sense and secondly, introducing my previous study of a reading of the oldest Japanese myth to explore the way that ego emerges in the Japanese psyche. Later, what the west and Japan can mutually learn from each other is discussed.

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Joseph Cambray

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C.G. Jung was one of the pioneers of depth psychology, initially working in close collaboration with Sigmund Freud. In 1912 he delivered nine lectures at Fordham University on the “Theory of Psychoanalysis.” These lectures came at the high water mark of Jung’s first period of academic life and are closely linked with the early rise of psychoanalysis; in particular they represent Jung’s differentiation from Freud. Soon after he was to resign his position at the University of Zurich (in 1914) and not fully resume academic work until 1933. In between these periods Jung underwent the inner experiences that led to his production of The Red Book. Both of Jung’s academic periods are marked by what he identified as a scientific approach. However, examination and comparison of these periods reveal a shift in emphasis on what constitutes science for Jung. In this chapter we will look in detail at this shift and how the experiences leading to The Red Book were integral to this change. The importance of the scientific tradition associated with the German Romantic movement is key to understanding this transition, though it came without much formal acknowledgement by Jung. Finally we will explore the resurgence of interest in and re-valuation of this same tradition in some branches of contemporary science, especially epigenetics. Thus Jung’s work will be contextualized within a trajectory of this alternative, romantic expression of science which is regaining a place in the modern academy.

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Ilona Błocian

Abstract

It seems to be a paradox that Jung defined an archetype as a collective pattern however social history was not a subject of his interest and social thought was not a path of his conception. The Undiscovered Self and texts from Civilization in Transition or some his notices in interviews have undeniable social character; many statements from the studies on religious symbolism, alchemy or on literature contain also clear social dimension. His defense of individual status in contemporary mass societies, attack on non-authentic, alienated, conventional forms of life experiences and existence, on slave-state and logic of great number are very characteristic and they take their own place in the stream of psychoanalytical, neo-psychoanalytical path of social thought corresponding with Frankfurt School reinterpretation Freud’s understanding of individual-society relation.

Jung was a critique of mass society and his position in confrontation with social dilemmas was very critical. A negative image of European experiences is based on colonialism, conquests, “blood baths” of conflicts, wars and the violence of missionary activity of the Church. The contemporary society – due to the history of our culture and direction of social development – is largely penetrated by negative forms of mass processes, gradual erosion of individuals and communities.

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Alessandra De Coro

Abstract

The Multiple Code theory has been elaborated by Wilma Bucci, with the aim of proposing a new model of the mind which – linking together psychoanalytic clinical thought and the more recent perspectives of cognitive science – could explain the analytic process. In this work I will propose some reflections about the concept of “image” as it is used in Jung’s and Bucci’s theories, underlining differences and similarities between their respective explanations of therapeutic change. Since his very first essays, Jung defines the visual images as “autonomous transformations of elementary stimuli” and indicates their function also in the organization of mnestic material: sometimes, he writes, the images are the result of unconscious association processes, so that, while a person perceives something, the image of an absent object or person “comes to mind”.

In this theory, images are conceived as the bridge between the sub-symbolic level of mental activity, that implies a parallel distributing processing of sensory and emotional information, and the verbal symbolic level, where the language organizes meanings through words and their logic rules. In this model, images represent the first form of meaning, which may be elaborated both at an implicit and at an explicit level, and their manifestation in consciousness allows to compact a multiplicity of sensory and emotional data in a piece of information according a sequential modality (symbol formation).