This study focuses on the Brazilian species of the genus Purenleon Stange (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae). A total of five species are herein reported to Brazil: Purenleon clavatus (Navás), Purenleon fernandezi Miller & Stange (first record for Brazil), Purenleon cautus (Walker) comb. n., and two new species: Purenleon limeirai sp. n. and Purenleon rafaeli sp. n. The taxonomical status of other two species was reevaluated: Formicaleo bipunctatus Navás was synonymized under P. cautus and Feinerus nebulosus Navás was revalidated and transferred to Purenleon. A key to the South American species of Purenleon is also presented.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Nine new species of the collembolan genus Salina MacGillivray from South America are described and illustrated. Two Neotropical species were recorded for the first time from Brazil: S. dedoris Mari-Mutt and S. tristani Denis. Salina was previously known to occur in three Brazilian states, and this is now updated to include 19 states with 12 recorded species. A new proposal of morphological character description and illustration, and an identification key for the celebensis group are provided. A hypothesis for the phylogenetic relationships among 34 species of Salina (about 50% of the 72 described species) allowed three main pursuits: (a) a reevaluation of Salina species groups; (b) the first explicit interpretation of how morphological characters of these springtails may have changed during the course of the diversification of the taxon; and (c) an evaluation of the historical biogeographic connections of Salina, with an emphasis on the celebensis group distribution to the New World.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

The tribe Sisyphini sensu stricto Mulsant, 1842 comprises only three genera, the widespread Sisyphus Latreille, 1807 and Neosisyphus Müller, 1942, and the Mauritius endemic, Nesosisyphus Vinson, 1946. In southern Africa, Sisyphus and Neosisyphus are represented by five species groups in each genus. Together, they comprise a total of 33 valid species, of which six are new: Sisyphus auricomus sp. n; Sisyphus australis sp. n ; Sisyphus bicuariensis sp. n; Sisyphus inconspicuus sp. n; Sisyphus swazi sp. n; and Neosisyphus tembyi sp. n. A further Southern African species, Sisyphus crispatus Gory, 1833, is proposed as a nomen dubium. Sisyphus natalensis Balthasar, 1968 (syn. n), and Sisyphus bornemisszanus Endrödi, 1983 (pars) (syn. n) are made synonyms of Sisyphus sordidus Boheman, 1857. Lectotypes and paralectotypes are designated for Sisyphus costatus (Thunberg, 1818); Sisyphus seminulum Gerstaecker, 1871; Sisyphus nanniscus Péringuey, 1901; Sisyphus transvaalensis Péringuey 1901; Neosisyphus spinipes (Thunberg, 1818) and Neosisyphus barbarossa (Wiedemann, 1823). Diagnoses, photographs of habitus and male genitalia, lists of examined material and distribution maps are presented for all species. An identification key to the southern African sisyphine species is provided.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution
This book is the first comprehensive work on oriental Notodontidae (Lepidoptera) outside mainland Asia. The studied area includes also Borneo Island, the Malayan Peninsula, entire New Guinea with adjacent islands. All species are illustrated in both sexes with a total number of 1272 specimens on 51 colour plates. Genitalia photos of both sexes as well as detailed distribution maps are provided for each species.
The book deals in the first volume with 298 species and contains descriptions of 99 new notodontid taxa. A second volume will treat with the remaining 160 species and include also a comprehensive biogeographic analysis.

A new taxon of Hermanellonota or subtribe Hermanellina (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae: Atalophlebiinae) was found from Northern Brazil, in the limits of Pacaraima in Brazil and Santa Helena de Uairén in Venezuela. While nymphs of this taxon are similar to those of the genus Farrodes, the adults could not be assigned to any of the genera included in the group. In order to clarify the systematic relationship of this taxon and to provide a reliable hypothesis concerning its generic placement, we analyzed it using an available matrix from the literature and performed a new cladistic analysis. As a result we describe Rondophlebia rubra gen. nov. et sp. nov. sister to the Perissophlebiodes complex + Hermanella complex. Our analyses also shed new insights on the systematics of Hermanellonota.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Recent advances in molecular systematics have led to an emerging understanding of the phylogenetic history of the family Geometridae. These studies have basically confirmed the traditional subdivision of the subfamily Larentiinae into tribes but unsolved problems remain. Here we test the monophyly of the tribe Perizomini, and evaluate the division of this tribe into genera using Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of one mitochondrial and eight nuclear gene fragments. We show that the Eurasian members of Perizoma Hübner, 1825, Mesotype Hübner, 1825 and Gagitodes Warren, 1893 together form a monophyetic tribe Perizomini. However, Martania Mironov, 2000 is not closely related to these genera, but is considered to belong to Melanthiini according to the results of the phylogenetic analyses. Morphological evidence supporting this rearrangement is discussed. The Nearctic Larentia basaliata Walker, 1862 was shown to belong in the genus Martania as M. basaliata (Walker, 1862) comb. nov. and being specifically distinct from the morphologically similar Palaearctic M. taeniata. Three other studied ‘Perizoma’ species from the New World were similarly placed far from Perizomini in the phylogenetic tree, and were not related to each other. We conclude that both the tribe Perizomini and the genus Perizoma are polyphyletic which indicates that the group needs a global revision. It remains an open question whether Perizomini have a worldwide distribution as previously assumed, or is this tribe confined to the Palaearctic region.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Ageniella is the second-most diverse spider wasp genus in Ageniellini (Pepsinae). The Ageniella (Ageniella) accepta species-group is found from Canada to Panama and is composed of three Nearctic species: A. accepta (Cresson), A. blaisdelli (Fox), and A. conflicta Banks. Within this group, species-level identification is difficult, because diagnostic characters are questionable, and subjective for both males and females. Furthermore, sexes of each species are not reliably associated. Herein, we investigate sex associations and the validity of described species within the A. accepta species-group based on three molecular markers (cytochrome oxidase I, wingless, long-wavelength rhodopsin) by using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses, and species-delimitation approaches. Additionally, we mapped 12 morphological traits onto the molecular phylogeny to discuss evolution of diagnostic characters. We concluded that the three species of the A. accepta species-group are actually a single, wide-ranging species with strong geographical signal. Moreover, our results suggest introgression at the mitochondrial level.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

Bacotoma Moore, 1885 is reviewed including the description of a new species from Hainan Island, B. hainanensis sp. nov., based on an analysis that combined morphology and mitochondrial DNA. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Platamonina Shaffer & Munroe, 2007, syn. nov. is synonymized with Bacotoma and ten species are included: B. ampliatalis (Lederer, 1863) comb. nov., B. binotalis (Warren, 1896) comb. nov., B. camillusalis (Walker, 1859), B. cuprealis (Moore, 1877) comb. nov., B. hainanensis sp. nov., B. illatalis (Walker, 1866), B. oggalis (Swinhoe, 1906) comb. nov., B. poecilura (Hering, 1903) comb. nov., B. ptochura (Meyrick, 1894) comb. nov., and B. violata (Fabricius, 1787). Syngamia albiceps Hampson, 1912 syn. nov. is confirmed to be a synonym of Bacotoma binotalis, and Platamonia medinalis Snellen, 1900 syn. nov. is synonymized with Bacotoma illatalis. A key to species examined is also provided based on external morphology and male genitalia.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

The recent critical revision of the order Skleroptera by Beutel et al. (2018a) is considered. We show several defects in their interpretation, contradicted by the original descriptions and diagnosis (Nel et al., 2013; Kirejtshuk & Nel, 2013). The main arguments of the initial interpretation of Stephanastus polinae Kirejtshuk et Nel, 2013 (Stephanastidae) and reasons for the proposal of the order Skleroptera (Kirejtshuk & Nel, 2013) are mentioned, together with reasons to reject the proposal of Beutel et al. (2018a, b). A comparison of Skleroptera with other neopteran orders is made. Lastly the problem of the position of Umenocoleus as a member of Coleopterida versus a roachoid is discussed, the first hypothesis being supported by synapomorphies which is not the case for the second.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution

The genus Piola is revised; the original description is translated and updated; the known species are redescribed (except P. unicolor); a new species, Piola wappesi sp. nov., is described from Bolivia; P. schiffi is registered for the first time for Peru; an updated key and photos of the type material of the species are provided.

In: Insect Systematics & Evolution