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A Companion to Ramon Llull and Lullism offers a comprehensive survey of the work of the Majorcan lay theologian and philosopher Ramon Llull (1232-1316) and of its influence in late medieval, Renaissance, and early modern Europe, as well as in the Spanish colonies of the New World. Llull’s unique system of philosophy and theology, the “Great Universal Art,” was widely studied and admired from the fifteenth through the eighteenth centuries. His evangelizing ideals and methods inspired centuries of Christian missionaries. His many writings in Catalan, his native vernacular, remain major monuments in the literary history of Catalonia. Contributors are: Roberta Albrecht, José Aragüéz Aldaz, Linda Báez Rubí, Josep Batalla, Pamela Beattie, Henry Berlin, John Dagenais, Mary Franklin-Brown, Alexander Ibarz, Annemarie C. Mayer, Rafael Ramis Barceló, Josep E. Rubio, and Gregory B. Stone.
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Time and Transformation in Architecture, edited by Tuuli Lähdesmäki, approaches architecture and the built environment from an interdisciplinary point of view by emphasizing in its theoretical discussions and empirical analysis the dimensions of time, temporality, and transformation—and their relation to human experiences, behavior, and practices. The volume consists of seven chapters that explore the following questions: How do architectural ideas, ideals, and meanings emerge, develop, and transform? How is architecture manifested in relation to time, time-space, and the social dimensions it entails and produces? The volume provides both multifaceted theoretical discussions on time and temporality in architecture and empirical case studies around the globe in which these theories and conceptualizations are tested and explored.

Contributors are Eiman Ahmed Elwidaa, André van Graan, June Jordaan, Joongsub Kim, Tuuli Lähdesmäki, Assumpta Nnaggenda-Musana, Sanja Rodeš and Smaranda Spânu.
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Agnon’s Story

A Psychoanalytic Biography of S. Y. Agnon

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Avner Falk

This is the first complete psychoanalytic biography of the Nobel-Prize-winning Hebrew writer S.Y. Agnon. It seeks to uncover the hidden links between his stories and his biography. In particular, it investigates how his early infantile ties to an ailing, depressive and self-centered mother, persisted throughout his life and affected his entire literary work. At a very young age, Agnon became attached to his mother in a deeply ambivalent symbiotic relationship. As a young man he sought to break out of it by immigrating from Austrian Galicia to “the Land of Israel,” his symbolic good mother. His mother died shortly after he left her, and he felt guilty about her death. This affected his entire life and his most important literary works. His lifelong quest for the Nobel Prize, which he finally won at the age of seventy-nine, was not only a matter of narcissistic grandiosity but also an unconscious quest for the mother’s love that he never received.
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Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya and the Divine Attributes

Rationalized Traditionalistic Theology

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Miriam Ovadia

In Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya and the Divine Attributes Miriam Ovadia offers a thorough discussion on the hermeneutical methodology applied in the theology of the Ḥanbalite traditionalistic scholar Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya (d. 1350), the most prominent disciple of the renowned Ibn Taymiyya (d. 1328). Focusing on Ibn al-Qayyim's voluminous - yet so far understudied - work on anthropomorphism, al-Ṣawāʿiq al-Mursala, Ovadia explores his modus operandi in his attack on four fundamental rationalistic convictions, while demonstrating Ibn al-Qayyim's systemization of the Taymiyyan theological doctrine and theoretical discourse. Contextualizing al-Ṣawāʿiq with relevant writings of thinkers who preceded Ibn al-Qayyim, Ovadia unfolds his employment of Kalāmic terminology and argumentations; thus, his rationalized-traditionalistic authoring of a theological manifesto directed against his contemporary Ashʿarite elite of Mamluk Damascus.
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Communication decisively impacts upon all our lives. This inherent need to connect may either be soothing or painful, a source of intimate understanding or violent discord. Consequently, how it is brokered is challenging and often crucial in situations where those involved have quite different ways of being in and seeing the world. Good communication is equated with skills that intentionally facilitate change, the realisation of desirable outcomes and the improvement of human situations. Withdrawal of communication, or its intentional manipulation, provokes misunderstanding, mistrust, and precipitates the decline into disorder. This international collection of work specifically interrogates conflict as an essential outworking of communication, and suggests that understanding of communication’s potency in contexts of conflict can directly influence reciprocally positive outcomes.
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Gražina Čiuladienė

Abstract

This chapter presents a study designed to explore the role that age and power difference plays in relation to the types of distributive conflict resolution strategies, specifically forcing, avoiding, and accommodating. The study reports data from a student conflict resolution skills survey collected by the author during two academic years between 2012 and 2014. The sample comprised 238 students from Mykolas Romeris University and 586 pupils in grades seven to nine from six schools in Lithuania. The results show that older adolescents tend to report higher rates of direct accommodating and avoiding. Younger adolescents tend to report higher rates of direct humiliating, damaging, and direct and indirect physical and verbal offensive contending. The analyses show no age impact on indirect humiliation and damaging. Overall there was a greater use of accommodating strategies in the unequal power dyads, and there were no meaningful differences in the use of avoiding strategies. Although offensive contending and direct humiliating contending were more frequent in the dyads of equal power, power dyads seem to have no impact on indirect damaging and humiliating.

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Peter Bray

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Counselling invites participants into a safely controlled and closed environment, in which personal realities may be not only communicated reflectively but also challenged. This chapter suggests that the counselling space can be viewed as a socio-professional stage upon which beginning counsellors make and rehearse performance works with their client/audiences. Prompted by an idealised model of the counselling persona, and armed with theory and therapeutic interventions, these performances tentatively present the new counsellor’s self, a self initially dissonant and unfamiliar. It is a performance that, to be professionally effective, relies upon an appropriate presentation of self, a clearly communicated script, and collaborative engagement in a setting that simultaneously meets client needs and expectations, and grows trust and understanding between the counsellor/actor and the client/audience. In addition, it argues that counselling relationships, although founded upon truly fundamental human values, conditions, and aspirations, are only mutually believable performances in a defined temporal and relational space. Indeed, for student counsellors, their early therapeutic encounters may seem just that. Constrained by the need to maintain harmonious relations that enhance client disclosure and therapeutic change, beginning counsellors may feel that to present their actual selves, a self incongruent with counsellor identity and the needs of the client, might be counter-productive. Consequently, to address this service relational they may withhold self in favour of a more acceptable, personally safer, yet less effective counsellor persona. Reframing sociologist Erving Goffman’s dramaturgy of self presentation and Carl Rogers’s theory of self, this chapter considers the inner conflict and development of beginning counsellors as they wrestle to reveal acceptable professional personas.1 Within the ‘We all act better than we know how,’ hypothesis the literal tension between playing and becoming suggests a normative phase in counsellor development, and invites further comment upon the humanistic counsellor’s struggle toward authenticity in the therapeutic relational.2

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Rupinder Mangat

Abstract

In this chapter, I make an argument for the military to engage with the public through social media. Just as Marta Rzepecka, in this volume, speaks to the government-public relationship through her analysis of presidential war discourse, so I address how traditional civil-military relations theory that focuses on the government-military relationship needs to include the public as well. The public-military relationship is becoming important in the light of the battle for the hearts and minds of global audiences. Conflict is increasingly asymmetrical and traverses state boundaries using advances in information and communication technologies. The military can combat new enemies using the same technologies. In this chapter, I look at why the military should consider embracing social media as a means of engaging the public in discussions of security issues.

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Aniuska M. Luna

Abstract

Dehumanisation is an often cited phenomenon linked to perceptions, moral disengagement in violence, and propaganda in texts about inter-group conflict. Terms referencing animals to describe, label, and stereotype others are prominent in the literature on the subject from the perpetrators’ perspective. Rarely does the literature explore it in detail from the perspective of the survivors, making what is known about it incomplete. To address that gap, the current chapter reviews a study conducted by the author where dehumanisation in survivors’ accounts was explored. Using qualitative content analysis, the animal terms – interchangeably referred to as ‘codes’ throughout the chapter – in 451 anecdotes from 74 archived Holocaust survivor interview transcripts, where non-human terms were applied to humans or their experiences, were analysed. The initial findings of the study are overviewed and expanded by detailing additional discourse ones. The discourse findings were found to be complementary to the descriptive and thematic ones. They cover what can be learned about dehumanisation from a code through its background, the figurative language types it can be linked to, verbs, and other elements of discourse. The findings reflect the relational and subjective nature of dehumanisation embedded with multiple experiential, social, and structural meanings. These meanings shape and, in turn, are shaped by individual and group definitions and boundaries in identity re/formulation and enhancement. The results are combined into a model that can help to understand and question dehumanisation when the starting point of analysis for it is the non-human code.