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It has been evident for many years that no authoritative, reliable, and up-to-date reference work on Buddhism yet exists in any language. Brill’s Encyclopedia of Buddhism aims to fill that gap with a comprehensive work, presented in two phases: a series of six thematic volumes including an index volume, addressing issues of global and regional importance, to be followed by an ever-expanding online resource providing access both to synthetic and comprehensive treatments and to more individuated details on persons, places, texts, doctrinal matters, and so on.
Illustrated with maps and photographs, and supplemented with extensive online resources, the print version of the thematic encyclopedia will present the latest research on the main aspects of the Buddhist traditions in original essays written by the world’s foremost scholars. The encyclopedia aims at a balanced and even-handed view of Buddhist traditions, presenting the most reliable accounts of well-known issues and filling gaps in heretofore-neglected areas. In doing so, it emphasizes that Buddhism is simultaneously constituted by a plurality of regional traditions and a far-reaching phenomenon spanning almost all of Asia, and more recently far beyond as well.
Volume I, published in 2015, surveys Buddhist literatures, scriptural and nonscriptural, and offers discussions of the languages of Buddhist traditions and the physical bases (manuscripts, epigraphy, etc.) available for the study of Buddhist literatures. Subsequent volumes will address issues of personages, communities, history, life and practice, doctrine, space and time, and Buddhism in the modern world.

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Anna A. Namyatova, Peter Contos and Gerasimos Cassis

Bothriomirini is a small tropical mirid tribe that has not been comprehensively revised nor has monophyly of the tribe and included genera been tested. This paper presents a systematic review of Bothrioimrini. Bothriomirella ater gen. nov. sp. nov., Bothriomiris lorenzatoae sp. nov., Dashymenia javanensis sp. nov. , Dashymenia jaydeni sp. nov. are described as new to science. A phylogenetic analysis of Bothriomirini based on morphological data is performed. The diagnoses of the tribe and most of its genera are discussed. Bakeriola crassicornis Poppius, Bothriomiris lugubris Poppius, Bothriomiris ornatus Bergroth, Dashymeniella tibialis Poppius and Leprocapsus scutellaris Poppius are redescribed. Female genitalia of Bothrimirini are discussed for the first time. This study supports the monophyly of the tribe and most genera and documents remarkable heterogeneity of the female genitalia. New locality data and a discussion of the distribution of Bothriomirini in relation to major biomes and climatic zones are provided.

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Daiara Manfio, Isaac Reis Jorge, Gael J. Kergoat and Cibele Stramare Ribeiro-Costa

The seed beetle genus Ctenocolum Kingsolver & Whitehead is peculiar because its preferred host Lonchocharpus Kunth (Fabaceae) is not preyed upon by other bruchine species. This study investigates the phylogenetic relationships and evolution of this genus and of its species groups, while providing the description of three new species and of the male of C. biolleyi Kingsolver & Whitehead. To infer phylogenetic relationships, a character matrix of 40 morphological characters was assembled and analysed using both parsimony and Bayesian inference. Ancestral state estimations of host plant use and biogeography analyses were also performed. A total of 22 species were examined: 16 Ctenocolum species (including the three new ones) and six outgroup bruchine species (from genera Caryedes Hummel, Meibomeus Bridwell, Pygiopachymerus Pic and Pachymerus Thunberg). All resulting trees support the monophyly of the genus Ctenocolum. Three synapomorphies characterize the genus: (i) head with frontal carina enlarged at base, (ii) male pygidium truncated apically, and (iii) lateral lobes of tegmen with dorsal process. The two known species groups are also recovered monophyletic in the parsimony analyses. The following three species are described: Ctenocolum inmaculatus Manfio & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov. (Type locality: Venezuela, Guarico), which belongs to the group tuberculatum; Ctenocolum nigronotus Manfio & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov. (Type locality: Porto Rico, Mayaguez) and C. pallidus Manfio & Ribeiro-Costa sp. nov. (Type locality: Republic of Guyana), which belong to the group podagricus. Finally, we present colored illustrations of dorsal patterns and male genitalia for these three new species and C. biolleyi in addition to an updated key for the genus Ctenocolum.

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Raxsina Polseela, Rüdiger Wagner, Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte, Björn Rulik and Chamnarn Apiwathnasorn

We revise the Oriental species of Bruchomyiinae based on type and additional material, with first descriptions of the genus Alexanderia Wagner & Kvifte, gen. nov. and A. thailandensis Wagner, Rulik & Polseela, sp.nov. The genus further comprises Nemapalpus orientalis Edwards, 1928 (type species), Nemopalpus vietnamensis Quate, 1962 and Nemapalpus unicolor Edwards, 1928. Alexanderia thailandensis is described using morphology of males and females and DNA barcodes, whereas A. orientalis Edwards, 1928 comb.nov., A. unicolor Edwards 1928 comb.nov., and A. vietnamensis Quate 1962 comb. nov. are redescribed. The male and female internal genitalia in the genus are discussed in the context of sexual selection, and we suggest that the spermathecal ducts of the female and the basiphallic musculature of the male may be shaped by a male/female coevolutionary arms race.

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So Shimizu, Andrew M.R. Bennett, Masato Ito and Kaoru Maeto

The Japanese species of the genus Therion Curtis, 1829 (Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae) were revised based on examination of 447 Japanese specimens. Four species are recognized based on morphology and sequence data (mtCOI). Two of them are identified as previously known species: T. circumflexum (Linnaeus, 1758) and T. giganteum (Gravenhorst, 1829). The other two species are described as new: T. carinatum Shimizu & Bennett, sp. nov. and T. nigrigasterum Shimizu, Bennett & Ito, sp. nov. In addition, T. rufomaculatum (Uchida, 1928) stat. rev. is once again synonymized with T. circumflexum. The Japanese species of Therion are easily distinguished from each other by a newly provided key. The lasiocampid moth, Dendrolimus spectabilis (Butler, 1877), is newly recorded as a host of T. giganteum.

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Ahmad Mohammed al-Darbas and Mohammed Ebrahem al-Wasmi

Abstract

This article intends to present the significance of mortgage financing in emerging markets and explain how mortgage financing affects positively the economies of emerging countries. It will also show the legal foundations of the real-estate mortgage law and the prerequisites for a successful mortgage financing system. This article intends to define the main challenges that some consider a hindrance to the development of the mortgage market in the Arabian Gulf countries. From this perspective, a brief comparative analysis of mortgage financing will focus on varying laws and regulations that apply to real-estate mortgages in the Gulf region. Implications for the development of the mortgage market in Arabian Gulf countries will be based on challenges in the mortgage market.

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Heba Sewilam

Abstract

The post-colonialist academic discourse blames colonialism for the marginalisation of Sharī‘a in the legal systems of Sunnī Muslim-majority countries. However, an analysis of some juristic debates around the Sunnī doctrinal theories of uṣūl al-fiqh and maqāṣid al-sharīʿa exposes few of the theories’ internal problems accounting for the marginalisation. In uṣūl al-fiqh, disputes regarding ijmāʿ and qiyās virtually bring their effectiveness as legal doctrines for positive law legislation to a halt. With regard to maqāṣid al-sharīʿa, an Ašʿarī adherence to a literal reading of the text reduces its potential to produce new Sharī‘a-compliant laws. Such problems render uṣūl al-fiqh and maqāṣid al-sharīʿa ineffective instruments for regulating accelerated legal changes demanded by fast-paced societal and scientific developments and deem the application of Sharīʿa in Sunnī Muslim-majority countries a task neither possible nor even recommended.

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Mohammad Nsour

Abstract

This article provides an analysis of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) trends from Turkey in light of the UAE’s interests. The key objective is to present a concise picture of Turkish FDI and of the opportunities within selected sectors in the UAE. Pursuant to this analysis, the article enumerates various challenges the UAE legal system poses to foreign investment. It then offers recommendations for how the UAE can mitigate these challenges without compromising its legal and economic regimes.

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Haider Ala Hamoudi

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Reyadh Mohamed Seyadi

Abstract

One significant feature of arbitration that distinguishes it from litigation in national courts, is the parties’ freedom to select the arbitrator or members of the arbitral tribunal familiar with the kind of dispute that might arise or already has arisen. In 2012, a new arbitration law was issued in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) inspired by the texts of the Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration. In all its provisions it included the requirement not to violate Sharīʿah law (Islamic legal tradition). However, according to this law, the sole arbitrator or presiding arbitrator must hold a Bachelor of Laws (LLB) or Sharīʿah law degree. This provision is mandatory, and the parties cannot agree otherwise. This article seeks to provide some thoughts on this restriction through an analysis of arbitrator qualifications under Sharīʿah law in order to provide a better understanding of the position adopted by the KSA Arbitration Law.