This book began life as a doctoral thesis undertaken at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. During its preparation I was the recipient of a tremendous amount of generosity from both institutions and individuals. My greatest debt of thanks goes to my doctoral supervisor Professor Michel Hockx for his excellent advice and constant encouragement. I would also like to thank other members of the SOAS teaching staff: in the Department of China and Inner Asia, Professor Andrew Lo and Professor Bernhard Fuehrer and in the Department of Art and Archaeology Dr. Stacey Pierson. I also owe my thanks to two former members of teaching staff at SOAS who during my time there offered me much invaluable advice, Dr. John Carpenter and Professor Craig Clunas. Thanks also to my former colleagues at the Institute for Chinese Studies, University of Oxford, for their support when I was revising my thesis for publication during the time I held the temporary post of Departmental Lecturer in Modern Chinese Literature in 2013–14.
I would like to give my warm thanks to Mrs. Lilian Grosz and the Estate of George Grosz for their generosity in allowing me use images of the artist’s work in the book. An equal debt of thanks goes to Mrs. Yuan-tsung Chen, for her permission to include the written and visual information related to Jack Chen, for agreeing to be interviewed at her home in Hong Kong, and for generously supplying me with copies of material from Jack Chen’s scrapbooks. I would also like to offer my sincere thanks to Dr. Ralph Jentsch, managing director of the George Grosz estate, for his generosity in supplying information on George Grosz. In addition I am grateful to the curators of the British Museum, in particular Mary Ginsberg, for allowing me access to the collection of prints and drawings which was formerly the property of Jack Chen and to the museum for giving me permission to reproduce a number of these images in the book. Professor Adriana Williams, Professor Tom Wolf of Bard College and Mrs. Carolyn Wong of the Huang Yao Foundation were all generous enough to supply me with valuable material from their own private collections. Thanks also to Mr. Avis Greenaway of Lawrence and Wishart for giving permission to reproduce the front cover of Jack Chen’s pamphlet Five Thousand Years Young as an illustration.
Libraries have been especially important for my research and I am indebted to the librarians of the following institutions for their help: the Library of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Senate House Library, The Library of the London School of Economics, The National Art Library, Tate Gallery Archives, The Marx Memorial Library, the library of the University of East Anglia and
For supplying me with copies of valuable primary source material and other important information my thanks go to the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University; the Tamiment Library and Robert F. Wagner Labor Archives, New York University; the archivists of Emmanuel College Cambridge and Cambridge University; the staff of the Lilly Library, Indiana University; and Maria Elvia Catalina Morales Juarez of the Archivo Miguel Covarrubias, Sala de Archivos y Colecciones Especiales, Universidad de las Américas Puebla. I am also indebted to Dr. John A. Crespi for his help and advice and to Professor Mark Hobart of SOAS for providing information on the Balinese calendar. I would like to extend my thanks to my teacher 颜桦先生 Mr. Yan Hua for his patience in teaching me the local language of Shanghai and to SOAS for providing me with the funds that made the lessons possible. In addition, I would like to give my thanks to Professor Robert Bickers and Dr. Rossella Ferrari for their invaluable comments and to two anonymous reviewers for their suggestions on the manuscript, also to Dr. Qin Higley and the staff at Brill and to Dr. Louise Edwards for her initial encouragement concerning the publication of this book.
I would like to express my special gratitude to the following organisations for their financial support in the way of scholarships and grants, without which I would not have been able to undertake this research: The Sino-British Fellowship Trust and the Kathleen Whitaker Bequest, and the Elizabeth Croll Scholarship, for providing funding for my fieldtrip to Shanghai and Hong Kong; the European Association for Chinese Studies and the Chiang Chingkuo Foundation; and the School of Oriental and African Studies for kindly awarding me a three-year Research Student Fellowship Scholarship. I must also thank Dr. Jon Banks and Janine Nicol for reading and commenting on