Notes on Romanization and References
The pinyin system of romanization has been used throughout the text except in self-contained quotations and with commonly known names such as Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi 蔣介石) and Sun Yat-sen (Sun Yixian 孫逸仙). In Chapter Seven the romanization of the Shanghai dialect is an approximation of my own devising.
In certain instances place names have been referred to using English versions as they were known in the 1930s, for example, what is now Nanjing Donglu 南京東路 appears as Nanking Road. This has been done for purposes of clarity on occasions when English names of department stores and other landmarks appear, for example in Chapter Six.
Whenever possible, page numbers and dates of publication have been included in the footnotes. Exceptions to this are the newspaper cuttings which survive in the scrapbooks collated by Jack Chen in the 1940s, many of which lack the date of publication or other bibliographical references.
Grammatical errors and misspellings in the unpublished correspondence of Jack Chen and Shao Xunmei have been left largely unchanged. Minor errors in other sources have been corrected. All translations from the Chinese are my own.
For Chinese magazines originally published with both Chinese and English titles, the original English title appears (sometimes after an additional literal translation) in brackets and quotation marks (“. . . . . .”).
Some magazines were originally printed without page numbers but have been given them by modern publishers, for example, the on-line version of Shanghai manhua (Modern Sketch). In such cases page numbers appear in square brackets.
Standard abbreviations such as WWI for “World War One” have been used throughout. In addition the names of several organisations and events have been abbreviated as follows:
Artists’ International Association
The British Museum
China Campaign Committee
First National Cartoon Exhibition
International Arts Theatre
National Salvation Cartoon Propaganda Corps
People’s Republic of China
Resist the Enemy Committee of the All China Woodcut Circle
School of Oriental and African Studies