A survey of studies on 4QSamuela and Samuel in the Septuagint suggests that although such studies have provided much valuable data about these witnesses, they have not settled the question of their respective values or characteristics as applies to determining the earliest text of Samuel. The greatest divergence of opinion appears in connection with 4QSamuela, which is regarded by some scholars as an untrustworthy witness to the text of Samuel, but by other scholars as a crucial witness, sometimes containing lost readings. Two more questions related to the text-critical use of 4QSamuela are whether it has a special textual affiliation with the Lucianic text of G (GL), and whether the differences from mt and G in 4QSamuela identify it as non-biblical work or represent literary developments to the biblical book. In fact, the majority of analyses and views on the scroll published to date have been argued from partial evidence. The present study considers the complete evidence for 4QSamuela.