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This chapter argues that between 1965 and 1975 Islam influenced a wide variety of cultural, artistic, and activist movements in African American culture. Although Malcolm X remained the preeminent Muslim figure in this current of Islamic influence, other Islamic figures and organizations were also important, and in many cases multiple, often contradictory Islamic elements were simultaneously impacting individuals and organizations. This chapter examines this influence on African American discourse and naming practices; cultural nationalist organizations; the Black Arts Movement; college activism; and non-college-based activist efforts, such as those of the Black Panther Party and the reparations movement. In addition, black Muslim-led activist activities are also discussed.

A History of Conversion to Islam in the United States, Volume 2

The African American Islamic Renaissance, 1920-1975