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Glossary/Abbreviations

C = Chinese; F = French; J = Japanese; K = Korean; P = Portuguese; S = Spanish; D = Dutch; M = Malay; V = Vietnamese

aitai shōbai (相對商賣) (J)

system in which, buyer and seller were allowed to directly negotiate prices of all imports including raw silk.

armação (P)

corporate agreement system

bugyō (奉行) (J)

governor or magistrate

bakufu (幕府) (J)

shogunal government

bakuhan taisei (幕藩体制) (J)

political system established by the Tokugawa

burakumin (部落民) (J)

outcast people

bussan (物産) (J)

commodity

byōbu (屏風) (J)

lit. wind screen or folding screen

calçada (P)

stone pavement

cambio maritimo (P)

lit. marine interest; bottomry

canga (P)

yoke of oxen

Capitão-Mor (P)

chief captain

carta (P)

letter

castella (P; S)

sponge cake made in Nagasaki

chōnin (町人) (J)

lit. townspeople, commoners

conhecimento (P)

bill of lading

dagregister (daghregister) (D)

journal kept by the head of Dutch trading posts

daikan (代官) (J)

imperial envoy in Nagasaki

daimyō (大名) (J)

lord

danka seido (檀家制度) (J)

system of affiliation of households with Buddhist temples

Deshima (出島) (J)

lit. exit or protruding island

Dongníng Wángguó (東寧王國) (C)

Kingdom of Tungning as founded by Koxinga

Doza (銅座) (J)

Copper Agency

Doza-machi (銅座町) (J)

copper quarter

Edo Bakufu (江戸幕府) (J)

Edo or Tokugawa shogunate

ema (yema) (絵馬) (J)

lit. picture-horse; votive picture

feitor (D)

factor or manager

fumi-e (踏み絵) (J)

trampling upon a Christian image

fune (-bune) (船) (J)

ships

fûsetsu-gaki (風説書) (J)

lit. rumor; deposition by Chinese junk captains to Nagasaki bugyō

fusuta-bune (フスタ船) (J)

name of Chinese-style junks built in Hirado

Genna Kokaisho (—元和航海書) (J)

Navigation Manuel of the Genna Era

gin (銀) J

silver

ginzan (銀山) (J)

silver mountain

gojōdaka shiho (御定高仕法) (J)

fixed-ceiling or annual quota system

go-shuin (御朱印) (J)

the vermilion colored passport

Gyōki-zu (行基図) (J)

map style showing relationship of provinces to the capital

han (藩) (J)

domains headed by daimyo

hana-kin (花金) (J)

flower money or bribe

hansatsu (藩札) (J)

feudal-clan banknotes

hui guan (會館) (C)

assembly house or public hall

hyakusho ikki (百姓一揆) (J)

peasant uprisings

itowappu (糸割符) (J)

purchase of Chinese raw silk at fixed price

itowappu nakama (糸割符仲間) (J)

silk trade guild

Itzi Bu (Ichi Bu or Ichi Bo) (一分) (J)

gold coins

ji (寺) (J)

suffix added to name of Buddhist temple

jige-gin (地下銀) (J)

commoner or citizen silver system

jinja (神社) (J)

lit, place of gods, or Shinto shrine

jōkamachi (城下町) (J)

castle town

jurubassa (M)

lit. language specialist, interpreter

jutaku tôjin (住宅唐人) (J)

resident or domiciled Chinese

kaidō (街道) (J)

main road

kai-hentai (華夷變態) (J)

China-Barbarian Transformation records

kaikin (海禁) (J)

maritime prohibition edicts

kaisha (会社) (J)

trading office

kakure (隠れ) (J)

lit. underground

kakure (隠) (J)

hidden (with reference to underground Christians)

kamotsu shihō shōhō (J), (貨物市法商法) (J)

cargo marketing system

kana (仮名) (J)

katakana or Japanese syllabary

kanban (看板) (J)

lit. signboard; private (trade)

kango boeki (勘合貿易) (J)

tally trade between Japan and China

kanji (漢字) (J)

Chinese characters

Kirishitan-ban (キリシタン版) (J)

missionary literature of the Jesuit Mission Press in Japan

kongsi (公司) (C)

clan association

koseki (戸籍) (J)

family register

kurofune (黒船), (J)

Portuguese black ships

kuroshio (黒潮) (J)

lit. black tide; current

Kyūshū (九州) (J)

lit. Nine Provinces

li (里) (C)

measure of distance, equal to 576 m.

ligt (D)

light (coin)

machi (町) (J)

town quarter

machidoshiyori (町年寄) (J)

members of the council ward elders

Maso-do (媽祖堂) (J, C)

mazu-god hall

Minh Hương (明鄉) (V, C)

Ming Chinese or Sino-Vietnamese

Nagasaki bôekisen (長崎貿易銭) (J)

copper coins minted in Nagasaki for trade purposes

Nagasaki-e (長崎絵) (J)

a genre of woodblock prints featuring Nagasaki scenes

Nagasaki kaisho (長崎会所) (J)

Trade Office

nagegane (投銀) (J)

joint venturing or insurance

Nakajima-zeniza (中島ー銭座) (J)

Nakajima mint in Nagasaki

nanban (南蛮) (J)

southern or foreign

nanbanbuki (南蛮吹) (J)

a foreign mining liquidation method

nanbanbyobu (南蛮屏風) (J)

southern folding screens

nanbanjin (南蛮人) (J)

southern barbarians or foreigners

ninbetsuchō (人別帳) (J)

lit. registry of human categories

Ōbaku-shū (黄檗宗) (J)

school of Zen Buddhism

Obon (お盆) (J)

annual Buddhist-Confucian festival

opperhoofd (D)

lit. upper head or chief clerk

Oranda tsuji (阿蘭陀通詞) (J)

Dutch interpreters appointed by the bugyo

otona (乙名) (J)

head of ward

pancada (P)

price-fixing system on the sale of raw silk

pulau (M)

island

rangaku (蘭学) (J)

school of Dutch learning in Japan

Rekidai Hōan (Lidai Baoan) (歴代宝案) (J, C)

Precious Documents of Successive Generations

respondência (P)

money borrowed on goods and merchandise contained in a ship

Rōjū (老中) (J)

Council of Elders at Edo

romaji (ローマ字) (J)

romanized Japanese

ronin (浪人) (J)

masterless samurai

roteiro (P)

sailing guides

sakoku (鎖国) (J)

closed country policy brought down by the bakufu

samurai (侍) (J)

warrior or military nobility

sankin-kōtai (参勤交代) (J)

lit. alternative residence

saodo (棹銅) (J)

pole or bar copper

sapèque (M, F)

Chinese or Japanese copper coins

sarasa (saraça) (更紗) (M, P, J)

cotton fabric

shihō shōhō (市法商法) (J)

market trade system

Shimabara-ki (島原記) (J)

Shimabara chronicle

Shimabara no ran (島原の乱) (J)

Shimabara rebellion

Shinchi (新地) (J)

lit. new earth: Chinese warehouses quarter in Nagasaki

shinjō (進上) (J)

official tributary trade

shinpai (信牌) (J)

trade license

shogun (将軍) (J)

military dictator

Shōtoku shinrei (正徳新例) (J)

New Shotoku Law

shoya (庄屋) (J)

village headman, official representative

shuinjō (朱印状) (J)

red seal license

shuinsen (朱印船) (J)

Red Seal ship

shuumon aratame (宗門改) (J)

official registers with Buddhist temples

situado (S)

subsidy in silver paid at Manila

soma (P)

Portuguese designation for large sea-going junk

soto-machi (外町) (J)

outer city or suburbs

swaar (D)

heavy (coin)

taxatie-handel (D)

market trade (shihō shōhō) system

tenryo (天領) (J)

bakufu-controlled city or domain

teppo (鉄砲) (J)

lit. iron cannon; referring to Portuguese guns

tera (-dera) (寺) (J)

Buddhist temple

tsuji (通事) (J)

interpreter

tô-tsuji (唐通事) (J)

Chinese-speaking interpreters

tôjin (唐人) (J)

lit. men of Tang; Chinese sailors or residents

Tôjin-Yashiki (唐人屋敷) (J)

Chinese residence or compound

Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (J)

Tokugawa (or Edo) shogunate

tolken (D)

interpreter

Tonkinsen (東京船) (J)

Chinese junks plying the Nagasaki-Tonkin route

tono (殿)

honorific meaning lord or master

tonya (問屋) (J)

shippers or trade brokers

Tôsen (唐船) (J)

lit. ships of Tang; Chinese junk traders

Tôsen Fusetsu-gaki (唐船 風説書) (J)

(lit. rumor) or deposition records

Tsūkō ichiran (通航一覧) (J)

survey of intercourse documents

uchi-machi (内町) (J)

the inner town

unesco

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

voc

Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; Dutch East India Company

wakan/waegwan (倭館) (J, K)

Japan House in Korea

wako (wokou) (倭寇) (J, C)

pirates

wankang (灣船 (C)

a sea-going junk of about 100 to 150 tonnes

yashiki (屋敷) (J)

house

zeni (銭) (J)

cash, copper coins