Bibliography

I. Published Books, Chapters and Articles

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  • AlvarezJSubsequent Practice Between Interpretation, Informal Modification, and Formal Amendment: A Comment’ in GNolte (ed) Treaties and Subsequent Practice (Oxford University Press2013b).

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  • AnkerDLaw of Asylum in the United States 2013 Edition (Thomson Reuters2013).

  • Arai-TakahashiYThe Margin of Appreciation Doctrine and the Principle of Proportionality in the Jurisprudence of the echr (Intersentia2002).

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  • ArendtHThe Origins of Totalitarianism (New ednHarcourt Brace1958).

  • AustAModern Treaty Law and Practice (3rd ednCambridge University Press2013).

  • BaillietCPerpetuating Internal Displacement: The Misapplication of Internal Flight Alternative and Non-State Agents of Persecution within the Context of Colombian Asylum Seekers’ (2000) Juridikum.

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  • BaillietCStudy of the Grey Zone between Asylum and Humanitarian Protection in Norwegian Law and Practice (2003).

  • BaillietCNational Case Law as a Generator of International Refugee Law: Rectifying an Imbalance Within unhcr Guidelines on International Protection’ (2015) 29Emory International Law Review.

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  • BarakAProportionality: Constitutional Rights and their Limitations (Cambridge University Press2012).

  • BattjesHEuropean Asylum Law and International Law (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers2006).

  • BettsATowards a “Soft Law” Framework for the Protection of Vulnerable Irregular Migrants’ (2012) 22International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • BettsASurvival Migration: Failed Governance and the Crisis of Migration (Cornell University Press2013).

  • BlackR and KKoser (eds) The End of the Refugee Cycle? Refugee Repatriation and Rec0nstruction (Berghahn1999).

  • BlakeNLuxembourg, Strasbourg and the National Court: the Emergency of a Country Guidance System for Refugee and Human Rights Protection’ (2013) 25International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • BlandholS (ed) De beste grunner: reelle hensyn i juridisk argumentasjon (Gyldendal Norsk Forlag2013).

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  • BremsE and JGerards (eds) Shaping Rights in the echr (Cambridge University Press2013).

  • BrochmanGEuropean Integration and Immigration from Third Countries (Scandinavian University Press1996).

  • ÇaliBSpecialized Rules of Treaty Interpretation: Human Rights’ in DHollis (ed) The Oxford Guide to Treaties (Oxford University Press2012).

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  • CantorDJDefining Refugees: Persecution, Surrogacy and the Human Rights Paradigm’ in BBurson and DJCantor (eds) Human Rights and the Refugee Definition: Comparative Legal Practice and Theory (Brill Nijhoff2016).

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  • CantorDJ and SEBarichelloThe Inter-American Human Rights System: a New Model for Integrating Refugee and Complementary Protection?’ (2013) 17International Journal of Human Rights.

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  • CantorDJ and DTrimino MoraA Simple Solution to War Refugees? The Latin American Expanded Definition and its Relationship to ihl’ in DJCantor and J-FDurieux (eds) Refuge from Inhumanity? War Refugees and International Humanitarian Law (Brill Nijhoff2014).

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  • CarensJHStates and Refugees: A Normative Analysis’ in HAdelman (ed) Refugee Policy: Canada and the United States (York University Centre for Refugee Studies1991).

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  • CarlierJ-YDroit d’asil et des réfugiés: de la protection aux droits (Brill Nijhoff2008).

  • CarlierJ-Y and others (eds) Who is a Refugee? A Comparative Case Law Study (Kluwer Law International1997).

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  • ChristoffersenJImpact on General Principles of Treaty Interpretation’ in M Kamminga and MScheinin (eds) The Impact of Human Rights Law on General International Law (Oxford University Press2009).

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  • ClaphamAHuman Rights Obligations of Non-State Actors (Oxford University Press2006).

  • CohenR and FDengMasses in Flight: The Global Crisis of Internal Displacement (Brookings Institution Press1998).

  • CostelloCThe Recast Asylum Procedures Directive 2013/32/EU’ in VChetailPDeBruycker and FMaiani (eds) Reforming the Common European Asylum System: The New European Refugee Law (Brill Nijhoff2016).

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  • CraigPThe Nature of Reasonableness Review (Legal Research Paper Series2013).

  • CrawfordJBrownlie’s Principles of Public International Law (8th ednOxford University Press2013).

  • CremaLSubsequent Practice in Hassan v United Kingdom: When Things Seem to Go Wrong in the Life of a Living Instrument’ (2015) Questions of International Law.

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  • DurieuxJ-FSalah Sheekh is a Refugee: New Insights into Primary and Subsidiary Forms of Protection’ (2008) Refugee Studies Centre Working Paper.

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  • DurieuxJ-FOf War, Flows, Laws and Flaws: A Reply to Hugo Storey’ (2012) 31Refugee Survey Quarterly.

  • DurieuxJ-FThree Asylum Paradigms’ (2013) 20International Journal of Minority and Group Rights.

  • EatonJThe Internal Protection Alternative Under European Union Law: Examining the Recast Qualification Directive’ (2012) International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • EdwardsAAge and Gender Dimensions in International Refugee Law’ in EFellerVTürk and FNicholson (eds) Refugee Protection in International Law: unhcr’s Global Consultations on International Protection (Cambridge University Press2003).

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  • EdwardsAHuman Rights, Refugees, and The Right “To Enjoy” Asylum’ (2005) 17International Journal of Refugee Law.

  • EinarsenTFlyktningers rettsstilling i Norge (Fagbokforlaget1997).

  • EinarsenTRetten til vern som flyktning (Cicero2000).

  • EinarsenTBeskyttelse’ in VVevstad (ed) Utlendingsloven Kommentarutgave (Universitetsforlaget2010).

  • EinarsenTDrafting History of the Convention/New York Protocol’ in AZimmermann (ed) The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol: A Commentary (Oxford University Press2011).

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  • FarmerAA Commentary on the Committee on the Rights of the Child’s Definition of Non-Refoulement for Children: Broad Protection for Fundamental Rights’ (2011) Res Gestae.

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  • FernhoutRErkenning en toelating als vluchteling in Nederland (Kluwer1990).

  • FerrisEInternal Displacement and the Right to Seek Asylum’ (2008) Refugee Survey Quarterly.

  • FitzpatrickJThe Principle and Practice of Temporary Refuge: A Customary Norm Protecting Civilians Fleeing Internal Armed Conflict’ in DAMartin (ed) The New Asylum Seekers: Refugee Law in the 1980s (Springer1988).

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  • FitzpatrickJ and RBonoanCessation (Article 1C)’ in EFellerVTürk and FNicholson (eds) Refugee Protection in International Law: unhcr’s Global Consultations on International Protection (Cambridge University Press2003).

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  • ForowiczMThe Reception of International Law in the European Court of Human Rights (Oxford University Press2011).

  • FortinAThe Meaning of “Protection” in the Refugee Definition’ (2001) 12International Journal of Refugee Law.

  • FosterMProtection Elsewhere: The Legal Implications of Requiring Refugees to Seek Protection in Another State’ (2006) 28Michigan Journal of International Law.

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  • FosterMInternational Refugee Law and Socio-Economic Rights: Refuge from Deprivation (Cambridge University Press2007).

  • FrelickBDown the Rabbit Hole: The Strange Logic of Internal Flight Alternative’ (1999) US Committee for Refugees World Refugee Survey.

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  • FrelickBDisplacement Without End: Internally Displaced Who Can’t Go Home’ (2003) 17Forced Migration Review.

  • Van GarderenJ and JEbensteinRegional Developments: Africa’ in AZimmermann (ed) The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol (Oxford University Press2011).

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  • GardinerRTreaty Interpretation (Oxford University Press2008).

  • GarlickMunhcr and the Implementation of Council Directive 2004/83/EC on Minimum Standards for the Qualification and Status of Third Country Nationals or Stateless Persons as Refugees or as Persons who otherwise need International Protection and the Content of the Protection granted’ in KZwaan (ed) The Qualification Directive: Central Themes Problem Issues and Implementation in Selected Member States (Wolf Legal Publishers2007).

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  • GerardsJ and HSendenThe Structure of Fundamental Rights and the European Court of Human Rights’ (2009) 7International Journal of Constitutional Law.

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  • GermovR and FMottaRefugee Law in Australia (Oxford University Press2003).

  • GibneyMThe Ethics and Politics of Asylum (Cambridge University Press2004).

  • Gil-BazoM-TThe Practice of Mediterranean States in the Context of the European Union’s Justice and Home Affairs External Dimension. The Safe Third Country Concept Revisited’ (2006) 18International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • Gil-BazoM-TRefugee Protection under International Human Rights Law: From Non-Refoulement to Residence and Citizenship’ (2015) 34Refugee Survey Quarterly.

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  • GiupponiBOAssessing the evolution of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights in the protection of migrants’ rights: past, present and future’ (2017) 21International Journal of Human Rights.

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  • Goodwin-GillGThe Refugee in International Law (Clarendon Press1983).

  • Goodwin-GillGNon-Refoulement and the New Asylum Seekers’ in DMartin (ed) The New Asylum Seekers: Refugee Law in the 1980s (Kluwer Academic Publishers1988).

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  • Goodwin-GillGDifferent Types of Forced Migration Movements as an International and National Problem’ in GRystad (ed) The Uprooted: Forced Migration as an International Problem in the Post-War Era (Lund University Press1990).

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  • Goodwin-GillGUnaccompanied Refugee Minors: The Role and Place of International Law in the Pursuit of Durable Solutions’ (1995) 3International Journal of Children’s Rights.

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  • Goodwin-GillGThe Refugee in International Law (2nd ednClarendon Press1996).

  • Goodwin-GillGThe Search for the One, True Meaning…’ in GGoodwin-Gill and HLambert (eds) The Limits of Transnational Law: Refugee Law Policy Harmonization and Judicial Dialogue in the European Union (Cambridge University Press2010).

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  • Goodwin-GillG and JMcAdamThe Refugee in International Law (3rd ednOxford University Press2007).

  • Grahl-MadsenAThe Status of Refugees in International Law vol I: Refugee Character (A.W. Sijthoff1966).

  • Grahl-MadsenANorsk fremmedrett i støpeskjeen: et bidrag til debatten om ny fremmedlov (Universitetsforlaget1985).

  • GreenmanKA Castle Built on Sand? Article 3 echr and the Source of Risk in Non-Refoulement Obligations in International Law’ (2015) 27International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • GreerSWhat’s Wrong with the European Convention on Human Rights?’ (2008) 30Human Rights Quarterly.

  • GuildEThe Impetus to Harmonise: Asylum Policy in the European Union’ in FNicholson and PTwomey (eds) Refugee Rights and Realities: Evolving International Concepts and Regimes (Cambridge University Press1999).

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  • HammerstadAThe Rise and Decline of a Global Security Actor: unhcr Refugee Protection and Security (Oxford University Press2014).

  • HarrisD and others O’BoyleHarris & Warbrick: Law of the European Convention on Human Rights (3rd ednOxford University Press2014).

  • HathawayJCThe Evolution of Refugee Status in International Law: 1920–1950’ (1984) 33International and Comparative Law Quarterly.

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  • HathawayJCInternational Refugee Law: The Michigan Guidelines on the Internal Protection Alternative’ (1999a) 21Michigan Journal of International Law.

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  • HathawayJCForced Migration Studies: Could We Agree Just to Date?’ (2007) 20Journal of Refugee Studies.

  • HathawayJCThe Law of Refugee Status (Butterworths1991).

  • HathawayJCIs Refugee Status Really Elitist? An Answer to the Ethical Challenge’ in J-YCartier (ed) Europe and Refugees: A Challenge? (Kluwer Law International1997).

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  • HathawayJCThe Relationship between Human Rights and Refugee Law: What Refugee Judges Can Contribute’ in The Realities of Refugee Determination on the Eve of a New Millenium: The Role of the Judiciary (International Association of Refugee Law Judges1999b).

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  • HathawayJCA Forum for the Transnational Development of Refugee Law: The iarlj’s Advanced Refugee Law Workshop’ (2003) 15International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • HathawayJCThe Rights of Refugees under International Law (Cambridge University Press2005).

  • HathawayJC and MFosterInternal Protection/Relocation/Flight Alternative as an Aspect of Refugee Status Determination’ in EFellerVTürk and FNicholson (eds) Refugee Protection in International Law: unhcr’s Global Consultations on International Protection (Cambridge University Press2003).

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  • HathawayJC and MFosterThe Law of Refugee Status (2nd ednCambridge University Press2014).

  • HathawayJC and JPobjoyQueer Cases Make Bad Law’ (2012) 44New York University Journal of International Law and Politics.

  • denHeijerMWhose Rights and Which Rights? The Continuing Story of Non-Refoulement under the European Convention on Human Rights’ (2008) 10European Journal of Migration and Law.

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  • HenckaertsJ-M and LDoswald-Beck (eds) Customary International Humanitarian Law Volume i: Rules (icrc/Cambridge University Press2005).

  • HerhilyJKGleeson and STurnerWhat Assumptions about Human Behavior Underlie Asylum Judgments?’ (2010) 22International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • HernándezGIInterpretation’ in JKammerhofer and JD’Aspremont (eds) International Legal Positivism in a Post-Modern World (Cambridge University Press2015).

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  • HeynsC and MKillanderUniversality and the Growth of Regional Systems’ in DShelton (ed) The Oxford Handbook of International Human Rights Law (Oxford University Press2013).

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  • HigginsRProblems and Processes: International Law and How We Use It (Oxford University Press1994).

  • HonkalaNA Feminist Human Rights Perspective on the Use of Internal Relocation by Asylum Adjudicators’ in JGreen and CWaters (eds) Adjudicating International Human Rights: Essays in Honour of Sandy Ghandhi (Brill Nijhoff2015).

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  • HorstC and ANurGoverning Mobility through Humanitarianism in South-Central Somalia: Compromising Protection for the Sake of Return?’ (2016) 47Development and Change.

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  • HurwitzAThe Collective Responsibility of States to Protect Refugees (Oxford University Press2009).

  • JacksonIThe Refugee Concept in Group Situations (Kluwer Law International1999).

  • JanmyrMProtecting Civilians in Refugee Camps: Unable and Unwilling States UNHCR and International Responsibility (Brill 2014).

  • JastramK and KNewlandFamily Unity and Refugee Protection’ in EFellerVTürk and FNicholson (eds) Refugee Protection in International Law: unhcr’s Global Consultations on International Protection (Cambridge University Press2003).

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  • JosephS and MCastanThe International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Cases Materials and Commentary (3rd ednOxford University Press2013).

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  • JussSProblematizing the Protection of “War Refugees”: A Rejoinder to Hugo Storey and Jean-Francois Durieux’ (2013a) 32Refugee Survey Quarterly.

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  • JussSThe unhcr Handbook and the Interface between “Soft Law” and “Hard Law” in International Refugee Law’ in SSJuss and CHarvey (eds) Contemporary Issues in Refugee Law (Edward Elgar2013b).

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  • KälinWNon-State Agents of Persecution and the Inability of the State to Protect’ (2001) 15Georgetown Immigration Law Journal.

  • KälinWSupervising the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: Article 35 and Beyond’ in EFellerVTürk and FNicholson (eds) Refugee Protection in International Law: unhcr’s Global Consultations on International Protection (Cambridge University Press2003).

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  • KälinWThe Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement as International Minimum Standard and Protection Tool’ (2005) 24Refugee Survey Quarterly.

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  • KälinW and JKünzliThe Law of International Human Rights Protection (Oxford University Press2009).

  • KellerH and LGroverGeneral Comments of the Human Rights Committee and their Legitimacy’ in HKeller and GUlfstein (eds) UN Human Rights Treaty Bodies: Law and Legitimacy (Cambridge University Press2015).

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  • KelleyNInternal Flight/Relocation/Protection Alternative: Is it Reasonable?’ (2002) 14International Journal of Refugee Law.

  • KneeboneSThe Rule of Law and the Role of Law’ in SKneebone (ed) Refugees Asylum Seekers and the Rule of Law (Cambridge University Press2009).

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  • KneeboneSMoving Beyond the State: Refugees, Accountability and Protection’ in SKneebone (ed) The Refugee Convention 50 Years On (Ashgate2003).

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  • KneeboneSRefugees as Objects of Surrogate Protection: Shifting Identities’ in Refugee Protection and the Role of Law: Conflicting Identities (Routledge2014).

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  • KneeboneS and MO’SullivanArticle 1C’ in AZimmermann (ed) The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol: A Commentary (Oxford University Press2011).

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  • KoskenniemiMLegal Universalism between Morality and Power in a World of States’ in SCheng (ed) Law Justice and Power: Between Reason and Will (Stanford University Press2004).

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  • LambertHProtection Against Refoulement From Europe: Human Rights Law Comes to the Rescue’ (1999) 48International and Comparative Law Quarterly.

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  • LambertHThe Conceptualisation of “Persecution” by the House of Lords: Horvath v. Secretary of State for the Home Department’ (2001) 13International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • LambertHInternational Refugee Law: Dominant and Emerging Approaches’ in JDArmstrong and JBrunée (eds) Routledge Handbook of International Law (Taylor & Francis2009).

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  • LambertH“Safe Third Country” in the European Union: An Evolving Concept in International Law and Implications for the UK’ (2012) 26Journal of Immigration Asylum and Nationality Law.

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  • LambertHJMc Adam and MFullerton (eds) The Global Reach of European Refugee Law (Cambridge University Press2013).

  • LandgrenKSafety Zones and International Protection: A Dark Grey Area’ (1995) 7International Journal of Refugee Law.

  • LauterpachtHDevelopment of International Law (Praeger1958).

  • LauterpachtSE and DBethlehemThe Scope and Content of the Principle of Non-Refoulement’ in EFellerVTürk and FNicholson (eds) Refugee Protection in International Law (Cambridge University Press2003).

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  • LegomskySSecondary Refugee Movements and the Return of Asylum Seekers to Third Countries: The Meaning of Effective Protection’ (2003) 15International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • LetsasGStrasbourg’s Interpretive Ethic: Lessons for the International Lawyer’ (2010) 21The European Journal of International Law.

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  • LewisCunhcr’s Contribution to the Development of International Refugee Law: Its Foundations and Evolution’ (2005) 17International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • LongKIn Search of Sanctuary: Border Closures, “Safe” Zones and Refugee Protection’ (2012) 26Journal of Refugee Studies.

  • Lübbe-WolffGThe Principle of Proportionality in the Case-Law of the German Federal Constitutional Court’ (2014) 34Human Rights Law Journal.

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  • MæhleSGjelder det andre regler for rettslig argumentasjon i rettsdogmatikken enn for domstolene?’ (2004) 5Jussens Venner.

  • MajidiNUninformed Decisions and Missing Networks’ (2017) 1Espace populations sociétés.

  • MarrusMThe Uprooted: An Historical Perspective’ in GRystad (ed) The Uprooted: Forced Migration as an International Problem in the Post-War Era (Lund University Press1990).

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  • MartinDThe New Asylum Seekers’ in DMartin (ed) The New Asylum Seekers: Refugee Law in the 1980s (Kluwer Academic Publishers1988).

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  • MarxRThe Criteria of Applying the “Internal Flight Alternative” Test in National Refugee Status Determination Procedures’ (2002) 14International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • MathewPThe Shifting Boundaries and Content of Protection: The Internal Protection Alternative Revisited’ in SSJuss (ed) Ashgate Research Companion to Migration Law Theory and Policy (Ashgate2013).

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  • MathewPJCHathaway and MFosterThe Role of State Protection in Refugee Analysis: Discussion Paper No. 2, Advanced Refugee Law Workshop, International Association of Refugee Law Judges, Auckland, New Zealand, October 2002’ (2003) 15International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • McAdamJComplementary Protection in International Refugee Law (Oxford University Press2007).

  • McAdamJInterpretation of the 1951 Convention’ in AZimmermann (ed) The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol: A Commentary (Oxford University Press2011).

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  • McAdamJRethinking the Origins of “Persecution” in Refugee Law’ (2014) 25International Journal of Refugee Law.

  • McLachlanCThe Principle of Systemic Integration and Article 31(3)(c) of the Vienna Convention’ (2005) 54International & Comparative Law Quarterly.

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  • McNairAThe Law of Treaties (2nd ednClarendon Press1961).

  • MechlemKTreaty Bodies and the Interpretation of Human Rights’ (2009) 42Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law.

  • MikkolaMTeser om rättsvetenskaplig forskning’ (1981) Tidsskrift for Rettsvitenskap.

  • MilnerDExemption from Cessation of Refugee Status in the Second Sentence of Article 1C(5)/(6) of the 1951 Refugee Convention’ (2004) 16International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • MobrayAThe Creativity of the European Court of Human Rights’ (2005) 5Human Rights Law Review.

  • deMoffartsGRefugee Status and the “Internal Flight Alternative”’ (Refugee and Asylum Law: Assessing the Scope for Judicial Protection: International Association of Refugee Law Judges Second conference Nijmegen January 9–11 1997).

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  • MolooRWhen Actions Speak Louder Than Words: The Relevance of Subsequent Party Conduct to Treaty Interpretation’ (2013) 31Berkeley Journal of International Law.

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  • MooreJProtection against the Forced Return of War Refugees: An Interdisciplinary Consensus on Humanitarian Non-Refoulement’ in DJCantor and J-FDurieux (eds) Refuge from Inhumanity? War Refugees and International Humanitarian Law (Brill Nijhoff2014).

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  • MorelMThe Right not to be Displaced in International Law (Intersentia2014).

  • Moreno-LaxVSystematizing Systemic Integration: “War Refugees”, Regime Relations, and a Proposal for a Cumulative Approach to International Commitments’ (2014) 12Journal of International Criminal Justice.

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  • NathwaniNRethinking Refugee Law (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers2003).

  • NeumanGSubsidiarity’ in DShelton (ed) The Oxford Handbook of International Human Rights Law (Oxford University Press2013).

  • Ní GhráinneBunhcrs Involvement with idps—“Protection of that Country” for the Purpose of Precluding Refugee Status?’ (2014) 26International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • Ní GhráinneBThe Internal Protection Alternative Inquiry and Human Rights Considerations—Irrelevant or Indispensable?’ (2015) 27International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • NicolausPKein Asylrecht trotz Verfolgung? Eine Studie zum Problem der inländischen Fluchtalternative (Deutsche Kommission Justitia et Pax1984).

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  • NollGNegotiating Asylum: The EU Acquis Extraterritorial Protection and the Common Market of Deflection (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers2000).

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  • NollGEvidentiary Assessment Under the Refugee Convention: Risk, Pain and the Intersubjectivity of Fear’ in GNoll (ed) Proof Evidentiary Assessment and Credibility in Asylum Procedures (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers2005).

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  • NolteGSecond Report of the ilc Study Group on Treaties over Time: Jurisprudence under Special Regimes Relating to Subsequent Agreements and Subsequent Practice’ in GNolte (ed) Treaties and Subsequent Practice (Oxford University Press2013).

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  • NykänenEFragmented State Power and Forced Migration: A Study on Non-State Actors in Refugee Law (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers2012).

  • O’SullivanMActing the Part: Can Non-State Entities Provide Protection Under International Refugee Law?’ (2012) 24International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • O’SullivanMTerritorial Protection: Cessation of Refugee Status and Internal Flight Alternative Compared’ in SSJuss (ed) Ashgate Research Companion to Migration Law Theory and Policy (Ashgate2013).

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  • OrakhelashviliARestrictive Interpretation of Human Rights Treaties in the Recent Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights’ (2003) 14European Journal of International Law.

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  • OrakhelashviliAThe Interpretation of Acts and Rules in Public International Law (Oxford University Press2008).

  • OrchardPProtection of Internally Displaced Persons: Soft Law as a Norm-Generating Mechanism’ (2010) 36Review of International Studies.

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  • OrmacheaPMoiwana Village: The Inter-American Court and the Continuing Violation Doctrine’ (2006) 19Harvard Human Rights Journal.

  • ØyenØDRett til flykningstatus og asyl’ in ØDØyen (ed) Lærebok i utlendingsrett (2nd ednUniversitetsforlaget2018).

  • PeroniL and ATimmerVulnerable Groups: The Promise of an Emerging Concept in European Human Rights Convention law’ (2013) 11International Journal of Constitutional Law.

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  • PhuongCThe International Protection of Internally Displaced Persons (Cambridge University Press2010).

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  • PobjoyJThe Child in International Refugee Law (Cambridge University Press2017).

  • PofféLTowards a New United Nations Human Rights Convention for Older Persons?’(2015) 15Human Rights Law Review.

  • PosnerRLaw Pragmatism and Democracy (Harvard University Press2003).

  • PriceMPersecution Complex: Justifying Asylum Law’s Preference for Persecuted People’ (2006) 47Harvard International Law Journal.

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  • PriceMRethinking Asylum: History Purpose and Limits (Cambridge University Press2009).

  • Ramji-NogalesJAISchoenholtz and PGSchragRefugee Roulette: Disparities in Asylum Adjudication’ (2007) 60Standford Law Review.

  • RobinsonNConvention Relating to the Status of Refugees: Its History Contents and Interpretation: a Commentary (Institute of Jewish Affairs1953).

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  • RobinsonI and IRahmanThe Unknown Fate of the Stateless Rohingyas’ (2012) 2Oxford Monitor of Forced Migration.

  • RousseauC and others ‘The Complexity of Determining Refugeehood: A Multidisciplinary Analysis of the Decision-making Process of the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board’ (2002) 15Journal of Refugee Studies.

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  • SandgrenCOn Empirical Legal Science’ in PWahlgren (ed) Legal Theory (The Stockholm University Law Faculty2000).

  • SandozYCSwinarski and BZimmermann (eds) Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 (icrc1987).

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  • SchlütterBAspects of Human Rights Interpretation by the UN Treaty Bodies’ in HKeller and GUlfstein (eds) UN Human Rights Treaty Bodies: Law and Legitimacy (Cambridge University Press2015).

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  • SchreierTAn Evaluation of South Africa’s Application of the oau Refugee Definition’ (2008) 25Refuge.

  • SchultzJThe European Court of Human Rights and Internal Relocation: An Unduly Harsh Standard?’ in JPGauciMGiuffré and ETsourdi (eds) Exploring the Boundaries of Refugee Law: Current Protection Challenges (Brill Nijhoff2015).

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  • SchultzJ and TEinarsenThe Right to Refugee Status and the Internal Protection Alternative: What Does the Law Say?’ in BBurson and DJCantor (eds) Human Rights and the Refugee Definition: Comparative Legal Practice and Theory (Brill Nijhoff2016).

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  • SchusterL and NMajidiWhat Happens Post-Deportation? The Experience of Deported Afghans’ (2013) Migration Studies.

  • SimmaBConsent: Strains in the Treaty System’ in MacdonaldRSJ and DJohnston (eds) Structure and Process of International Law: Essays in Legal Philosophy Doctrine and Theory (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers1983).

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  • SingerDFailing at Each Hurdle: Assessing the Credibility of Women’s Asylum Claims in Europe’ in EArbelCDauvergne and JMillbank (eds) Gender in Refugee Law (Routledge2014).

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  • SkranCMRefugees in Inter-War Europe: The Emergence of a Regime (Clarendon Press1995).

  • SkranCMHistorical Development of International Refugee Law’ in AZimmermann (ed) The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol (Oxford University Press2011).

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  • SmitAThe Property Rights of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: Beyond Restitution (Routledge2012).

  • SpijkerboerTA Bird’s Eye View of Asylum Law in Eight European Countries (Dutch Refugee Council1993).

  • SpijkerboerTSexual Identity, Normativity and Asylum’ in TSpijkerboer (ed) Fleeing Homophobia: Sexual Orientation Gender Identity and Asylum (Routledge2013).

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  • StevensDEWhat Do We Mean by Protection?’ (2013) 20International Journal on Minority and Group Rights.

  • StoreyHThe Internal Flight Alternative Test: The Jurisprudence Re-examined’ (1998) 10International Journal of Refugee Law.

  • StoreyH“From Nowhere to Somewhere”: An Evaluation of the unhcr 2nd Track Global Consultations on International Protection: San Remo 8–10 September 2001 Experts Roundtable on the IPA/IRA/IFA Alternative2002iarlj Conference.

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  • StoreyHArmed Conflict in Asylum Law: The “War-Flaw”’ (2012) 31Refugee Survey Quarterly.

  • StoreyHBriefing Note for Participants’ (2013) 25International Journal of Refugee Law.

  • SvenssonE-MBoundary-Work in Legal Scholarship’ in ÅGunnarsonE-MSvensson and MDavies (eds) Exploiting the Limits of Law: Swedish Feminism and the Challenge to Pessimism (Ashgate2007).

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  • SztuckiJThe Conclusions on the International Protection of Refugees Adopted by the Executive Committee of the unhcr Programme’ (1989) 1International Journal of Refugee Law.

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  • TakkenbergA and CTahbaz (eds) The Collected Travaux Préparatoires of the 1951 Geneva Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (Dutch Refugee Council1989).

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  • ThomasRRefugee Roulette: A UK Perspective’ in JRamji-NogalesASchoenholtz and PSchrag (eds) Refugee Roulette: Disparities in Asylum Adjudication and Proposals for Reform (New York University Press2009).

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  • TierneyDThe Hidden Danger of Safe Zones in Syria’ (2015) Atlantic Monthly.

  • TobinJSeeking to Persuade: A Constructive Approach to Human Rights Treaty Interpretation’ (2010) 23Harvard Human Rights Journal.

  • TolonenPUtlendingsdirektoratet gjennom 23 år’ (2011) Materialisten.

  • TrinidadeCThe Application of the Rule of Exhaustion of Local Remedies in International Law (Cambridge University Press1983).

  • TsakyrakisSProportionality: An Assault on Human Rights’ (2009) 7International Journal of Constitutional Law.

  • TürkVIntroductory Note to unhcr Guidelines on International Protection’ (2003) 15International Journal of Refugee Law.

  • TürkV and FNicholsonRefugee Protection in International Law: An Overall Perspective’ in EFellerVTürk and FNicholson (eds) Refugee Protection in International Law: unhcr’s Global Consultations on International Protection (unhcr2003).

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  • VerdirameGThe UN and Human Rights: Who Guards the Guardians (Cambridge University Press2011).

  • VevstadVRefugee Protection: A European Challenge (Tano Aschehoug1998).

  • VevstadVUtvikling av et felles europeisk asylsystem: jus og politikk (Universitetsforlaget2006).

  • WalaardtTFrom Heroes to Vulnerable Victims: Labelling Christian Turks as Genuine Refugees in the 1970s’ (2013) 36Ethnic and Racial Studies.

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  • WattsSAThe International Law Commission 1949–1998 vol ii (Oxford University Press1999).

  • WeisPThe Concept of Refugee in International Law’ (1960) Journal du droit international.

  • WoutersCInternational Legal Standards for the Protection from Refoulement (Intersentia2009).

  • YoungJThe Alternate Refuge Concept: A Source of Systematic Disadvantage to Sexual Minority Refugee Claimants’ (2010) University of New Brunswick Law Journal.

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  • YourowHThe Margin of Appreciation Doctrine in the Dynamics of European Human Rights Jurisprudence (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers1996).

  • ZardMTowards a Comprehensive Approach to Protecting Refugees and the Internally Displaced’ in ABayefsky (ed) Human Rights and Refugees Internally Displaced Persons and Migrant Workers (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers2006).

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  • ZimmermannA and CMahlerArticle 1A, para. 2 1951 Convention’ in AZimmermann (ed) The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol: A Commentary (Oxford University Press 2011).

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  • Zimmermann and WennholzArticle 33 para. 2’ in AZimmermann (ed) The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol (Oxford University Press2011a).

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  • ZimmermannA and WennholzArticle 1F’ in AZimmermann (ed) The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 Protocol: A Commentary (Oxford University Press2011b).

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  • ZolbergAASuhrke and SAguayoEscape from Violence: Conflict and the Refugee Crisis in the Developing World (Oxford University Press1989).

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II. Reports, Conference Papers, and Blog Entries

  • accordResearching Country of Origin Information—A Training Manual (Austrian Red Cross2004).

  • aidaMind the Gap: An ngo Perspective on Challenges to Accessing Protection in the Common European Asylum System (Annual Report 2013/2014).

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  • aida Asylum Statistics 2017: Shifting Patterns Persisting Disparities.

  • BennettCRelocation Relocation: The Impact of Internal Relocation on Women Asylum Seekers (Asylum Aid2008).

  • BremsEStrong women don’t need asylum Strasbourg Observers blog entry 19 August2010.

  • BremsEWe need to look at international human rights law (also) as a whole ejil Talk blog entry 17 October 2014.

  • CitroniGThe Human Rights Committee and its Role in Interpreting the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights vis-à-vis States Parties ejil Talk blog entry August 28 2015.

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  • ClaytonGEven if….’: the use of the Internal Protection Alternative in asylum decisions in the UK (Asylum Aid2014).

  • CrawleyHet al.Thematic Review on the Coverage of Women in Country of Origin Information (coi) reports (Independent Advisory Group on Country Information2011).

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  • easoCountry of Origin Information Report: Nigeria Country Focus (2017).

  • ecre/elenaThe Application of the Concept of Internal Protection Alternative (2000).

  • ecre/elenaThe Impact of the EU Qualification Directive on International Protection (2008).

  • ecreecre Information Note on the Directive 2011/95/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 (2013).

  • ecreActors of Protection and the Application of the Internal Protection Alternative (2014).

  • EdwardsADisplacement Statelessness and Questions of Gender Equality and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (unhcr and UNcedaw joint background paper2009).

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  • GladwellC and HElwynBroken Futures: Young Afghan Asylum Seekers in the UK and on Return to their Country of Origin (unhcr New Issues in Refugee Research, Research Paper No 2462012).

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  • GuildEThe right to be heard in immigration and asylum cases: the cjeu moves towards a definition EU Law Analysis blog entry 16 January 2015.

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  • GyulaiGCountry Information in Asylum Procedures: Quality as a Legal Requirement in the EU (Hungarian Helsinki Committee2011).

  • HelpAge InternationalRebuilding Lives in Longer-term Emergencies: Older People’s Experience in Darfur (2006).

  • Human Rights Watch UK: Halt deportations of Tamils to Sri Lanka (Press Release February 24 2012).

  • Human Rights Watch Denmark: Eritrea immigration report deeply flawed (Press Release December 17 2014).

  • HumlenA and JMyhreAdvokatforeningens aksjons- og prosedyregruppe i utlendingsrett 2007–2014: Rapport fra virksomheten og forslag om regelendringer (Norwegian Bar Association2014).

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  • HuserCDisplacement: An Auto-Protection Strategy in Unity State (South Sudan Humanitarian Project2015).

  • Immigration and Refugee Board of CanadaChairperson Guidelines 4: Women Refugee Claimants Fearing Gender-Related Persecution (1996).

  • The Institute on Statelessness and InclusionThe World’s Stateless (2014).

  • International Centre for Migration Policy Development (icmpd)Comparative Study on Country of Origin Information Systems—Study on coi Systems in Ten European Countries and the Potential for Further Improvement of coi Cooperation (2006).

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  • International Law Commission Report of the International Law Commission (International Law Commission 57th Session 2005).

  • JansenS and TSpijkerboerFleeing Homophobia: Asylum Claims Related to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Europe (Joint research paper by coc Netherlands and VU University Amsterdam2011).

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  • KoskenniemiMFragmentation of International Law: Difficulties Arising from the Diversification and Expansion of International Law (International Law Commission 58th Session2006).

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  • McAdamJComplementary Protection and Beyond: How States Deal with Human Rights Protection (unhcr New Issues in Refugee Research Working Paper No 118 2005).

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  • McAdamJThe Refugee Convention as a Rights Blueprint for Persons in Need of International Protection (unhcr New Issues in Refugee Research Research Paper No 125 2006).

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  • noasRetur til hva? Norsk praksis overfor statsløse palestinske asylsøkere (2011).

  • noasAsyldebatten og sentrale asylpolitiske hendelser 1980–2013 (2013).

  • NolteGSecond Report on Subsequent Agreements and Subsequent Practice in Relation to the Interpretation of Treaties (International Law Commission 66th session 2014).

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  • Norwegian Refugee Council and The Liaison OfficeListening to Women and Girls Displaced to Urban Afghanistan (2015).

  • Norwegian Refugee Council and Tilburg UniversityStatelessness and Displacement: A Humanitarian Challenge (2015).

  • PhuongCForcible Displacement in Peace Agreements (International Council on Human Rights Policy2005).

  • Reed-HurtadoMThe Cartagena Declaration on Refugees and the Protection of People Fleeing Armed Conflict and Other Situations of Violence in Latin America (unhcr Legal and Protection Policy Research Series 2013).

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  • SchatvedtCThe Making of unhcr’s Guidance and its Implementation in the National Jurisdiction of the United Kingdom Norway and Sweden (Research report for the Norwegian Directorate of Immigration 2010).

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  • SchultzJThe Internal Flight Alternative in Norway: Law and Practice with Respect to Afghan Families and Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children (unhcr2017).

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  • SenP and LKelleyViolence Against Women in the UK: Shadow Thematic Report for the Committee on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (2007).

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  • SharpeMThe 1969 oau Refugee Convention and the Protection of People fleeing Armed Conflict and Other Situations of Violence in the Context of Individual Refugee Status Determination (unhcr Legal and Protection Policy Research Series2013).

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  • SitaropoulosNStates are bound to consider the UN Human Rights Committee’s views in good faith OxHRH blog entry 11 March2015.

  • Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction Quarterly Report to the US Congress April 30 2018.

  • SpijkerboerTEuropean Sexual Nationalism: Refugee Law After the Gender and Sexuality Critiques (plenary address at the Nordic Asylum Seminar in Uppsala Sweden May 7 2015).

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  • Vedsted-HansenJEurope’s Response to the Arrival of Asylum Seekers: Refugee Protection and Immigration Control (unhcr New Issues in Refugee Research No 61999).

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  • Women’s Refugee CommissionDisabilities Among Refugees and Conflict-Affected Populations (2008).

  • ZieckMTreaties as Boundaries of Policy: Revisiting the Policies That Informed the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (revised version of paper presented at the 12th Conference of the International Association for the Study of Forced Migration 2009).

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III. Preparatory Work and Related Documents

UN Resolution 8 (1) of 12 February 1946

  • 1946 Constitution of the International Refugee Organization 18 u.n.t.s. 3 Annex 1: Definitions (Entered into force 20 August 1948).

  • Report of the Commission on Human Rights on the Second Session (E/600); Report of the Working Party on an International Convention on Human Rights (E/CN.4/56 11 December 1947).

  • ecosoc Resolution 248 (ix) B of 8 August 1949.

  • ungaor 4th Sess. Third Committee Summary Records 110 (2 December 1949).

  • UN General Assembly Resolution 319 (iv) of 3 December 1949.

  • UN Doc. E/AC.7/SR.160 (1950).

  • UN Doc. E/AC.7/SR.172 (1950).

  • UN Doc. E/AC.32/SR. 2 (1950).

  • UN Doc. E/AC.32/SR.3 (1950).

  • UN Doc E/AC.32/SR.18 (1950).

  • Secretary-General UN Doc. A/1385.

  • UN General Assembly Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 14 December 1950 A/RES/428(V).

  • UN General Assembly Res. 429 (v) of December 1950.

  • UN Doc. A/CONF.2/SR.19 (1951).

  • UN Doc. A/CONF.2/SR.23 (1951).

  • UN Doc. A/CONF.2/SR.24 (1951).

  • UN Doc. A/CONF.2/102/Add.2 (1951).

  • UN General Assembly Final Act of the United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons 25 July 1951 part E. A/CONF.2/108/Rev.1 (1951).

  • unhcr Background Paper for the Colloquium on the development in the law of refugees with particular reference to the 1951 Convention and the Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees held at Villa Serbelloni Bellagio (Italy) from 21–28 April 1965.

  • unhcr Note to ExCom UN Doc. A/AC. 96/346 (1966).

  • unhcr UN Doc. A/AC.96/346 Annex I (1966).

  • UN General Assembly Res. 2198 (xxi) of 16 December 1966.

IV. unhcr Documents

  • unhcrHandbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (1979).

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  • unhcrunhcr’s Position on Manifestly Unfounded Applications for Asylum (1992).

  • unhcrState of the World’s Refugees (1993).

  • unhcrAn Overview of Protection Issues in Western Europe: Legislative Trends and Positions Taken by unhcr (European Series 1995a).

  • unhcrInformation Note on Article 1 of the 1951 Convention (1995b).

  • unhcrNote on Burden and Standard of Proof in Refugee Claims (1998).

  • unhcrPosition Paper on Relocating Internally as a Reasonable Alternative to Seeking Asylum (the So-Called ‘Internal Flight’ or ‘Internal Relocation Principle’) (1999).

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  • unhcrAsylum Applications in Industrialized Countries: 1980–1999 (2001a).

  • unhcrInterpreting Article 1 of the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (2001).

  • unhcrAsylum Applications in Industrialized Countries: 1980 – 1999 (2001b).

  • unhcrBackground Note on the Application of the Exclusion Clauses: Article 1F of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (2003a).

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  • unhcrGuidelines on International Protection: Gender-Related Persecution within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (2003b).

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  • unhcrGuidelines on International Protection: “Internal Flight or Relocation Alternative” within the Context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (2003c).

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  • unhcrGuidelines on International Protection: Application of the Exclusion Clauses: Article 1F of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (2003d).

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  • unhcrGuidelines on International Protection: Cessation of Refugee Status under Article 1C(5) and (6) of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (the “Ceased Circumstances” Clauses) (2003e).

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  • unhcrThe Possibility of Applying the Internal Flight or Relocation Alternative Within Serbia and Montenegro to Certain Persons Originating from Kosovo and Belonging to Ethnic Minorities There (2004).

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  • unhcrFlyktninger og innvandrere i Norge siden 1930-tallet i Norge (2005).

  • unhcrAsylum in the European Union: A Study of the Implementation of the Qualification Directive (2007a).

  • unhcrThe Protection of Internally Displaced Persons and the Role of unhcr (2007b).

  • unhcrGuidelines on International Protection: Child Asylum Claims under Articles 1A(2) and 1(F) of the 1951 Convention and/or 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (2009).

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  • unhcrComments on the European Commission’s proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection and the content of the protection granted (com (2009) 551 21 October 2009) (2010).

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  • unhcrSafe at Last? Law and Practice in Selected EU Member States With Respect to Asylum-Seekers Fleeing Indiscriminate Violence (2011).

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  • unhcrProtecting Refugees and the Role of unhcr (2012a).

  • unhcrThe Internal Flight Alternative Practices: A unhcr Research Study in Central European Countries (2012b).

  • unhcrEligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Members of Religious Minorities from Pakistan (2012c).

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  • unhcrInternational protection considerations with regard to people fleeing the Syrian Arab Republic Update iv (2014).

  • unhcrAmicus curiae submissions in case no. 2015/203 before the Supreme Court of Norway concerning the internal flight or relocation alternative of Kabul Afghanistan (2015).

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  • unhcrRelevant coi for Assessments on the Availability of an Internal Flight or Relocation Alternative (IFA/IRA) in Baghdad for Sunni Arabs from ISIS-Held Areas (2016).

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  • unhcrBackground Note on Gender Equality Nationality Laws and Statelessness (2017).

  • unhcrEligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Asylum-Seekers from Afghanistan (2018).

  • unhcr ExCom Conclusions.

  • No. 6 Non-Refoulement (1977).

  • No. 8 Determination of Refugee Status (1977).

  • No. 47 Refugee Children (1987).

  • No. 65 General (1991).

  • No. 69 Cessation of Status (1992).

  • No. 77 General (1995).

  • No. 79 General (1996).

  • No. 81 General (1997).

  • No. 87 General (1999).

  • No. 88 Conclusion on the Protection of the Refugee’s Family (1999).

  • No. 99 General (2004).

  • No. 103 Provision of International Protection Including Through Complementary Forms of Protection (2005).

  • No. 108 General (2008).

V. Other UN Documents

  • Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights General Comment No. 3 The nature of States Parties’ obligations (Art. 2 Para. 1 of the Covenant) (1991).

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child General guidelines regarding the form and content of initial reports to be submitted by States Parties under article 44 paragraph 1(a) of the Convention u.n. Doc. CRC/C/5 (1991).

  • Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women General Recommendation No. 19 Violence against women (1992).

  • Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights General Comment No. 15 The right to water arts. 11 and 12 of the International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (2002).

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child General Comment No. 5 General measures on implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (2003).

  • Human Rights Committee General Comment No. 31 Nature of the general legal obligation on States Parties to the Covenant (2004).

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child General Comment No. 6 Treatment of unaccompanied and separated children outside their country of origin (2005).

  • Human Rights Committee Concluding Observations: Norway 25 April 2006.

  • Committee on the Rights of the Child General Comment No. 14 On the right of the child to have his or her best interests taken as a primary consideration (art. 3 para. 1) (2013).

  • Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women General Recommendation No. 32 The gender-related dimensions of refugee status asylum nationality and statelessness of women (2014).

  • UN Doc. E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2 (1998) noted in Commission of Human Rights resolution 1998/50 (Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement).

  • UN General Assembly Resolution 54/167 of 17 December 1999 (Protection of and assistance to internally displaced persons).

  • UN General Assembly Resolution 70/1 of 21 October 2015 (The Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development).

  • UN Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights Principles on Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons 28 June 2005 (Pinheiro Principles).

  • UN Doc. A/60/L.1 of 15 September 2005 (World Summit Outcome Document).

  • UN General Assembly Resolution 63/187 of 17 March 2009 (Right to food).

  • UN Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief Interim Report 2009.

VI. Council of Europe/European Commission/European Parliament Documents

  • Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on the right of asylum sec (91) 1857 final 11 October 1991.

  • ‘Resolution on Manifestly Unfounded Applications for Asylum’ adopted by the Ministers of the Members States of the European Communities responsible for Immigration in London on 30 November—1 December 1992.

  • Joint Position of 4 March 1996 defined by the Council on the basis of Article K.3 of the Treaty on European Union on the harmonized application of the definition of the term ‘refugee’ in Article 1 of the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 relating to the status of refugees 96/196/JHA.

  • Council of the European Union Presidency Conclusions of the Tampere European Council 15–16 October 1999.

  • European Commission Proposal for a Council Directive on Minimum Standards on Procedures in Member States for Granting and Withdrawing Refugee Status com (2000) 578 final 20 Sept 2000.

  • Council of the European Union Directive 20 01/55/EC of 20 July 2001 on Minimum Standards for Giving Temporary Protection in the Event of a Mass Influx of Displaced Persons and on Measures Promoting a Balance of Efforts Between Member States in Receiving such Persons and Bearing the Consequences Thereof 7 August 2001.

  • European Commission Proposal for a Council Directive on Minimum Standards for the Qualification and Status of Third Country Nationals and Stateless Persons as Refugees or as Persons who Otherwise Need International Protection com (2001) 501 final 12 September 2001.

  • European Parliament Legislative resolution on the proposal for a Council directive on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals and stateless persons as refugees or as persons who otherwise need international protection 22 October 2002.

  • Council of the European Union Directive 2003/86/EC of 22 September 2003 on the right to family reunification.

  • Council of the European Union Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals or stateless persons as refugees or as persons who otherwise need international protection and the content of the protection granted (2004 EU Qualification Directive).

  • Council of the European Union Directive 2005/85/EC of 1 December 2005 on minimum standards on procedures in Member States for granting and withdrawing refugee status (2005 EU Procedures Directive).

  • Council of the European Union Directive 2008/115/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on common standards and procedures in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationals 16 December 2008 (2008 EU Returns Directive).

  • European Commission Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection and the content of the protection granted (recast) com (2009) 551 final/2 23 October 2009.

  • European Commission Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the Application of Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 COM/2010/0314 final (2010).

  • Council of the European Union Regulation (EU) No 439/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 establishing a European Asylum Support Office.

  • Council of the European Union Directive 2011/95/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2011 on standards for the qualification of third-country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection for a uniform status for refugees or for persons eligible for subsidiary protection and for the content of the protection granted (recast) 20 December 2011 (2011 EU Qualification Directive (recast)).

  • European Commission Final Amended proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on common procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection status (Recast) Explanatory Memorandum (2011).

  • Council of the European Union Directive 2013/32/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on common procedures for granting and withdrawing international protection (recast) (2013 EU Procedures Directive (recast)).

  • Council Decisions (EU) 2015/1523 of 14 September 2015 and 2015/1601 of 22 September 2015 establishing provisional measures in the area of international protection for the benefit of Italy and of Greece.

  • European Commission Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the European Union Agency for Asylum and repealing Regulation (EU) No 439/2010 com (2016) 271 final 4 May 2016.

  • European Commission Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on standards for the qualification of third-country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection for a uniform status for refugees or for persons eligible for subsidiary protection and for the content of the protection granted and amending Council Directive 2003/109/EC of 25 November 2003 concerning the status of third-country nationals who are long-term residents com(2016) 466 final 13 July 2016.

  • European Commission Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a common procedure for international protection in the Union and repealing Directive 2013/32/EU com (2016) 467 final 13 July 2016.

Case register

I. International Decisions

International Court of Justice

  • Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South West Africa) advisory opinion 21 June 1971.

  • Aegean Sea Continental Shelf Case (Greece v Turkey) judgment 19 December 1978.

  • Case concerning Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v United States of America) judgment 6 November 2003.

  • Ahmadou Sadio Diallo (Republic of Guinea v Democratic Republic of the Congo) judgment 30 November 2010.

UN Committee against Torture

  • X. v Spain Comm no 23/1995 cat decision 15 November 1995.

  • Alan v Switzerland Comm no 21/1995 cat decision 8 May 1996.

  • Tapia Paez v Sweden Comm No 39/1996 cat decision 28 April 1997.

  • Hayden v Sweden Comm no 101/1997 cat decision 16 December 1998.

  • Elmi v Australia Comm no 120/1998 cat decision 25 May 1999.

  • S.S. v Netherlands Comm no 191/2001 cat decision 19 May 2003.

  • B.S.S. v Canada Comm no 183/2001 cat decision 17 May 2004.

  • S.S.S. v Canada Comm no 245/2004 cat decision 5 December 2005.

  • Njamba v Sweden Comm no 322/2007 cat decision 3 June 2010.

  • M.K.M. v Australia Comm 681/2015 cat decision 10 May 2017.

UN Human Rights Committee

  • Kindler v Canada Comm No 470/1991 11 November 1993.

  • Mansour Ahani v Canada Comm No 1051/2002 29 March 2004.

  • Hamida v Canada Comm no 1544/2007 11 May 2010.

  • M.I. v Sweden Comm no 2149/2012 25 July 2013.

  • X. v Denmark Comm no 2389/2014 22 July 2015.

II. Regional Decisions

African Committee on Human and People’s Rights

  • Rights International v Nigeria Comm No 215/98 decision 15 November 1999.

  • Curtis Francis Doebbler v Sudan Comm no 236/00 decision 4 May 2003.

  • Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions v The Sudan Comm no 296/05 decision 25 May 2006.

African Court on Human and People’s Rights

Mtikila and Others v Tanzania App nos 009/2011 and 011/2011 judgment 14 June 2013.

Court of Justice of the European Union

  • French Republic v Commission of the European Communities Case 301/87 judgment 14 February 1990.

  • Elgafaji v Staatssecretaris van Justitie Case 465/07 judgment 17 February 2009 (Grand Chamber).

  • Chakroun v. Minister van Buitenlandse Zaken Case 578/08 judgment 4 March 2010.

  • Aydin Salahadin Abdulla Kamil Hasan Ahmed Adem Hamrin Mosa Rashi and Dier Jamal v Bundesrepublik Deutschland Joined Cases 175/08 176/08 178/08 and 179/08 judgment 2 March 2010 (Grand Chamber).

  • Bundesrepublik Deutschland v B and D Joined Cases 57/09 and 101/09 judgment 9 November 2010.

  • Karem El Kott and Others v Bevándorlási és Állampolgársági Hivatal Case 364/11 judgment 19 December 2012 (Grand Chamber).

  • Bundesrepublik Deutschland v Y & Z Joined Cases 71/11 and 99/11 judgment 5 September 2012 (Grand Chamber).

  • X Y and Z v Minister voor Immigratie en Asiel Joined Cases 199/12 200/12 and 201/12 judgment 7 November 2013.

  • Khaled Boudjlida v Préfet des Pyrénées-Atlantiques Case 249/13 judgment 11 December 2014.

European Commission of Human Rights

Van Volsem v Belgium App no 1464/89 decision 9 May 1990.

European Court of Human Rights

  • Case ‘Relating to Certain Aspects of the Laws on the Use of Languages in Education in Belgium’ v Belgium App nos 1474/62; 1677/62; 1691/62; 1769/63; 1994/63; 2126/64 judgment 23 July 1968 (Plenary).

  • Golder v the United Kingdom App no 4452/70 judgment 21 February 1975 (Plenary).

  • Case of Handyside v the United Kingdom App no 5493/72 judgment 7 December 1976.

  • Tyrer v the United Kingdom App no 5856/72 judgment 25 April 1978.

  • Marckx v Belgium App no 6833/74 judgment 13 June 1979.

  • Airey v Ireland App no 6289/73 judgment 9 October 1979.

  • Campbell and Fell v the United Kingdom App no 7878/77 judgment 28 June 1984.

  • Abdulaziz Cabales and Balkandali v the United Kingdom App nos 9214/80 9473/81 and 9474/81 judgment 28 May 1985.

  • Mathieu-Mohin and Clerfayt v Belgium App No 9267/81 judgment 2 March 1987.

  • Case of Olsson v Sweden App no 10465/83 judgment 24 March 1988.

  • Müller and Others v Switzerland App no 10737/84 judgment 24 May 1988.

  • Soering v the United Kingdom App no 14038/88 judgment 7 July 1989.

  • Crus Varas and Others v Sweden App no 15576/89 judgment 20 March 1991.

  • Vilvarajah and Others v the United Kingdom App nos 13163/87 13164/87 13165/87 13447/87 and 13448/87 judgment 20 October 1991.

  • Chahal v the United Kingdom App no 70/1995/576/662 judgment 11 November 1996 (Grand Chamber).

  • Ahmed v Austria App no 25964/94 judgment 17 December 1996.

  • Loizidou v Turkey App no 15318/89 judgment 18 December 1996.

  • D. v the United Kingdom App nos 146/1996/767/964 judgment 2 May 1997.

  • Osman v the United Kingdom App nos 87/1997/871/1083 judgment 28 October 1998 (Grand Chamber).

  • Ould Barar v Sweden App no 42367/98 admissibility decision 19 January 1999.

  • Abdurrahim Incendursun v the Netherlands App no 33124/96 judgment 22 June 1999 (Grand Chamber).

  • Mazurek v France App no 34406/97 judgment 1 February 2000.

  • S.C.C.v Sweden App no 46553/99 admissibility decision 15 February 2000.

  • T.I. v the United Kingdom App no 43844/98 admissibility decision 7 March 2000.

  • Jabari v Turkey App no 40035/98 judgment 11 July 2000.

  • Maaouia v France App no 39652/98 judgment 5 October 2000 (Grand Chamber).

  • Bensaid v the United Kingdom App no 44599/98 judgment 6 February 2001.

  • Hilal v the United Kingdom App no 45276/99 judgment 6 March 2001.

  • Al-Adsani v the United Kingdom App no 35763/97 judgment 21 November 2001.

  • Case of Fogarty v the United Kingdom App no 37112/97 judgment 21 November 2001 (Grand Chamber).

  • S.R. v Sweden App no 62806/00 admissibility decision 23 April 2002.

  • Pretty v the United Kingdom App no 2346/02 judgment 29 July 2002.

  • Henao v the Netherlands App no 13669/03 judgment 24 June 2003.

  • Tomic v the United Kingdom App no 17837/03 admissibility decision 14 October 2003.

  • Thampibillai v the Netherlands App no 61350/00 judgment 17 February 2004.

  • Venkadajalasarma v the Netherlands App no 58510/00 judgment 17 February 2004.

  • Hida v Denmark App no 38025/02 admissibility decision 19 February 2004.

  • Sadena Muratovic v Denmark App no 14513/03 admissibility decision 19 February 2004.

  • Aslan and Atifa Muratovic v Denmark App no 14923/03 admissibility decision 19 February 2004.

  • Ndangoya v Sweden App no 17868/03 admissibility decision 22 June 2004.

  • Mamatkulov and Askarov v Turkey App nos 46827/99 and 46951/99 judgment 4 Feb 2005 (Grand Chamber).

  • Müslim v Turkey App no 53566/99 judgment 26 April 2005.

  • Moldovan and Others v Romania (no. 2) App nos 41138/98 and 64320/01 judgment 12 July 2005.

  • Hirst v the United Kingdom App no 74025/01 judgment 6 October 2005 (Grand Chamber).

  • Bader and Kanbor v Sweden App no 13284/04 judgment 8 November 2005.

  • Ramzy v the Netherlands App no 25424/05 admissibility decision 22 November 2005.

  • Gomes v Sweden App no 34566/04 admissibility decision 7 February 2006.

  • Z. and T. v the United Kingdom App no 27034/05 admissibility decision 28 February 2006.

  • Üner v the Netherlands App no 46410/99 judgment 18 October 2006 (Grand Chamber).

  • Chahal v the United Kingdom App no 70/1995/576/662 judgment 15 November 2006.

  • Salah Sheekh v the Netherlands App no 1984/04 judgment 11 January 2007.

  • Mubilanzila Mayeka and Kaniki Mitunga v Belgium App no 13178/03 judgment 12 January 2007.

  • Mohammed Ali Hassan Al-Moayad v Germany App no 35865/03 admissibility decision 20 February 2007.

  • Collins and Akaziebie v Sweden App no 23944/05 admissibility decision 8 March 2007.

  • H.L.R. v France App no 24573/94 judgment 22 April 2007 (Grand Chamber).

  • Case of Gebremedhin v France App no 25389/05 judgment 26 April 2007.

  • Saadi v the United Kingdom App no 13229/03 judgment 29 January 2008 (Grand Chamber).

  • Budina v Russia App no 45603/05 admissibility decision 12 February 2008.

  • Saadi v Italy App no 37201/06 judgment 28 February 2008 (Grand Chamber).

  • N. v the United Kingdom App no 26565/05 judgment 27 May 2008 (Grand Chamber).

  • Maslov v Austria App no 1638/03 judgment 23 June 2008 (Grand Chamber).

  • N.A. v the United Kingdom App no 25904/07 judgment 17 July 2008.

  • Denis Vasilyev v Russia App no 32704/04 judgment 17 December 2009.

  • Neulinger and Shuruk v Switzerland App no 41615/07 judgment 6 July 2010 (Grand Chamber).

  • N. v Sweden App no 23505/09 judgment 20 October 2010.

  • M.S.S. v Greece and Belgium App no 30696/09 judgment 21 January 2011 (Grand Chamber).

  • Esmukhambetov and Others v Russia Application no 23445/03 judgment 29 March 2011.

  • Izevbekhai v Ireland App no 43408/08 admissibility decision 17 May 2011.

  • Hilal v the United Kingdom App no 45276/99 judgment 6 June 2011.

  • Sufi and Elmi v the United Kingdom App nos 8319/07 and 11449/07 judgment 28 June 2011 (Grand Chamber).

  • A.A. v the United Kingdom App no 8000/08 judgment 20 September 2011.

  • Omeredo v Austria App no 8969/10 admissibility decision 20 September 2011.

  • Auad v Bulgaria App no 46390/10 judgment 11 October 2011.

  • McElhinney v Ireland App no 31253/96 judgment 21 November 2011 (Grand Chamber).

  • Othman (Abu Qatada) v the United Kingdom App no 8139/09 judgment 17 January 2012 (Grand Chamber).

  • Popov v France App nos 39472/07 and 39474/07 judgment 19 January 2012.

  • Al Hamdani v Bosnia and Herzegovina App no 31098/10 judgment 7 February 2012.

  • Hirsi Jamaa v Italy App no 27765/09 judgment 23 February 2012 (Grand Chamber).

  • Husseini v Sweden App no 10611/09 judgment 8 March 2012.

  • Damayev v Russia App no 36150/04 judgment 29 May 2012.

  • Kuric and Others v Slovenia App no 26828/06 judgment 26 June 2012 (Grand Chamber).

  • A.A. and Others v Sweden App no 14499/09 judgment 28 June 2012.

  • Butt v Norway App no 47017/09 judgment 4 December 2012.

  • S.H.H. v the United Kingdom App no 60367/10 judgment 29 January 2013.

  • H. and B. v the United Kingdom App nos 70073/10 and 44539/11 judgment 9 April 2013.

  • D.N.M. v Sweden App no 28379/11 judgment 27 June 2013.

  • N.A.N.S. v Sweden App no 68411/10 judgment 27 June 2013.

  • M.Y.H. and Others v Sweden App no 50859/10 judgment 27 June 2013.

  • Jones and Others v the United Kingdom App nos 34356/06 and 40528/06 judgment 14 January 2014.

  • R.M.T. v the United Kingdom App no 31045/10 judgment 8 April 2014 (Grand Chamber).

  • M.E. v Sweden App no 71398/12 judgment 26 June 2014.

  • Al Nashiri v Poland App no 28761/11 judgment 24 July 2014.

  • Husayn (Abu Zubaydah) v Poland App no 7511/13 judgment 24 July 2014.

  • Hassan v the United Kingdom App no 29750/09 judgment 16 September 2014 (Grand Chamber).

  • Jeunesse v Netherlands App no 12738/10 judgment 3 October 2014 (Grand Chamber).

  • Tarakhel v Switzerland App no 29217/12 judgment 4 November 2014 (Grand Chamber).

  • M.T. v Sweden App no 1412/12 judgment 26 February 2015.

  • Chiragov and Others v Armenia App no 13216/05 judgment 16 June 2015 (Grand Chamber).

  • Sargsyan v Azerbaijan App no 40167/06 judgment 16 June 2015 (Grand Chamber).

  • V.M. and Others v Belgium App no 60125/1 judgment 7 July 2015.

  • R.H. v Sweden App no 4601/14 judgment 10 September 2015.

  • L.M. and Others v Russia App nos 40081/14 40088/14 40127/14 judgment 15 October 2015.

  • F.G. v Sweden App no 3611/11 judgment 23 March 2016 (Grand Chamber).

  • Paposhvili v Belgium App no 41738/10 judgment 13 December 2016 (Grand Chamber).

Inter-American Court of Human Rights

  • In the matter of Viviana Gallardo et al G 101/81 advisory opinion 13 November 1981.

  • Velásquez Rodriguez v Honduras judgment 29 July 1988.

  • Mayagna (Sumo) Awas Tingni Community v Nicaragua judgment 31 August 2001.

  • Mapiripán Massacre v Colombia C/134 judgment 15 September 2005.

  • Moiwana Village v Suriname C/145 judgment 15 June 2005.

  • Ituango Massacres v Colombia C/148 judgment 1 July 2006.

  • Case of Claude-Reyes et al v Chile C/151 judgment 19 September 2006.

  • Xákmok Kásek Indigenous Community v Paraguay judgment 24 August 2010.

  • Fontovecchia y D’Amico v Argentina judgment 29 November 2011.

  • Pacheco Tineo Family v Bolivia C/272 judgment 25 November 2013.

III. National Cases

Australia

  • BP Refinery (Westernport) Pty Ltd v Hastings Shire Council [1977] 180 clr 266 (High Court of Australia).

  • Chan v Minister of Immigration and Ethnic Affairs [1989] hca 62 (High Court of Australia).

  • Randhawa v The Minister for Immigration Local Government and Ethnic Affairs [1994] 52 fcr 437 (Federal Court of Australia).

  • Applicant A v Minister for Immigration and Ethnic Affairs [1997] hca 4 (High Court of Australia).

  • Ye Hong v Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs [1998] fca 1356 (Federal Court of Australia).

  • Abdi v Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs [1999] fca 1253 (Federal Court of Australia).

  • Al-Amidi v Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs [2000] fca 1081 (Federal Court of Australia).

  • Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs v Khawar [2002] hca 14 (High Court of Australia).

  • Appellant S395/2002 v Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs [2003] hca 71 (High Court of Australia).

  • Respondents S152-2003 v Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs [2004] hca 18 (High Court of Australia).

  • M93 of 2004 v Minister for Immigration & Anor [2006] fmca 252 (Federal Magistrates Court of Australia).

  • SZATV v Minister for Immigration and Citizenship [2007] hca 40 (High Court of Australia).

  • Minister for Immigration and Border Protection v szsca [2014] hca 45 (High Court of Australia).

Belgium

X v Office of the Commissioner General for Refugees and Stateless Persons [2008] No 7398 (Council for Alien Law Litigation).

Canada

  • Rasaratnam v Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration) [1992] 1 FC 706 (Federal Court of Canada).

  • Canada (Attorney-General) v Ward [1993] 2 scr 689 (Supreme Court of Canada).

  • Thirunavukkarasu v Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration) [1994] 1 FC 589 (Federal Court of Canada).

  • Chan v Canada (Minister of Employment and Immigration) [1995] 3 scr 593 (Supreme Court of Canada).

  • Ramanathan v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) [1998] IMM-5091-97 (Federal Court of Canada).

  • Jiminez v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) [1999] IMM-1718-98 (Federal Court of Canada).

  • Elmi v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) [1999] IMM-580-98 (Federal Court of Canada).

  • Ranganathan v Canada (Minister of Citizenship and Immigration) [2001] 2 FC 164 (Federal Court of Canada).

  • Gutierrez v Canada [2005] rpdd no 179 (Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board).

  • Okoli v Canada (Minister of Citizenship & Immigration) [2009] FC 332 (Federal Court of Canada).

  • Loyola High School v Quebec (Attorney General) [2015] scr 613 (Supreme Court of Canada).

The Czech Republic

5 Azs 40/2009 [2009] (Supreme Administrative Court of the Czech Republic).

France

  • Decision no 2003 485 DC [2003] (Constitutional Council of France).

  • Mr B no 446177 [2004] (French Refugee Appeals Board Plenary Session).

  • NIG19FRSFGM [2008] (French National Asylum Court).

  • Mlle N no 574495 [2008] (French National Asylum Court).

  • Mlle F no 332491A [2012] (French Council of State).

Germany

  • BVerfG 2 BvR 502/86 2 BvR 1000/86 2 BvR 961/86 [1989] 80 BVerfGE 315 (German Federal Constitutional Court).

  • BVerfG 2 BvR 403/84 2 BvR 1501/84 [1989] (German Federal Constitutional Court).

  • BVerwG 9 C 31/92 [1993] (German Federal Administrative Court).

  • BVerwG C 45/92 [1993] (German Federal Administrative Court).

  • BVerwG C 424/93 [1994] (German Federal Administrative Court).

  • BVerwG 10 C 11/07 [2008] (German Federal Administrative Court).

  • BVerwG 10 C 50/07 [2009] (German Federal Administrative Court).

  • BVerfG 2BvR 2661/06 [2010] (German Federal Constitutional Court).

  • BVerwG 10 C 23/12 [2013] (German Federal Administrative Court).

Hungary

KF v Bevándorlási és Állampolgársági Hivital (Office of Immigration and Nationality) 6.K.31.728/2011/14 [2011] (Metropolitan Court of Budapest).

Italy

GHA01MRE [2012] (Italian Supreme Court).

The Netherlands

  • District Court of Almelo decision of 11 May 1977 Rechtspraak Vreemdelingenrecht (RV) 1977 N 21 (District Court of Almelo).

  • Council of State decision of 18 August 1978 (Turkish Christians) Rechtspraak Vreemdelingenrecht (RV) 1998 N 30 (Dutch Council of State).

  • Council State decision of 21 June 1979 (Turkish Christians ii) Rechtspraak Vreemdelingenrecht (RV) 1979 N 8 (Dutch Council of State).

  • Council of State decision of 24 February 1988 Rechtspraak Vreemdelingenrecht (RV) 1988 N 4 (Dutch Council of State).

  • Case no 06/51632 [2007] (Den Bosch Regional Court).

  • Case no 200708107/1 [2008] (Dutch Council of State).

New Zealand

  • Refugee Appeal No 135/92 [1993] (New Zealand Refugee Status Appeals Authority).

  • Refugee Appeal No 523/92 [1995] (New Zealand Refugee Status Appeals Authority).

  • Butler v Attorney General and the Refugee Status Appeals Authority [1997] CA 181/97 (New Zealand Court of Appeals).

  • Refugee Appeal No 71684/99 [1999] (New Zealand Refugee Status Appeals Authority).

  • Refugee Appeal No 71729/99 [2000] (New Zealand Refugee Status Appeals Authority).

  • Refugee Appeal No 71684/99 [2000] (New Zealand Refugee Status Appeals Authority).

  • Refugee Appeal No 71427/99 [2000] (New Zealand Refugee Status Appeals Authority).

  • Refugee Appeal No 74665/03 [2003] (New Zealand Refugee Status Appeals Authority).

  • Refugee Appeal No 74665/03 [2005] (New Zealand Refugee Status Appeals Authority).

  • Refugee Appeal No 76044 [2008] (New Zealand Refugee Status Appeals Authority).

  • BG (Fiji) [2012] nzipt 800091 (New Zealand Immigration and Protection Tribunal).

Norway

  • N7160183048 [2006] (Norwegian Immigration Appeals Board Grand Board).

  • N7332221886 [2007] (Norwegian Immigration Appeals Board Grand Board).

  • N4327852063 [2007] (Norwegian Immigration Appeals Board Grand Board).

  • Rt-2007-1815 [2007] (Norwegian Supreme Court).

  • Rt-2009-1261 [2009] (Norwegian Supreme Court).

  • N1042301014 [2010] (Norwegian Immigration Appeals Board Grand Board).

  • N103563328 [2010] (Norwegian Immigration Appeals Board Grand Board).

  • N1042301014 [2010] (Norwegian Immigration Appeals Board Grand Board).

  • LB-2010-142363 [2010] (Borgarting Court of Appeal).

  • LB-2011-64941 [2011] (Borgarting Court of Appeal).

  • LB-2010-142363 [2011] (Borgarting Court of Appeal).

  • LB-2011-64941 [2011] (Borgarting Court of Appeal).

  • N119464107 [2011] (Norwegian Immigration Appeals Board Grand Board).

  • LB-2010-142363 [2011] (Borgarting Court of Appeal).

  • TOSLO-2011-101383 [2011] (Oslo District Court).

  • Rt-2011-1481 [2011] (Norwegian Supreme Court).

  • LB-2011-64941 [2011] (Borgarting Court of Appeal).

  • LB-2010-142363 [2011] (Borgarting Court of Appeal).

  • HR-2012-00248-A [2012] (Norwegian Supreme Court).

  • Rt-2012-1985 [2012] (Norwegian Supreme Court).

  • HR-2012-667-A [2012] (Norwegian Supreme Court).

  • N1211741227 [2012] (Norwegian Immigration Appeals Board Grand Board).

  • LB-2011-187642 [2012] (Borgarting Court of Appeal).

  • Rt-2012-139 [2012] (Norwegian Supreme Court).

  • Rt-2012-667 [2012] (Norwegian Supreme Court).

  • LB-2011-187542 [2012] (Borgarting Court of Appeal).

  • LB-2013-27253 [2013] (Borgarting Court of Appeal).

  • LB-2013-65555—LB-2013-65577 [2013] (Borgarting Court of Appeal).

  • TOSLO-2013-2446 [2013] (Oslo District Court).

  • TOSLO-2013-27400 [2013] (Oslo District Court).

  • LB-2013-178313 [2014] (Borgarting Court of Appeal).

  • LB-2013-192933 [2014] (Borgarting Court of Appeal).

  • 13-192933ASD-BORG/03 [2014] (Borgarting Court of Appeal).

  • N15723571 [2015] (Norwegian Immigration Appeals Board Grand Board).

  • HR-2015-02524-P [2015] (Norwegian Supreme Court Plenary judgment).

  • HR-2016-01051-A [2016] (Norwegian Supreme Court).

Poland

RdU-326-1/S/2015 [2015] (Refugee Board of Poland).

Sweden

  • mig 2007:33 [2007] (Swedish Migration Court of Appeal.

  • UM 1042-08 [2008] (Swedish Migration Court of Appeal).

  • mig 2009:4 [2009] (Swedish Migration Court of Appeal).

  • UM 6397-09 [2010] (Swedish Migration Court of Appeal).

Spain

DRC65MNSNO [2012] (Inter-Ministerial Eligibility Commission of Spain).

Switzerland

  • X v Swiss Federal Office for Migration [2011] D-4935/2007 (Swiss Federal Administrative Court).

  • A v State Secretariat for Migration [2017] D-5800/2016 (Swiss Federal Administrative Court).

United Kingdom

  • R v Immigration Appeal Tribunal (iat) ex parte Jonah [1985] Imm AR 7 (High Court of Justice England and Wales).

  • R v Secretary of State for the Home Department ex parte Sivakumaran [1988] ukhl 1 (UK House of Lords).

  • R v Immigration Appeal Tribunal ex parte Sui Rong Suen [1997] Imm AR 355 (High Court of Justice England and Wales).

  • R v Secretary of State for the Home Department ex parte Robinson [1998] QB 929 (Court of Appeal of England and Wales).

  • R v Immigration Appeal Tribunal ex parte Shah [1999] ukhl 20 (UK House of Lords).

  • R v Secretary of State for the Home Department ex parte Adan; R v Secretary of State for the Home Department ex parte Aitseguer [2000] ukhl 67 (UK House of Lords).

  • Horvath v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2000] ukhl 37 (UK House of Lords).

  • R (on the application of Yogathas) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2002] ukhl 36 (UK House of Lords).

  • Sepet v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2003] ukhl 15 (UK House of Lords).

  • Regina v Special Adjudicator (Respondent) ex parte Hoxha (FC) [2005] ukhl 19 (UK House of Lords).

  • Safet Pajaziti v the Secretary of State for the Home Department [2005] ewca 518 (Court of Appeal of England and Wales).

  • R (Hoxha) v Special Adjudicator [2005] ukhl 19 (UK House of Lords).

  • Dyli DM (Majority Clan Entities Can Protect) Somalia v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2005] ukait 00150 (UK Asylum and Immigration Tribunal).

  • Januzi v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2006] ukhl 5 (UK House of Lords).

  • HGMO (Relocation to Khartoum) SudanCG [2006] ukait 00062 (UK Asylum and Immigration Tribunal).

  • Secretary of State for the Home Department v AH (Sudan) and Others [2007] ukhl 49 (UK House of Lords).

  • R v Asfaw [2008] ukhl 31 (UK House of Lords).

  • MJ and ZM (Ahmadis—risk) Pakistan v Secretary of State of the Home DepartmentCG [2008] ukait 00033 (UK Asylum and Immigration Tribunal).

  • FB (Lone Women—psg—Internal Relocation—AA (Uganda) Considered) Sierra Leone v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2008] ukait 00090 (UK Asylum and Immigration Tribunal).

  • AA (Uganda) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2008] ewca Civ 579 (Court of Appeal of England and Wales).

  • HC & RC (Trafficked women) China v Secretary of State of the Home DepartmentCG [2009] ukait 00027 (UK Asylum and Immigration Tribunal).

  • Mediterranean Salvage v Seamar Trading [2009] ewca Civ 531 (Court of Appeals of England and Wales).

  • HJ (Iran) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2010] uksc 31 (UK Supreme Court).

  • HJ (Iran) and HT (Cameroon) v S Secretary of State for the Home Department [2010] uksc 31 (UK Supreme Court).

  • FH (Post-flight Spouses) Iran v Entry Clearance OfficerTehran [2010] ukut 275 (UK Upper Tribunal).

  • AMM and Others (Somalia) v the Secretary of State for the Home DepartmentCG [2011] ukut 0045 (UK Upper Tribunal).

  • HF (Iraq) & Ors v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2013] ewca Civ 1276 (Court of Appeal of England and Wales).

  • Kennedy v the Charity Commission [2014] uksc 20 (UK Supreme Court).

  • R v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions [2005] uksc 16 (UK Supreme Court).

  • Pham (Appellant) v Secretary of State for the Home Department (Respondent) [2015] uksc 19 (UK Supreme Court).

  • TG and Others (Afghan Sikhs persecuted) AfghanistanCG [2015] ukut 00595 (UK Upper Tribunal).

United States

  • Matter of Acosta 19 I & N Dec 211 [1985] Interim Decision 2986 (US Board of Immigration Appeals).

  • Adela Hernandez-Ortiz v Immigration and Naturalization Service [1985] 777 F.2d 509 (US Court of Appeals Ninth Circuit).

  • Immigration and Naturalization Service v Cardoza-Fonseca [1987] 480 u.s. 421 (US Supreme Court).

  • Matter of R—20 I&N Dec 621 [1992] Interim Decision 3195 (US Board of Immigration Appeals).

  • Sale v Haitian Centers Council [1993] 105 u.s. 155 (US Supreme Court).

  • In re C-A-L- Respondent [1997] Interim Decision 3305 (US Board of Immigration Appeals).

  • Mazariegos v Immigration and Naturalization Service [2001] 241 F.3d 1320 (US Court of Appeals Eleventh Circuit).

  • Jaswant Lal Shakuntal Lal and Rikesh Lal v Immigration and Naturalization Service [2001] 255 F. 3d 998 (US Court of Appeals Ninth Circuit).

  • Mohamed v Ashcroft 396 F.3d 999 [2005] (US Court of Appeals Eighth Circuit).

  • Karouni v Gonzales [2005] 399 F.3d 1163 (US Court of Appeals Ninth Circuit).

  • Matter of D-I-M 24 I&N Dec. 448 [2008] Interim Decision 3599 (US Board of Immigration Appeals).

  • Shi Chen v Holder [2010] 604 F.3d 324 (US Court of Appeals Seventh Circuit).

  • Matter of M-Z-M-R 26 I&N Dec 28 [2012] Interim Decision 3769 (US Board of Immigration Appeals).