Bibliography

Aboluo 阿波罗新闻网. “The Baihe Church in Shanxi Was Persecuted” 山西白河家庭教会遭冲击 . March 242011. http://hk.aboluowang.com/2011/0324/199494.html (accessed July 25 2016).

  • Export Citation

AcharyaA.R. Gunaratna and P. Wang. Ethnic Identity and National Conflict in China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan2010.

Aidujing 爱读经. “Map of Confucian Schools” 读经地图. 2015. http://www.aidujing.com/map/ (accessed August 9 2016).

  • Export Citation

AikmanD. Jesus in Beijing: How Christianity Is Transforming China and Changing the Global Balance of Power. Washington, DC: Regnery Publishing2003.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Al-SudairiM. “Chinese Salafism and the Saudi Connection.” The DiplomatOctober 232014. http://thediplomat.com/2014/10/chinese-salafism-and-the-saudi-connection (accessed October 23 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Amnesty International. People’s Republic of China: The Crackdown on Falun Gong and Other So-Called “Heretical Organizations.” New York: Amnesty International USA2000.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

AndersonA. and E. Tang. Asian and Pentecostal: The Charismatic Face of Christianity in Asia. Baguio City, Philippines: Regnum2005.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Arcworld. “Daoist Monks and Nuns to Manage Sacred Mountains.” Alliance of Religions and Conservation Projects. July 2006. http://www.arcworld.org/projects.asp?projectID=257 (accessed November 29 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

ArmijoJ. “Islamic Education in China.” Harvard Asia Quarterly 10no. 1 (2006): 1525.

AshiwaY. “Positioning Religion in Modernity: State and Buddhism in China.” In Making Religion Making the State: The Politics of Religion in Modern China edited by Y. Ashiwa and D. L. Wank4373. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press2009.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

AshiwaY. and D. L. Wank. “The Politics of a Reviving Buddhist Temple: State, Association, and Religion in Southeast China.” The Journal of Asian Studies 65no. 2 (2006): 337359.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

AsiaNews. “Henan Court Sentences One of China’s Most Prominent Christian Leaders to Seven Years in Prison.” AsiaNewsJuly 12 2006. http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Henan-court-sentences-one-of-China’s-most-prominent-Christian-leaders-to-seven-years-in-prison-6677.html (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

BachE. and B. Zhu. The Underground Church. New Kensington, PA: Whitaker House2014.

Baidu Baike 百度百科. “Cold Water Sect” 冷水教. http://baike.baidu.com/link?url=Qbg0LANo6IkPYN65KkKr SUB7HpUJMLFNPac8WhX0PDY26IaMW2Ix9HccMEUY ohFBA1AG8HbS9voYj99wPE_mRuP1I6YQznD58FIP_Hj0 QfoijtSZa2iTHymyL1-u_oFZ (accessed February 13 2017).

  • Export Citation

Baidu Baike. “Established King” 被立王. http://baike.baidu.com/link?url=uaTEs5Ddf2a7nC_FAH5bPHGTH 0e42ds3aWKeAbv51a4OmU8qv8WbmlEmOci66nvjEeF9YN_k4rxMeilqKAyEYTCSZx1ixZYgWbSt9jKykQma7yqEUYavwk3jOCuzWQfD (accessed February 13 2017).

  • Export Citation

Baidu Baike. “Lingling Sect” 灵灵派. http://baike.baidu.com/link?url=uv3qwgbFmPpFTOI8neqsmgh_zo75t5aATvPDLbuOIcvOZ929FMK02lQcQD5_2Q6hjLsCJsZCWheQBNmclcBBHivUgMFVaxGFlAFLMZg4HYIxHXjkwsshNNGWi57mEYyKfslaTNTxnbClMVc78i0q6pA5wd4oqFK0jqCY2y645GO3MVztQhylYAFIegZcXxVr (accessed February 13 2017).

  • Export Citation

Baidu Baike. “Lord God Sect” 主神教. http://baike.baidu.com/link?url=hME_Zv4GKzkUb_WFBgLh3gi3lQ7ePZW7kqDRBbCXDR-jZ07OAMUT6pHJLEqVWRqu2IFsgUDS6GmHZzUswXJp_G1PYQlstI3BZk2sN9IVJl8bCQblhplu_o_4LCGKFZKj (accessed February 13 2017).

  • Export Citation

Baidu Baike. “Shanghai Women’s Mosque” 上海清真女寺. http://baike.baidu.com/view/11578599.htm (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Export Citation

Baidu Baike. “World Elijah Association” 世界以利亚福音宣教会. http://baike.baidu.com/link?url=H5lg2SbrQ_iUbLx-hEpmtPLXaiJBWTSMv29NIe4qKK5MJ_uSzxppI_0x84ca3HxHbgl8DCpdiicQzifBF6CKx5kH3JWDdQ8_hYjoCDr1k9PbZP8s_fpy_rUeKICw2pVGUfXM6rTWO7mxhk-6i0wJbkPIQo8Jc9XW3beXJQtNX9kduqPByo05ZbzOEfSvWnMizqcPxA61LBG3PeiMPQoFBK (accessed February 13 2017).

  • Export Citation

BardsleyD. “Yiwu Is the ‘Fastest Growing Muslim Community’ in China.” The NationalAugust 122012. http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/asia-pacific/yiwu-is-the-fastest-growing-muslim-community-in-china (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

BarméG. Shades of Mao: The Posthumous Cult of the Great Leader. New York: Routledge1996.

BarnettR. and S. Akiner. Resistance and Reform in Tibet. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass1996.

BaysD. H. “Chinese Protestant Christianity Today.” The China Quarterly 174 (2003): 488504.

BaysD. H. A New History of Christianity in China. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell2011.

BBC. “China Pastor Gu Yuese Investigated for Corruption.” BBC NewsFebruary 12016. http://www.bbc.com/news/worldasia-china-35457150 (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

BBC. “Xinjiang Arrests ‘Now over 1,500.’” BBC NewsAugust 32009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/8181563.stm (accessed September 4 2009).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

BBC Chinese (BBC 中文台). “The Debate between a Halal Restaurant and Islamophobia” 清真食堂争议与穆斯林恐惧. BBC ChineseMay 272016. http://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/simp/china/2016/05/160527_chinese_muslim_muslim_pho bia (accessed August 25 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

BeamC. “The Rise and Fall of Shaolin’s CEO Monk.” Bloomberg BusinessweekDecember 282015. https://www.bloomberg .com/news/features/2015-12-28/the-rise-and-fall-of-shaolin-s-ceo-monk (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

BeechH. “Expansion of Christian Church in the Birthplace of Confucius Creates Controversy in China.” TimeJanuary 282016. http://time.com/4197803/christian-church-qufu-confu cius/ (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Beijing Baiyunguan Weibo 北京白云观微博. “Protect Our Homeland” 保卫家园. July 122016. http://weibo.com/2602402741/DEqm9motb?from=page_1001062602402741_profile&wvr=6&mod=weibotime&retcode=6102&type=comment#_rnd1495153540186 (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

Benedict XVI. “Letter of the Holy Father, Pope Benedict XVI, to the Bishops, Priests, Consecrated Persons, and Lay Faithful of the Catholic Church in the People’s Republic of China.” May 272007. http://w2.vatican.va/content/benedict-xvi/en/letters/2007/documents/hf_ben-xvi_let_20070527_china.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

BickersR. and I. Jackson. Treaty Ports in Modern China: Law Land and Power. London: Routledge2016.

BillioudS. and J. Thoraval. The Sage and the People: The Confucian Revival in China. New York: Oxford University Press2015.

BirnbaumR. “Two Turns in the Life of Master Hongyi, A Buddhist Monk in Twentieth-Century China.” In Making Saints in Modern China edited by D. OwnbyZ. Ji and V. Goossaert161208. New York: Oxford University Press2017.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

BlanchardB. “Almost 100 Killed During Attacks in China’s Xinjiang Last Week.” ReutersAugust 22014. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-attacks-xinjiang-idUSKBN0G301H20140803 (accessed November 16 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

BlanchardC. M. “The Islamic Traditions of Wahhabism and Salafiyya.” Congressional Research Service CRS Report for CongressJanuary 242008. https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RS21695.pdf (accessed March 8 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

BokenkampS. R. “Daoism: An Overview.” In Encyclopedia of Religion2nd ed. edited by L. Jones4:21762192. Detroit: Macmillan Reference2005.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

BranchV. G. “Remembering Mao Zedong’s Statues.” The World of ChineseSeptember 222015. http://www.theworldofchinese.com/2015/09/remembering-mao-zedongs-statues/ (accessed December 12 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

BraunE. “China Virtual Jewish History Tour.” Jewish Virtual Library. https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/chinajews.html (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Buddhist Academy of China 中国佛学院. “Education and Teaching” 教育理念. January 172012. http://www.zgfxy.cn/jyjx/2012/01/17/222322523.html (accessed July 27 2016).

  • Export Citation

Buddhist Association of China 中国佛教协会. “A Brief Introduction to the Buddhist Association of China” 中国佛教协会简介. http://www.chinabuddhism.com.cn/js/jj/2012-04-20/869.html (accessed July 27 2016).

  • Export Citation

Buddhist Association of China. “The Journals of the Buddhist Association of China” 本会期刊. http://www.chinabud dhism.com.cn/qk/ (accessed July 27 2016).

  • Export Citation

CaballeroL. “Chinese House Church Members Face Trial for Spying and Illegal Business Charges.” Christian DailyOctober 212016. http://christiandaily.com/article/chinese-house-church-members-face-trial-for-spying-and-illegal-business-charges/58443.htm (accessed November 29 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

CaiY. “Power Structure and Regime Resilience: Contentious Politics in China.” British Journal of Political Science 38no. 3 (2008): 411432.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Caixin. “Hard Choices for Family Planners and Parents.” July 82014. http://english.caixin.com/2014-07-03/100699063.html (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

CalhounC. “Tiananmen, Television and the Public Sphere: Internationalization of Culture and the Beijing Spring of 1989.” Public Culture 2no. 2 (1989): 5471.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

CaoH. 曹红. “A Review of Support-Education Policies in Western Region” 国家对西部地区教育扶持政策综述. Xinjiang Social Science 新疆社会科学 5 (2004): 9092.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

CaoN. Constructing China’s Jerusalem: Christians Power and Place in Contemporary Wenzhou. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press2010.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

CarnesT. “China’s New Legal Eagles.” Christianity TodaySeptember 182006. http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2006/september/china-civil-rights-movement.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

CarrollB. E. “Religion in Space: Spatial Approaches to American Religious Studies.” Religion: Oxford Research Encyclopedias. August 2015. http://religion.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.001.0001/acrefore-9780199340378-e-13 (accessed May 4 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

CarstenP. “China Jails Members of Banned ‘Cult’ Amid Religion Crackdown: Xinhua.” ReutersSeptember 272016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-religion-crime-idUSKCN11X1GD (accessed May 8 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Catholic Church. Catechism of the Catholic Church: Revised in Accordance with the Official Latin Text Promulgated by Pope John Paul II. Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana1993. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/_INDEX.HTM# fonte (accessed March 25 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

CCTV. “Ancestor Worship Ceremony Held in Hebei.” August 112009. http://www.cctv.com/program/cultureexpress/20090811/101095.shtml (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Export Citation

ChanC. “Cult Branches Spread Worldwide.” South China Morning PostJanuary 319997.

ChangM. H. Falun Gong: The End of Days. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press2012.

ChauA. Y. “Popular Religion in Shaanbei, North-Central China.” Journal of Chinese Religions 31no. 1 (2003): 3979.

ChauA. Y. Miraculous Response: Doing Popular Religion in Contemporary China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press2005.

ChauA. Y. “Modalities of Doing Religion and Ritual Polytropy: Evaluating the Religious Market Model from the Perspective of Chinese Religious History.” Religion 41no. 4 (2011): 547568.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

ChenG. 陈广元. Handbook for A-hong in the New Period 新时期阿訇实用手册. Beijing: Dongfang chubanshe2005.

ChenJ. “The National Studies Craze: The Phenomena, the Controversies, and Some Reflections.” China Perspectives 1 (2011): 2230.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

ChenM. 陈明. “Yuandao Academy” 原道书院. Kaifangshidai 开放时代no. 32015. http://www.opentimes.cn/bencandy.php?fid=397&aid=1884 (accessed August 9 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

ChenY. “Zhengyi.” In The Encyclopedia of Taoism2 vols. edited by F. Pregadio2:12581260. New York: Routledge2004.

ChenZ. 陈忠烈. “High Level of Ritualization: the Creation of Folk Religions in Lingnan during Ming and Qing Period” 高度仪式化:明清岭南民间信仰的创造.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Chengdu Buddhism 成都佛教. “Buddhist Temples in Chengdu” 蓉中伽蓝. 2016. http://www.cdfjxh.com/article_4.html (accessed July 5 2017).

  • Export Citation

CheungH. K. and S. Mok. “Another Side of the Dongyang/Yiwu Incident.” Xinxi October 198258.

China Aid. “Alimujiang Yimiti.” China AidApril 22015. http://www.chinaaid.org/2015/04/alimujiang-yimiti.html (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

China Aid. “Anhui House Churches Forced to Register Information with Local Bureau of Religion.” China AidMay 272014. http://www.chinaaid.org/2014/05/anhui-house-churches-forced-to-register.html (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

-> China Aid. “Guangxi Authorities Submit Case of Religious Kindergarten against 4 Liangren Church Members.” China AidNovember 142014. http://www.chinaaid.org/2014/11/guangxi-authorities-submit-case-of.html (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

China Aid. “A House Church in Shaanxi Raided by Police.” China AidMarch 232011. http://www.chinaaid.org/2011/03/house-church-in-shaanxi-raided-by.html (accessed July 25 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

China Aid. “Hubei House Church Studies Law and Religion during Chinese New Year.” China AidFebruary 42014. http://www.chinaaid.org/2014/02/hubei-house-church-studies-law-and.html (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

China Aid. “Three-Self Churches in Zhejiang, Anhui Forced to Remove Crosses from Roofs.” China AidMarch 32014. http://www.chinaaid.org/2014/03/three-self-churches-in-zhejiang-anhui.html (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

China Catholic. “New Church in Qinghai Province and Assumption of Our Lady Solemnly Celebrated in Xining Parish.” Faith WeeklyAugust 252005. http://www.chinacatholic.org/english/html/2005/08/168.html (accessed November 9 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

China Christian Council and Three-Self Patriotic Movement 中国基督教协会和三自爱国运动委员会. “A Brief Introduction to TSPM and CCC” 中国基督两会简介. http://www.ccctspm.org/quanguolianghui/lianghuijianjie.html (accessed July 27 2016).

  • Export Citation

China Christian Council and Three-Self Patriotic Movement. “In the Beginning Was the Word” 太初有道. 2008. http://www.ccctspm.org/chuxinrumen/2008/730/08730462.html (accessed May 23 2016).

  • Export Citation

China Christian Council and Three-Self Patriotic Movement. “Resurrection” 复活升天. 2008. http://www.ccctspm.org/chuxinrumen/2008/84/0884126.html (accessed May 23 2016).

  • Export Citation

China Culture. “Menhuan—A Special Result of Islam.” 2008. http://en.chinaculture.org/library/2008-02/04/content_25499.htm (accessed April 28 2017).

  • Export Citation

China Daily. “Catholicism Flourishes in Tibetan Village.” China DailyJanuary 102006. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2006-01/10/content_511001.htm (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

China Daily. “Railway Ferry Service across Qiongzhou Straits Begins.” China DailyJanuary 82003. http://en.people.cn/200301/07/eng20030107_109686.shtml (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

China Daily. “Tibet Receives over 6.8m Tourists in First Half of 2016.” China Daily EuropeAugust 42016. http://europe.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2016-08/04/content_26344143.htm (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

China Highlights. “Qingming Festival.” http://www.chinahigh lights.com/festivals/qingming-festival.htm (accessed June 7 2016).

  • Export Citation

China Islamic Association 中国伊斯兰协会. “A Brief Introduction to the China Islamic Association” 协会简介. http://www.chinaislam.net.cn/about/zbyx/about190.html (accessed March 42016).

  • Export Citation

China Islamic Association. “The Population of Muslims among Ethnic Minorities in China” 中国少数民族中的穆斯林群体. July 212012. http://www.chinaislam.net.cn/cms/whyj/yslgk/201205/21-59.html (accessed April 14 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

China Islamic Association. “The Research Branch of China Islamic Association Studying Islamic Culture in Guizhou Province” 中国伊协研究部赴贵州省进行伊斯兰文化遗产调研. 2015. http://www.chinaislam.net.cn/cms/zjjy/yjdt/rdyj/201503/24-8120.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

China News 中国新闻. “A Memorial Festival For Yan Emperor in Suizhou, Hubei” 丁酉年世界华人炎帝故里寻根节湖北随州举行. May 212017. http://www.chinanews.com/sh/2017/ 05-21/8229973.shtml (accessed July 6 2017).

  • Export Citation

China Taoism 中国道教. “The Spread and Indigenization of Daoism in the area of Li Ethnic Group, Hainan” 道教在海南黎族地区的传播与民族化. http://www.chinataoism.org/showtopic.php?id=9535 (accessed July 6 2017).

  • Export Citation

China-Arab States Expo 中国-阿拉伯国家展览会. Official website. http://www.casetf.org/ (accessed Jun 7 2017).

Chinacath. 中国天主教. “The Catholic Theology on the Bible” 天主教教理中关于圣经的论述. 2011. http://www.chinacath.com/txt/bible/ (accessed April 7 2016).

  • Export Citation

Chinacath. “The History of Translation of the Bible into Chinese” 中文圣经翻译史. January 292008. http://www.chinacath.com/article/bible/edition/2008-01-29/1675.html (accessed April 7 2016).

  • Export Citation

China.com. 中国网. “Nature Worship: the Characteristics of Faith among Li Ethnic Group” 自然崇拜:黎族自然宗教的原始特征. May 282009. http://www.china.com.cn/aboutchina/zhuanti/lizu/2009-05/28/content_17848836.htm (accessed July 6 2017).

  • Export Citation

China.com. “What Is the Veneration of Confucius Like” 祭孔大典是怎样的活动. September 252014. http://news.china.com/jiedu/20140925/ (accessed August 9 2016).

  • Export Citation

Chinakongmiao 中国孔庙网. “About China Confucian Temple” 关于中国孔庙网. June 152011. http://www.chinakongmiao.cn/templates/T_FocusTopics/index.aspx?nodeid=487&page=ContentPage&contentid=2609 (accessed August 9 2016).

  • Export Citation

Chinakongmiao. “The Final Match of the First Confucian Debate Competition for High School Students” 首届国际中学生儒学辩论大会总决赛. July 222016. http://www.chinakongmiao.cn/templates/T_common/index.aspx?nodeid=3&page=ContentPage&contentid=10507 (accessed August 9 2016).

  • Export Citation

Chinakongmiao. “Juvenile Prisoners Learning Confucian Classics” 未成年犯诵读国学经典:全国未管所系统首家孔子学堂在山东揭牌. August 22016. http://www.chinakongmiao.cn/templates/T_common/index.aspx?nodeid=3&page=ContentPage&contentid=10514 (accessed August 8 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

China.org 中国网. “China in Key Position to Attract Medical Tourists.” April 252011. http://www.china.org.cn/travel/2011-04/25/content_22436032.htm (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

China.org 中国网. “Nearly 40 Thousand People Visit the Yonghe Lama Temple on the Fifteenth of the First Month of the Chinese Calendar” 正月十五祈福烧香雍和宫全天接待近4万人. February 232016. http://beijing.china.org.cn/ chinese/2016-02/23/content_37849652.htm (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Export Citation

ChinaSource. “Shenzhen Christian Church Holds Celebration of Thanksgiving to Commemorate Thirtieth Anniversary of Worship Reinstatement.” January 202015. https://www.chinasource.org/resource-library/chinese-church-voices/top-christian-news-stories-in-china-in-2014-1-5 (accessed December 8 2017).

  • Export Citation

Chinese Catholic Handbook 中国天主教手册. Shujiazhuang: Hebei xinde she2006.

Chinese Christian Research Centre. China Prayer Letter. June 1982.

Chinese Ethnicity and Religion 中国民族宗教网. “The Dai Muslims” 傣族穆斯林. 2014. http://www.mzb.com.cn/html/report/141123808-1.htm (accessed April 14 2017).

  • Export Citation

Chinese Ethnicity and Religion. “Mongolians and Islam” 蒙古人与伊斯兰. 2010. http://www.mzb.com.cn/html/report/136468-1.htm (accessed April 14 2017).

  • Export Citation

Chinese Ethnicity and Religion. “Walking Close to Tibetan Muslims in Shigatse” 走进藏族穆斯林. 2011. http://www.mzb.com.cn/html/report/190018-1.htm (accessed April 14 2017).

  • Export Citation

Ching Hai. Master’s Words: The Quan Yin Method is an Eternal Universal Law. N.p.: Supreme Master Ching Hai International Association1998.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Ching Hai. Quan Yin Method Is the Easiest Way to God. N.p.: Supreme Master Ching Hai International Association1999.

Ching Hai. Quan Yin—The Five Precepts. N.p.: Supreme Master Ching Hai International Association2010.

Christianity Today. “Loose Cult Talk.” Editorial. Christianity Today 50no. 3 (2006). www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2006/march/15.27.html (accessed December 8 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

ChuC. Y. “China and the Vatican, 1979–Present.” In Catholicism in China 1990 to Present edited by C. Y. Chu147167. New York: Palgrave Macmillan2014.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

ChungJ. H.H. Lai and M. Xia. “Mounting Challenges to Governance in China: Surveying Collective Protestors, Religious Sects and Criminal Organizations.” The China Journal 56 (2006): 131.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Church of the Almighty God. “About Us.” http://www.holyspirit speaks.org/about/ (accessed Feb. 27 2015).

  • Export Citation

Cnhubei.com. “Churches in South China” 华南教会. November 282012. http://www.cnhubei.com/xwzt/2012/cfqy/tpyl/201211/t2343166.shtml (accessed February 13 2017).

  • Export Citation

CohenM. L. “Being Chinese: The Peripheralization of Traditional Identity.” Daedalus 120no. 2 (1991): 113134.

Compass Direct. “China: Christians Neglected in Inner Mongolia.” ReligioscopeAugust 302002. http://english.religion.info/2002/08/30/china-christians-neglected-in-inner-mongolia/ (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Congressional-Executive Commission on China. Congressional-Executive Commission on China 2008 Annual Report. http://www.cecc.gov/publications/annual-reports/2008-annual-report (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Congressional-Executive Commission on China. “Registered Catholics Claim Property in Tianjin.” March 12006. http://www.cecc.gov/publications/commission-analysis/registered-catholics-claim-property-in-tianjin (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

CookeS. “Merging Tibetan Culture into the Chinese Economic Fast Lane. The Great Western Development Policy Should Increase Immigration from Inner China to the Tibet Autonomous Region.” China Perspectives 50November–December 2003. https://chinaperspectives.revues.org/775 (accessed July 18 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Cultural China. “The Grand Ceremony of Worship of Confucius.” 2008. http://www.cultural-china.com/chinaWH/html/en/History140bye566.html (accessed August 9 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

DavisonN. “Chinese Christianity Will Not Be Crushed.” GuardianMay 242011. https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/belief/2011/may/24/chinese-christianity-underground (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

De BruynP. H. “Wudang shan: The Origins of a Major Center of Modern Taoism.” In Chinese Religion and Society edited by J. Lagerwey 553590. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press2004.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

DeanK. “The Daoist Difference: Alternatives to Imperial Power and Visions of a Unified Civilization.” The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 13no. 2 (2012): 128141.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

DeanK. “Daoist Ritual Today.” In Daoist Handbook2 vols. edited by L. Kohn2:659682. Boston: Brill2000.

DeanK. and Z. Zheng. Ritual Alliances of the Putian Plain vol. 1: Historical Introduction to the Return of the Gods. Leiden: Brill2009.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

DemattèP. “The Chinese Jade Age between Antiquarianism and Archaeology.” Journal of Social Archaeology 6no. 2 (2006): 202226.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

DengF. “The Truth about the So-Called Dongyang & Yiwu Affair.” Religion in the People’s Republic of China 12 (1983): 2021.

DespeuxC. “Talismans and Diagrams.” In Daoist Handbook2 vols. edited by L. Kohn2:498540. Boston: Brill2000.

DillonM. China’s Muslim Hui Community: Migration Settlement and Sects. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon1999.

DillonM. “Muslim Communities in Contemporary China: The Resurgence of Islam after the Cultural Revolution.” Journal of Islamic Studies 5no. 1 (1994): 70101.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

DingC. and X. Zhao. “Assessment of Urban Spatial-Growth Patterns in China during Rapid Urbanization.” The Chinese Economy 44no. 1 (2011): 4671.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

DonaldsonJ. A. “Tourism, Development and Poverty Reduction in Guizhou and Yunnan.” The China Quarterly 190 (2007): 333351.

DongS. “Mao Zedong Gets Hero Treatment in Home Village of Shaoshan.” NBC NewsSeptember 272015. http://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/shaoshan-village-where-chinas-amazing-mao-zedong-worshipped-n432906 (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

DuBoisT. D. The Sacred Village: Social Change and Religious Life in Rural North China. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press2005.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

DunchR. “Protestant Christianity in China Today: Fragile, Fragmented, Flourishing.” In China and Christianity: Burdened Past Hopeful Future edited by S. Uhalley and X. Wu195216. New York: M. E. Sharpe2001.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Dunhuang Academy. 2015 Dunhuang Forum: International Conference on Digital Library and Cultural Relics Preservation and Use in the Big Data Environment August 24–28 2015. http://public.dha.ac.cn/zhuanti/2015824dhf/en.html (accessed November 16 2016).

DunnE. “‘Cult,’ Church, and the CCP: Introducing Eastern Lightning.” Modern China 35no. 1 (2008): 96119.

DunnE. Lightning from the East: Heterodoxy and Christianity in Contemporary China. Leiden: Brill2015.

Economist. “Fire on the Roof of the World.” The EconomistMarch 142008. http://www.economist.com/node/10870258 (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Economist. “The North-East Back in the Cold.” The EconomistDecember 302014. http://www.economist.com/news/china/21637449-after-promising-signs-renaissance-chinas-old-rust belt-suffers-big-setback-back-cold (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Economist. “Zen and the Art of Moneymaking.” The EconomistJune 252015. http://www.economist.com/news/china/21656215-local-officials-make-packet-religion-self -denial-zen-and-art-moneymaking (accessed April 13 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

ElazarD. J. “Are There Really Jews in China? An Update.” Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/dje/articles2/china.htm (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

EliadeM. The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion. New York: Harper & Row1957.

EngelhardtU. “Longevity Techniques and Chinese Medicine.” In Daoist Handbook2 vols. edited by L. Kohn 1:74108. Boston: Brill2000.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

EntwistleP. “Faith in China: Religious Belief and National Narratives amongst Young, Urban Chinese Protestants.” Nations and Nationalism 22no. 2 (2016): 347370.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Erhimbayar. “Mongolian Buddhist Monasteries in Present-day Northern China: A Comparative Study of Monasteries in Liaoning and Inner Mongolia.” Inner Asia 8no. 2 (2006): 183203.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Ethnic and Religious Affairs Commission of Hubei Province 湖北民族宗教委员会. “Basic Information about Religions in Hubei Province” 湖北省宗教概况. http://www.hbmzw.gov.cn/info/iList.jsp?cat_id=10211 (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

European Country of Origin Information Network. “Refugee Review Tribunal Australia.” July 282008. https://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/2107_1311147349_chn33588.pdf (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

Facts and Details. “Li Minority: Their History, Religion and Festivals.” June 2015. http://factsanddetails.com/china/cat5/sub30/entry-4366.html (accessed July 6 2017).

  • Export Citation

Faith Weekly 信德. “Proselytizing in A Rural Commodities Fair” 农民搭台 经济与文化唱戏 福音广传开.” January 162007. http://www.chinacatholic.org/html/2007/0116/6237.html (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

FanC. C. “Migration in a Socialist Transitional Economy: Heterogeneity, Socioeconomic and Spatial Characteristics of Migrants in China and Guangdong Province.” International Migration Review 33no. 4 (1999): 954987.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

FanL. “Popular Religion in Contemporary China.” Social Compass 50no. 4 (2003): 449457.

FarleyH. “Christians Expelled from China for Helping North Korean Defectors.” Christian TodayFebruary 82017. https://www.christiantoday.com/article/christians.expelled.from.china.for.helping.north.korean.defectors/104522.htm (accessed June 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

FarrellyP. “The New Testament Church and Mount Zion in Taiwan.” In Flows of Faith: Religious Reach and Community in Asia and the Pacific edited by L. MandersonW. Smith and M. Tomlinson183200. New York: Springer2012.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

FarrellyP. “Taiwan: Mount Zion and Typhoon Morakot: A New Religious Movement’s Response to a Natural Disaster.” ReligioscopeApril 12010. http://religion.info/english/articles/article_477.shtml#.WATrauJRJ1B (accessed May 8 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

FengC. “The Rights Defence Movement, Rights Defence Lawyers and Prospects for Constitutional Democracy in China.” Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal 1no. 3 (2009): 150169.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

FinchS. “China’s Not So Secret War on Religion.” The DiplomatJune 162014. http://thediplomat.com/2014/06/chinas-not-so-secret-war-on-religion/ (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

FischerA. M. “Population Invasion versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan Areas of Western China.” Population and Development Review 34no. 4 (2008): 631662.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

FisherG. From Comrades to Bodhisattvas: Moral Dimensions of Lay Buddhist Practice in Contemporary China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press2014.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

FisherI. “Vatican Signals Approval of New Beijing Bishop.” New York TimesSeptember 212007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/21/world/europe/22pope.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

FlorcruzM. “China Introduces ‘National Studies’ Textbooks for Government Employees.” International Business TimesJune 182015. http://www.ibtimes.com/china-introduces-national-studies-textbooks-government-employees-1974021 (accessed August 8 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

FogginJ. M. “Depopulating the Tibetan Grasslands: National Policies and Perspectives for the Future of Tibetan Herders in Qinghai Province, China.” Mountain Research and Development 28no. 1 (2008): 2631.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

FosterP. “Xi Jinping’s Soft Power Martial Arts Cultural Trope.” China Research CenterJune 102016. http://www.chinacenter.net/2016/china_currents/15-2/xi-jinpings-soft-power-martial-arts-cultural-trope/ (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

FrolicM. Mao’s People. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press1980.

FuH.M. LiJ. Zhao and Z. Gao. “GIS Based Analysis on the Population Migration of Main Nationalities in Gansu Province since the Founding of China.” SPIE Proceedings 6753Geoinformatics 2007: Geospatial Information Science 67531MJuly 262007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.761877 (accessed July 26 2007).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

GalitzinM. “Benedict + CPA = Prison for Fr. Wang.” Traditionalist IssuesAugust 92010. http://www.traditioninaction.org/HotTopics/f043ht_ChinaWang.htm (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

GaoH. 高翰. “Do You Really Understand the Hui Ethnic Group in Henan Province” 你是否真的了解河南的回民. http://www.gegugu.com/2015/12/31/277.html (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

GaoW. 高文书. “The Factors Affecting Migrant Workers’ Employment and Income: Taking Beijing, Shijiazhuang, Shenyang, Wuxi, and Dongguan as Examples” 进城农民工就业状况及收入影响分析:以北京、石家庄、沈阳、无锡和东莞为例. Zhongguo nongcun jingji 中国农村经济 1 (2006): 2834.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

GardnerG. “Confucianism Worship & Practices.” People of Our Everyday Life. http://peopleof.oureverydaylife.com/confucianism-worship-practices-3006.html (accessed August 9 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

GardnerH. “Ordination of Russian Orthodox Priest in China Sign of Warming Ties amid U.S. Tensions.” USA TodayOctober 212015. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2015/10/21/russian-orthodox-church-china-priest-us-tensions/74192884/ (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

GillB. Rising Star: China’s New Security Diplomacy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press2007.

GilletteM. B. Between Mecca and Beijing: Modernization and Consumption among Urban Chinese Muslims. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press2000.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

GladneyD. C. “Islam in China: Accomodation or Separation?” The China Quarterly 174 (2003): 451467.

GladneyD. C. Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People’s Republic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press1991.

GlaubenT.T. HerzfeldS. Rozelle and X. Wang. “Persistent Poverty in Rural China: Where, Why, and How to Escape?” World Development 40no. 4 (2012): 784795.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

GledhillR. “China: Christian Summer Camp Organisers Detained by Police for ‘Indoctrinating Minors.’” Christian TodaySeptember 132016. https://www.christiantoday.com/article/china.christian.summer.camp.organisers.detained .by.police.for.indoctrinating.minors/95336.htm (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Global Buddhism 全球佛教资讯. “Guangxi Buddhist Association Issued Clergy Certificates” 广西佛教协会颁发首批佛教教职人员证. http://globalbuddhism.com/BuddhistNews/ChineseBuddhism/7950.html (accessed in July 30 2017)

  • Export Citation

Global Times. “Scholars Call for a Ban on Churches in Confucius’ Hometown.” Global TimesJanuary 262016. http://www.glo baltimes.cn/content/965753.shtml (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Global Times. “Trees Fell Subway.” Global TimesApril 112011. http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/643196.shtml (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Goldstein A. S. Goldstein and S. Gu. “Determinants of Permanent and Temporary Mobility in Hubei Province.” In International Population Conference/Congres International de la Population Montreal 1993 24 August–1st September 4 vols. 2:85–101. Liege Belgium: IUSSP 1993.

GoossaertV. “Daoist in the Modern Chinese Self-Cultivation Market: The Case of Beijing, 1850–1949.” In Daoism in the Twentieth Century edited by D. A. Palmer and X. Liu123153. Berkeley: University of California Press2012.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

GoossaertV. “Quanzhen.” In The Encyclopedia of Taoism2 vols. edited by F. Pregadio2:814820. New York: Routledge2004.

GoossaertV. “Republican Church Engineering: The National Religious Associations in 1912 China.” In Chinese Religiosities: Afflictions of Modernity and State Formation edited by M. M. Yang209232. Berkeley: University of California Press2008.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

GoossaertV. “Taoist Lay Associations.” In The Encyclopedia of Taoism2 vols. edited by F. Pregadio1:110111. New York: Routledge2004.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

GoosaertV.J. Kiely and J. Lagerwey. Modern Chinese Religion II: 1850–2015. 2 vols. Leiden: Brill2015.

GoossaertV. and D. A. Palmer eds. “Cultural Revitalization: Redemptive Societies and Secularized Traditions.” In The Religious Question in Modern China edited by D. A. Palmer and V. Goossaert90121. Chicago: University of Chicago Press2011.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

GoossaertV. and D. A. Palmer eds. The Religious Question in Modern China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press2011.

Gospel Times 福音时报. “How Many Christians Are in China?” 福音时报. December 172010. http://www.gospeltimes.cn/index.php/portal/article/index/id/8531 (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

Gospel Times. “A Theology Training Center in Hainan Province Been Operating for One Year” 海南省基督教两会神学培训中心的第一年. October 272016. http://www.gospeltimes.cn/index.php/portal/article/index/id/37490 (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

Grant S. G. “Government and Religion in China.” Honors thesis Global Studies University of Tennessee 2007.

Greene E. M. “Meditation Repentance and Visionary Ex­perience in Early Medieval Chinese Buddhism.” PhD dissertation Buddhist Studies University of California 2012.

Guangxi Diqingwang 广西地情网. “Religions” 宗教. November 242016. http://www.gxdqw.com/flbg/gxgk/zongjiao/201611/t20161124_32915.html (accessed July 6 2017).

  • Export Citation

Guardian. “Oh My God, Someone Has a Gun …” The GuardianMarch 142008. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/mar/15/tibet.china2 (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

GuoR.H. Gui and L. C. Guo. Multiregional Economic Development in China. New York: Springer2015.

Guojia Zongjiao Shiwuju 国家宗教事务局. “Regulations on Religious Affairs in Anhui Province” 安徽省宗教事务条例. December 202010. http://www.sara.gov.cn/zcfg/dfxfggz/6439.htm (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

GuyjocoC. “Chinese Priest Who Supported North Korean Defectors Found Dead.” Christian TimesMay 62016. http://www.christiantimes.com/article/chinese-priest-who-supported-north-korean-defectors-found-dead/55168.htm (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

GuzmánR. 1996. “Immaterial Girl.” Metro (San Jose, CA) March 281996.

HalbertsmaT. H. F. Early Christian Remains of Inner Mongolia: Discovery Reconstruction and Appropriation. Leiden: Brill2015.

HarrisonH. “The Missionary’s Curse” and Other Tales from a Chinese Catholic Village. Berkeley: University of California Press2013.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

HattawayP. Henan: The Galilee of China. Carlisle, CA: Piquant2009.

HemeyerJ. C. Religion in America. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall2006.

HeskethT.L. Lu and Z. W. Xing. “The Effect of China’s One-Child Family Policy after 25 Years.” New England Journal of Medicine 353 (2005): 11711176.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

HillmanB. “Interpreting the Post-2008 Wave of Protest and Conflict in Tibet.” Far East 4no. 1 (2014): 5060.

HillmanB. “Paradise under Construction: Minorities, Myths and Modernity in Northwest Yunnan.” Asian Ethnicity 4no. 2 (2003): 175188.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

HillmanB. and G. Tuttle eds. Ethnic Conflict and Protest in Tibet and Xinjiang: Unrest in China’s West. New York: Columbia University Press2016.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

HoD. Y. and C. Young. “Chairman Mao’s Everyman Makeover.” AtlanticDecember 192013. https://www.theatlantic.com/china/archive/2013/12/chairman-maos-everyman-makeover/282533/ (accessed on December 1 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

HookL. “The China President Obama Didn’t See.” The Wall Street JournalNovember 192009. http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748704431804574539120649781240 (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

HouZ. 侯志华 and Y. Xu 徐玉茹. “The Local Government in Dachang County of Hubei Province Taking Measures to Manage the Halal Food Market” 河北省大厂回族自治县「五个机制」 「四个强化」规范清真食品市场. Zhongguo minzu zongjiao wang 中国民族宗教网. 2014. http://中国民族宗教网.中国/html/report/14040953-14040951.htm (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

HsuC. L. “‘Rehabilitating Charity’ in China: The Case of Project Hope and the Rise of Non-Profit Organizations.” Journal of Civil Society 4no. 2 (2008): 8196.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

HuA. “Ancestor Worship in Contemporary China: An Empirical Investigation.” China Review 16no. 1 (2016): 169186.

HuJ. “Spirituality and Spiritual Practice: Is the Local Church Pentecostal?” In Global Chinese Pentecostal and Charismatic Christianity edited by F. YangJ. K. C. Tong and A. H. Anderson161180. Leiden: Brill2017.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

HuangJ. “Central China Town Tries to Revive 600-Year-Old Islamic Tradition.” Global TimesApril 292015. http://www .globaltimes.cn/content/919462.shtml (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

HuangY. “The Clash between Religious Freedom and Political Persecution.” The PeopleJune 11982.

HuangZ. 黄祖宏X. Gao 高向东 and X. Zhu 朱晓林. “An Analysis of the Historical Change of Immigrants’ Spatial Distribution in Shanghai” 上海市外籍人口空间分布历史变迁研究. Nanfang renkou 南方人口 28no. 3 (2013): 5464.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Hubei Government. “Cultural History of Hubei.” http://en.hubei.gov.cn/culture/history/201305/t20130521_449991.shtml (accessed July 6 2017).

  • Export Citation

Human Rights in China. “Chengdu House Church Files First Suit in China against Government Religious Authority.” September 182008. http://www.hrichina.org/en/content/219 (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Export Citation

Ifeng 凤凰网. “Believing in Wahabism Is a Form of Passive Resistance” 信仰瓦哈比是一种消极反抗. October 42014. http://news.ifeng.com/a/20141004/42138965_0.shtml (accessed February 25 2016).

  • Export Citation

Ifeng. “Chongqing Huayan Temple Launches the First Domestic Buddhist Charity App” 重庆华岩寺推出国内首 款佛教慈善 APP. February 42016. http://fo.ifeng.com/a/20160204/41548628_0.shtml (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. “China: The ‘One Child Policy’ in Liaoning Province (1982–November 2002); Reports of Forced Abortions in Dalian, Liaoning (2000–November 2002). November 192002. http://www.refworld.org/docid/3f7d4d6c1c.html (accessed November 11 2016).

  • Export Citation

IronsE. “Chinese New Religions.” In New Religions: A Guide edited by C. Partridge 239254. New York: Oxford University Press2004.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

-> IslamiChina. “Islamic Education in China.” November 132012. http://www.islamichina.com/islamic-education-in-china.html (accessed March 4 2016).

  • Export Citation

IsraeliR. “A New Wave of Muslim Revivalism in China.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 17no. 2 (1997): 269282.

JacobsA. “China Still Presses Crusade against Falun Gong.” New York TimesApril 272009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/28/world/asia/28china.html (accessed May 8 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

JaschokM. and J. Shui. The History of Women’s Mosques in Chinese Islam. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon2013.

Jewish Times Asia. “Guangzhou and Shenzhen Chabad Communities.” Jewish Times Asia March 2007. http://www.jewishtimesasia.org/guangzhou/258-guangzhou-communities/358-guangzhou-and-shenzhen-chabad-communities (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Jewocity. “Ancient Chinese Jewish Community of Kaifeng Gets New Emissary—a Young Israeli Sinophile.” November 162015. http://www.jewocity.com/blog/ancient-chinese-jewish-community-of-kaifeng-gets-new-emissary-a-young-israeli-sinophile/143004 (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

JiaX. 贾晓涛. “China’s Islamic Bank” 中国的伊斯兰银行. Bloomberg Businessweek Chinese. http://read.bbwc.cn/NC8zOi87OjE1.html (accessed June 7 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

JiangJ. “Party Time: China Pushes Red Tourism.” TimeAugust 30. 2011. http://content.time.com/time/world/article/08599209087600.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

JiangP. “An Investigative Report on the Shouters (1983)” 呼喊派問題調查. In A Collection of Travelogues of Various Investigative Trips 考察調查旅遊日記輯要. Beijing: Hua-wen Press2008.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

JiangZ. 蒋子文. “Religious Groups in Guizhou Province Encouraged to Help Poverty Reduction” 贵州省启动宗教界参与大扶贫战略行动. Pengbaixinwen 澎拜新闻 June 142016. http://www.thepaper.cn/newsDetail_forward_1483576 (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Jiangsu Minzu Zongjiao 江苏民族宗教. “Introduction to Ethnic Minorities” 少数民族概况. February 32016. http://www.jsmzzj.gov.cn/col/col80/index.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

Jilin Religious Bureau 吉林宗教局. “Ethnic Groups in Jilin” 吉林民族. http://mw.jl.gov.cn/jlzj/ (accessed June 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

JinY. “The Qur’an in China.” Contributions to Asian Studies 17 (1982): 95101.

JohnsonD. G. “Provincial Migration in China in the 1990s.” China Economic Review 14no. 1 (2003): 2231.

JohnsonI. The Souls of China: The Return of Religion after Mao. New York: Pantheon2017.

JohnsonM. “Qingdao—German Concession.” Tom and Marcia’s Rough and Ready Tours (blog)March 142013. http://rnrblog.roughandreadytours.net/2013/03/qingdao-german-concession.html (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

JordanD. K. “The Canonical Books of Confucianism (Canon of the Literati).” http://pages.ucsd.edu/~dkjordan/chin/hbcanonru-u.html (accessed August 9 2016).

  • Export Citation

JuccaL.B. K. Lim and G. Torode. “After Decades of Mistrust, Pope Pushes for Diplomatic Breakthrough with China.” ReutersJuly 142016. http://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/china-vatican (accessed July 14 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

KahnJ. “China Executes at Least 12 Members of a Secret Christian Sect.” New York TimesNovember 302006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/30/world/asia/30china.html?_r=0 (accessed May 8 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

KahnJ. “Violence Taints Religion’s Solace for China’s Poor.” New York TimesNovember 252004. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/25/international/asia/25china.html?pagewanted=print&position (accessed May 8 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Kaifengliaoning 凯风辽宁. “Still Haunting—Be Alert to the Disciple Sect” 阴魂迟迟未散——警惕邪教「门徒会」. http://liaoning.nen.com.cn/system/2016/07/05/019215908.shtml (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

KaimanJ. “In China, Rise of Salafism Fosters Suspicion and Division among Muslims.” Los Angeles TimesFebruary 12016. http://www.latimes.com/world/asia/la-fg-china-saudi-arabia-20160201-story.html (accessed June 7 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

KaimanJ. “In China, the State Decides Who Can Come Back from the Dead.” Los Angeles TimesMarch 82016. http://www.latimes.com/world/asia/la-fg-china-reincarnation-law-20160307-story.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

KangshengD. “Research on the History of Chinese Islam in China Today.” Ming Studies 1984no. 1: 2633.

KatzP. R. Divine Justice: Religion and the Development of Chinese Legal Culture. New York: Routledge2009.

KatzP. R. Religion in China and Its Modern Fate. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press2014.

KeaneM. Created in China: The Great New Leap Forward. London: Routledge2007.

KeightleyD. N. “The Religious Commitment: Shang Theology and the Genesis of Chinese Political Culture.” History of Religions 17nos. 3–4 (1978): 211225.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

KleemanT. F. Celestial Masters: History and Ritual in Early Daoist Communities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center2016.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

KlettL. M. “Thirty Chinese Police Surround House Church, Order Congregants to Stop Worshipping.” The Gospel HeraldNovember 12016. http://www.gospelherald.com/articles/67650/20161101/thirty-chinese-police-surround-house-church-order-congregants-stop-worshipping.htm (accessed November 29 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

KuoK. T. “Revisiting the Salafi-jihadist Threat in Xinjiang.” Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs 32no. 4 (2012): 528544.

KupferK. “Saints, Secrets, and Salvation: Emergence of Spiritual-Religious Groups in China between 1978 and 1989.” In Christianity in Contemporary China: Socio-Cultural Perspectives edited by F. K. G. Lim ed. 183203. New York: Routledge2013.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LaFraniereS. “A Grass-Roots Fight to Save a ‘Supertree.’ ” New York TimesJune 42011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/05/world/asia/05china.html?_r=0 (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LagerweyJ. “The Pilgrimage to Wu-Tang Shan.” In Pilgrims and Sacred Sites in China edited by S. Naquin and C.-F. Yu293332. Berkeley: University of California Press1992.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LaiD. “Sex Ratio at Birth and Infant Mortality Rate in China: An Empirical Study.” Social Indicators Research 70no. 3 (2005): 313326.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LalibertéA. “‘Buddhism for the Human Realm’ and Taiwanese Democracy.” In Religious Organizations and Democratization: Case Studies from Contemporary Asia edited by T.-R. Cheng and D. Brown5582. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe2005.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LalibertéA. “Buddhist Revival under State Watch.” Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 40no. 2 (2011): 107134.

LambertT. China’s Christian Millions. Oxford: Monarch2006.

LarsonD. W. and A. Shevchenko. “Status Seekers: Chinese and Russian Responses to US Primacy.” International Security 34no. 4 (2010): 6395.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Le C. K. Ikazaki A. Kadono and T. Kosaki. “Grassland Degradation Caused by Tourism Activities in Hulunbuir Inner Mongolia China.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science vol. 18 conference 1 2014. http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/18/1/012137/pdf (accessed November 17 2016).

LeeJ. T. “Christianity in Contemporary China: An Update.” Journal of Church & State 49no. 2 (2007): 298.

LeeW. Life-Study of 2 Corinthians. Anaheim, CA: Living Stream Ministry1984.

LeeW. The Subjective Truths in the Holy Scriptures. Anaheim, CA: Living Stream Ministry2000.

LefebvreH. The Production of Space. 1974. Reprint: Cambridge, MA: Blackwell1991.

LiJ. 李继红 and F. Yang 杨风. “An Analysis of Population Growth of Ethnic Minorities in Sichuan Province” 四川少数民族人口发展路径探析. Minzu xuekan 民族学刊 3no. 2 (2012): 8690.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LiL. “Mystical Numbers and Manchu Traditional Music: A Consideration of the Relationship between Shamanic Thought and Musical Ideas.” British Journal of Ethnomusicology 2no. 1 (1993): 99115.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LiR. “Protest Over Muslim Tombs.” Radio Free AsiaMarch 302009. http://www.rfa.org/english/news/china/tombs-03302009085832.html (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LiS. 李申. Confucian Teaching and Confucianism as a Religion 儒学与儒教. Chengdu: Sichuan daxue chubanshe2005.

Li S. “Imbalanced Sex Ratio at Birth and Comprehensive Intervention in China.” Paper presented at the Fourth Asia and Pacific Conference on Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Hyderabad India October 29–31 2007. https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/event-pdf/china.pdf (accessed November 17 2016).

LiS.Y. WeiQ. Jiang and M. W. Feldman. “Imbalanced Sex Ratio at Birth and Female Child Survival in China: Issues and Prospects.” In Watering the Neighbour’s Garden: The Growing Demographic Female Deficit in Asia edited by I. Attané and C. Guilmoto2547. Paris: Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography2007.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LiT. 李天纲. Chinese Rites Controversy: History Literature and Meaning 中国礼仪之争: 历史、文献和意义. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe1998.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LiX. 李响. “The Struggle of a Confucian Intellectual in a Modern Society: Visiting Jiang Qing in Yangming jinshe” 一个儒者的现代突围: 阳明精舍访蒋庆. Beijing Cultural Review 文化 纵横August 112010. http://www.21bcr.com/a/shiye/renwusixiang/2010/0811/1351.html (accessed September 18 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LiY. 李養正. Modern Daoism 當代道教. Beijing: Dongfang chubanshe2000.

LiY. “Taoist Forum Looks at Environment.” China DailyOctober 242011. http://europe.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2011-10/24/content_13959045.htm (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LiangZ.Z. Li and Z. Ma. “Changing Patterns of the Floating Population in China, 2000–2010.” Population and Development Review 40no. 4 (2014): 695716.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Liaoning Pindao 辽宁频道. “The Disciple Sect Is Deceptive” 骗钱害人的「门徒会」. September 302016. http://liaoning.nen.com.cn/system/2016/09/30/019382280.shtml (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

Liaoning Pindao. “A Way to Transform the Followers of the Disciple Sect” 用四步法」转化门徒会人员September 272016. http://liaoning.nen.com.cn/system/2016/09/27/019376337.shtml (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

LimB. K. and B. Blanchard. “Xi Jinping Hopes Traditional Faiths Can Fill Moral Void in China.” ReutersSeptember 292013. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-politics-vacuum-idUSBRE98S0GS20130929 (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LimF. K. G. “Negotiating ‘Foreignness,’ Localizing Faith: Tibetan Catholicism in the Tibet-Yunnan Borderlands.” In Christianity and the State in Asia: Complicity and Conflict edited by J. Bautista and F. K. G. Lim7996. London: Routledge2009.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LinL. “Pure Lands? China’s Sacred Mountain IPO Wave.” China Real Time (blog). Wall Street JournalJuly 62012. http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2012/07/06/will-pure-lands-gold-rush-pay-out/ (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LinR. “A Few Recent Happenings Related to Chinese Protestants.” Ching Feng 71 (1982): 3841.

LinkP.R. Madsen and P. Pickowicz eds. Restless China. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield2013.

LiuC. 刘春子. “A Note on Independent Churches in Suiyuan District” 绥远地区自立教会考. Inner Mongolia Academy of Social Science 内蒙古社科院 33no. 5 (2012): 7881.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LiuW. T. and B. Leung. “Organizational Revivalism: Explaining Metamorphosis of China’s Catholic Church.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 41no. 1 (2002): 121138.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LiuY. “Pentecostal–Style Christians in the ‘Galilee of China.’ ” Review of Religion and Chinese Society 1 (2014): 156172.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LodgeC. “China: Call for Churches to be Banned in City of Confucius’ Birth.” Christian TodayJanuary 282016. http://www.christiantoday.com/article/china.call.for.churches.to.be.banned.in.city.of.confucius.birth/78003.htm (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LuL.M. JiaY. MaL. YangZ. Chen D. D. Ho Y. Jiang and L. Zhang. “The Changing Face of HIV in China.” Nature 455no. 7213 (2008): 609611.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LuM. and Z. Chen. “Urbanization, Urban-Biased Policies, and Urban-Rural Inequality in China, 1987–2001.” Chinese Economy 39no. 3 (2006): 4263.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

LuY. The Transformation of Yiguan Dao in Taiwan: Adapting to a Changing Religious Economy. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books2008.

LuY. and G. Lang. “Impact of the State on the Evolution of a Sect.” Sociology of Religion 67no. 3 (2006): 249270.

MaH. and L. Lian. “Rural-Urban Migration and Urbanization in Gansu Province, China: Evidence from Time-Series Analysis.” Asian Social Science 7no. 12 (2011): 141145.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

MaJ. “Police Crack Down on Underground ‘Religion.’” South China Morning PostJanuary 212003. http://www.scmp.com/article/404197/police-crack-down-underground-religion (accessed May 8 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

MackL. “Celebration of Confucius’ Birthday.” ThoughtCo. February 282005. https://www.thoughtco.com/confucius-happy-birthday-687510 (accessed August 9 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

MackerrasC. China in Transformation: 1900–1949. New York: Routledge2008.

MadsenR. “Catholic Revival during the Reform Era.” The China Quarterly 174 (2003): 468487.

MadsenR. China’s Catholics: Tragedy and Hope in an Emerging Civil Society. Berkeley: University of California Press1998.

MadsenR. Democracy’s Dharma: Religious Renaissance and Political Development in Taiwan. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press2007.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

MaiyerV. “Russian Orthodox Missions to the East.” Religion State and Society: The Keston Journal 25no. 4 (1997): 369379.

MaoZ. “Talks at the Yenan Forum Literature and Art, May 1942.” https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/mao/selected-works/volume-3/mswv3_08.htm (accessed December 12 2016).

  • Export Citation

McCarthyS. K. Communist Multiculturalism: Ethnic Revival in Southwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press2009.

McCarthyS. K. “If Allah Wills It: Integration, Isolation and Muslim Authenticity in Yunnan Province in China.” Religion State and Society 33no. 2 (2005): 121136.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

McCarthyS. K. “Serving Society, Repurposing the State: Religious Charity and Resistance in China.” The China Journal 70 (2013): 4872.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

MeltonJ. G. “The Affirmation of Charismatic Authority: The Case of the True Buddha School.” Australian Religion Studies Review 20no. 3 (2007): 286302.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

MillerJ. Chinese Religions in Contemporary Societies. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC Clio2006.

MillerJ.D. S. Yu and P. Van Der Veer eds. Religion and Ecological Sustainability in China. New York: Routledge2014.

Ministry of Tofu. “World Press Photo Winner: The Return of the Native, Mao Zedong Remembered.” February 132012. http://www.ministryoftofu.com/2012/02/world-press-photo-winner-the-return-of-the-native-mao-zedong-remembered/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%253A+MiniTofublog+%2528Ministry+of+Tofu+-+Featured+Articles%2529 (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

Minnan Buddhist Academy 闽南佛学院. “A Brief Introduction to the Minnan Buddhist Academy” 闽南佛学院简史. 2006. http://www.nanputuo.com/nptxy/html/200612/1814265062156.html (accessed July 27 2016).

  • Export Citation

Minnan Wang 闽南网. “Ranking of Cities of Fujian Province, the GDP per Capita of Zhangzhou City Third to the Last” 福建省最富和最穷城市排行榜 漳州人均GDP倒三. March 182014. http://zz.mnw.cn/news/734820.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

MorganT. C. “A Tale of China’s Two Churches.” Christianity Today 42no. 8 (1998): 3039.

MungelloD. E. The Spirit and the Flesh in Shandong 1650–1785. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield2001.

MunroR. and M. Spiegel. Detained in China and Tibet: A Directory of Political and Religious Prisoners. New York: Human Rights Watch1994.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Museum of Unnatural Mystery. “The Seven Wonders of the Medieval World.” http://www.unmuseum.org/7wonders/medieval_wonders.htm (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

Musilin Zaixian 穆斯林在线. “The History of Islam in Guizhou Province” 贵州省伊斯兰教史. 2012. http://www.muslimwww.com/html/2012/lishi_1007/11297.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

Nanjing Union Theological Seminary 金陵协会神学院. “A Brief Introduction to the Nanjing Union Theological Seminary” 金陵协会神学院简史. October 302012. http://www.njuts.cn/wen.asp?ID=1 (accessed April 28 2016).

  • Export Citation

National Bureau of Statistics of China 中国国家统计局. “Communique of the National Bureau of Statistics of People’s Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 1).” April 282011. http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/NewsEvents/201104/t20110428_26449.html (accessed October 12 2017).

  • Export Citation

National Bureau of Statistics of China 中国国家统计局. “Communique of the National Bureau of Statistics of People’s Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census [1] (No. 2).” April 292011. http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/NewsEvents/201104/t20110429_26450.html (accessed October 12 2017).

  • Export Citation

National Bureau of Statistics of China 中国国家统计局. “Statistical Communiqué on the Major Data of the Sixth Census of the People’s Republic of China 2010” 年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报. April 282011. http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/tjgb/rkpcgb/qgrkpcgb/201104/t20110428_30327.html (accessed March 23 2017).

  • Export Citation

National Bureau of Statistics of China 中国国家统计局. “Tabulation of the 2010 Population of the People’s Republic of China.” http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/pcsj/rkpc/6rp/indexch.htm (accessed December 8 2017).

  • Export Citation

Netease 网易新闻. “Dangerous Signals about Conservatism” 保守思潮的危险信号. December 182013. http://news.163.com/13/1218/08/9GC6I7GA0001124J_all.html (accessed March 8 2016).

  • Export Citation

NgY. Lotus Blossoms: A Collection of Studies of the True Buddha Sect 朵朵莲生:真佛宗研究论集. Taipei: Wen Shi Zhe Press2016.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

NoorF. A.Y. Sikand and M. Van Bruinessen. The Madrasa in Asia: Political Activism and Transnational Linkages. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press2008.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

NorbuD. “The 1959 Tibetan Rebellion: An Interpretation.” The China Quarterly 77 (1979): 7493.

NSCCC (National Seminary of Catholic Church in China) 中国天主教神哲学院. “Introduction to the National Seminary of the Catholic Church in China” 中国天主教神哲学院简介. http://www.nsccc.cn/html1/folder/1405/3174-1.htm (accessed March 27 2016).

  • Export Citation

OakS. “Competing Chinese Names for God: The Chinese Term Question and Its Influence Upon Korea.” Journal of Korean Religions 3no. 2 (2012): 89115.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

PageJ. “Why China Is Turning Back to Confucius.” The Wall Street JournalSeptember 202015. https://www.wsj.com/articles/why-china-is-turning-back-to-confucius-1442754000 (accessed August 9 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

PalmerD. A. “Chinese Redemptive Societies and Salvationist Religion: Historical Phenomenon or Sociological Category?” Journal of Chinese Theatre Ritual and Folklore 172 (2011): 2172.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

PayetteA. “Shenzhen’s Kongshengtang: Religious Confucianism and Local Moral Governance.” Paper presented at the 23rd World Congress of Political Science Role of Religion in Political Life Panel RC43 2014. http://paperroom.ipsa.org/papers/paper_30036.pdf (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

PennyB. The Religion of Falun Gong. Chicago: University of Chicago Press2012.

People’s Daily. “GDP of 31 Provinces in China Released.” People’s Daily OnlineFebruary 262010. http://en.people.cn/90001/90778/98505/6903538.html (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Pew Research Center. “The World’s Muslims: Religion, Politics and Society.” Religion and Public Life. April 302013. http://www.pewforum.org/2013/04/30/the-worlds-muslims-religion-politics-society-overview (accessed March 8 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

PollackMichael. “Detailed History of Kaifeng Jews.” The Sino-Judaic Institute. http://www.sino-judaic.org/index.php?page=kaifeng_jews_history (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

PotterP. “Belief in Control: Regulation of Religion in China.” The China Quarterly 174 (2003): 317337.

PR Newswire. “China’s Rural Guizhou Province to Address Poverty with Culture Diversity and Tourism.” CisionSeptember 302016. http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/chinas-rural-guizhou-province-to-address-poverty-with-culture-diversity-and-tourism-300337164.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

PregadioF. Encyclopedia of Taoism. 2 vols. New York: Routledge2008.

Putizhixia 菩提之下. “Jiangxi Buddhist Academy Opening a Hotline” 江西佛学院开通「正念心理热线」. 2013. http://putizhixia.com/n3285c7.aspx (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

PyeM. “Religions in East Asia.” In The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements edited by J. R. Lewis 491513. Oxford: Oxford University Press2004.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

QianX. “Sino-Arab Economic and Trade Cooperation: Situations, Tasks, Issues and Strategies.” Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies 5no. 4 (2011): 6587.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

QiaoL. “China Cracks Down on Xinjiang’s Christians in ‘Anti-Terror’ Campaign.” Radio Free AsiaFebruary 232017. http://www.rfa.org/english/news/uyghur/christians-02232017120516.html (accessed in July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Qingdao Xinwenwang 青岛新闻网. “A Conference for Advo­cating Daoist Health Practices to be Held” 零八崂山论道之大师论道话养生公益报告会将举行. October 6 2008. http://www.qingdaonews.com/content/2008-10/06/content_7931355.htm (accessed November 17 2016).

Qingxudaoren 清虚道人. “Daoists Go into This World to Save People” 道教徒从不逃避红尘场上的烟火历练,他们用更慈悲的方式度脱天人. Weixin 微信 July 18 2016. https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s?__biz=MzA5MzE2MzMzMg==&mid=2651888695&idx=1&sn=c6e681d1d5f7d803bd9382908ef947f6&scene=0#wechat_redirect (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

QiuY. 邱永峥. “Some Chinese Muslims Who Were Smuggled Abroad Fought for ISIS” 东突营被伊斯兰国当炮灰, 想逃离者被斩首. Huanqiu 环球 December 10 2014. http://world.huanqiu.com/exclusive/2014-12/5233566.html (accessed July 20 2016).

  • Export Citation

Radio Free Asia 无线电亚洲. “Authorities Continue to Suppress Christians in Hainan; More Than Ten House Churches Banned” 当局续打压基督徒 海南逾十个家庭教会被取缔. May 302013. http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/yataibaodao/shehui/ql1-05302013100519.html (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

Radio Free Asia. “Burning at Labrang Monastery.” October 222012. http://www.rfa.org/english/news/tibet/burn-10222012091551.html (accessed September 7 2016).

  • Export Citation

Radio Free Asia. “Tibetan Writer Sentenced to Three Years in Prison in China’s Qinghai Province.” February 192016. http://www.rfa.org/english/news/tibet/tibetan-writer-sentenced-to-three-years-in-prison-in-chinas-qinghai-province-02192016134844.html (accessed November 29 2016).

  • Export Citation

ReindersE. Borrowed Gods and Foreign Bodies: Christian Missionaries Imagine Chinese Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press2004.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

RenY. 任延黎. Basic Knowledge about Catholicism in China 中国天主教基础知识. Beijing: Zongjiao wenhua chubanshe1999.

Renminwang 人民网. “An Attractive Heritage Festival Celebrating Buluotuo Folk Culture in Baise City” 百色布洛陀民俗文化盛宴绽放非遗魅力. April 162016. http://society.people.com.cn/n1/2016/0416/c1008-28280507-2.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

Renminwang. “Giving Up Tradition Is a Spiritual Suicide” 习近 平的传统文化观:抛弃传统等于割断了自己的精神命脉. September 252014. http://theory.people.com.cn/n/2014/0924/c40531-25726339.html (accessed August 8 2016).

  • Export Citation

RicheyJ. “Confucianism.” Patheos Library. http://www.patheos.com/Library/Confucianism/Ritual-Worship-Devotion-Symbolism/Rites-and-Ceremonies (accessed August 9 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

RobsonJ. “Buddhist Sacred Geography.” In Early Chinese Religion Part Two: The Period of Division (220–589 AD)2 vols.2:13611408. Leiden: Brill2009.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

RongG.H. Z. Gönül and Z. Xiaoyan eds. Hui Muslims in China. Leuven: Leuven University Press2016.

Russian Orthodox Church. “His Holiness Patriarch Kirill Completes His Visit to China.” The Russian Orthodox Church Department for External Church Relations. May 16 2013. https://mospat.ru/en/2013/05/16/news85332/ (accessed April 5 2016).

  • Export Citation

RyanC. and H. Gu. “Constructionism and Culture in Research: Understandings of the Fourth Buddhist Festival, Wutaishan, China.” Tourism Management 31no. 2 (2010): 167178.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

SeldenM. The Yenan Way in Revolutionary China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press1971.

ShaharM. The Shaolin Monastery: History Religion and the Chinese Martial Arts. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press2008.

ShambaughD. “Training China’s Political Elite: The Party School System.” The China Quarterly 196 (2008): 827844.

Shanxi China. “Culture of Guan Yu.” Official website of Shanxi Province. http://www.shanxichina.gov.cn/en/sourcefiles/html/sixcurture/5571.shtml### (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

Shanxi China. “Culture of Religious [sic].” Official website of Shanxi Province. http://www.shanxichina.gov.cn/en/sourcefiles/html/sixcurture/5522.shtml### (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

ShawM. Global Awakening: How 20th-Century Revivals Triggered a Christian Revolution. Westmont, IL: InterVarsity2010.

ShepardW. “The Complex Impact of Urbanization in Xinjiang.” The DiplomatDecember 162015. http://thediplomat.com/2015/12/the-complex-impact-of-urbanization-in-xinjiang/ (accessed August 31 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

ShiG. 时国轻. A Study on the Butuoluo Faith among the Zhuang Ethnic Group: An Example from Tianyang County in Guangxi Province 壮族布洛陀信仰研究: 以广西田阳县为个案. Beijing: Zongjiao wenhua chubanshe2008.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

SigleyG. “Cultural Heritage Tourism and the Ancient Tea Horse Road of Southwest China.” International Journal of China Studies 1no. 2 (2010): 531544.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Sino-US.com. “Hunan’s Urbanization Rate Rose to 46.65% in 2012.” May 172013. http://www.sino-us.com/159/Hunan-s-Urbanization-Rate-Rose-to-46-65-in-2012.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

SmithJ. Z. To Take Place: Toward Theory in Ritual. Chicago: University of Chicago Press1987.

SmithW. W.Jr. Tibet’s Last Stand?: The Tibetan Uprising of 2008 and China’s Response. Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield2010.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

SofieldT. H. B. and F. M. S. Li. “Tourism Development and Cultural Policies in China.” Annals of Tourism Research 25no. 2 (1998): 362392.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Sohu 搜狐. “Department of Education to Set a Discipline of Guoxue” 教育部明年将设’国学’专业. April 282016. http://learning.sohu.com/20160428/n446592953.shtml (accessed August 9 2016).

  • Export Citation

Souhuxinwen 搜狐新闻. “Eight Issues Unsolved after 126 Days’ Investigation of the Case of Shi Yongxin” 释永信调查结果八个问题待解 为何耗费一百二十六天之久. November 282015. http://news.sohu.com/20151128/n428658159.shtml (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

South China Morning Post. “Be More Tolerant of Traditional Faiths, Xi Jinping Urges Communist Party Read More.” South China Morning PostOctober 12013. http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1321197/xi-jinping-hopes-traditional-faiths-can-fill-moral-void-china#ckGG5vFHiCRJOv1C.99 (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

South China Morning Post. “Initial Probe Completed and Arrest Warrants to Be Issued Soon, Xinjiang Prosecutor Says.” South China Morning PostJuly 172009A7.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Spiritual Counterfeits Project. The God-Men. Berkeley, CA: Spiritual Counterfeits Project1977.

StarkR. and R. Finke. Acts of Faith: Explaining the Human Side of Religion. Berkeley: University of California Press2000.

State Administration for Religious Affairs 国家宗教局. “Basic Condition of Religions in Our Country” 我国宗教的基本情况. April 12014. http://www.sara.gov.cn/llyj/63734.htm (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

State Administration for Religious Affairs. “Introduction to Religions in China” 中国宗教简介. http://www.sara.gov.cn/zwgk/17839.htm (accessed April 14 2017).

  • Export Citation

State Council of the People’s Republic of China 中华人民共和国国务院. “The Number of Chinese Communist Party Members Reached 77,995,000 by the End of 2009” 中国共产党党员2009年底达到7千799万5千人. June 282010. http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2010-06/28/content_1639416.htm (accessed March 15 2017).

  • Export Citation

State Information Center 国际信息中心. “The Past and Future of Urbanization in China” 我国城镇化发展的历史与未来趋势. http://www.sic.gov.cn/News/455/6167.htm (accessed June 24 2017).

  • Export Citation

StromC. “Shennong: The God-King of Chinese Medicine and Agriculture.” Ancient Origins: Reconstructing the Story of Humanity’s Past. March 22 2017. http://www.ancient-origins.net/myths-legends/shennong-god-king-chinese-medicine-and-agriculture-007760 (accessed July 6 2017).

  • Export Citation

StumpR. W. The Geography of Religion: Faith Place and Space. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers2008.

SunA. Confucianism as a World Religion: Contested Histories and Contemporary Realities. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press2013.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

SunX. 孙宪超. “Population Decline in Northeast China” 东北人口困局China Securities Times 证券时报April 262016. http://www.stcn.com/2016/0426/12686912.shtml (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

SureD. F. S. and R. R. Nol. 100 Roman Documents Concerning the Chinese Rites Controversy (1645–1941). San Francisco, CA: Ricci Institute for Chinese-Western Cultural History1992.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

SweetenA. R. Christianity in Rural China: Conflict and Accommodation in Jiangxi Province 1860–1900. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press2001.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

TakayamaY. “Red Tourism in China.” In India Russia China: Comparative Studies on Eurasian Culture and Society edited by T. Mochizuki and S. Maeda114130. Sapporo, Japan: Slavic-Eurasian Research Center2012.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

TamW. L. “A Study of the True Buddha Sect’s Religious Experience” 佛教真佛宗的宗教經驗之研究,《哲學門》. Beida Journal of Philosophy 9no. 2 (2009): 199215.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

TaoFeiya 陶飛亞. China’s Christian Utopia: The Jesus Family (1921–1951) 中國的基督教烏托邦——耶穌家庭 (1921–1951). Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong Press2004.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

TarsinA. Being Muslim: A Practical Guide. N.p.: Sandala2015.

TatlowD. K. “A Model of Inclusion for Muslim Women.” New York TimesOctober 92012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/10/world/asia/10iht-letter10.html?_r=0 (accessed March 8 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

TatlowD. K. “A Monument to Jesus in the City of Mao.” New York TimesMay 72017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/07/world/asia/china-changsha-christian-church-park.html (accessed December 8 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

TCHRD (Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy). “China’s Buddhist Supervisory Body Announces Explicit Restrictions on Tibetan Buddhism.” December 132016. http://tchrd.org/chinas-buddhist-supervisory-body-announces-explicit-restrictions-on-tibetan-buddhism/ (accessed December 1 2017).

  • Export Citation

TeiserS. F. The Ghost Festival in Medieval China. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press1988.

ThaxtonR. Catastrophe and Contention in Rural China: Mao’s Great Leap Forward Famine and the Origins of Righteous Resistance in Da Fo Village. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2008.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

ThorntonP. M. “Manufacturing Dissent in Transnational China.” In Popular Protest in China edited by K. J. O’Brien189192. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press2008.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

TiedemannR. G. Reference Guide to Christian Missionary Societies in China: From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century. New York: M. E. Sharpe2009.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

TongJ. “An Organizational Analysis of the Falun Gong: Structure, Communications, Financing.” The China Quarterly 171 (2002): 636660.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

TonkinS. “‘CEO Monk’ Who Turned the Temple Where Kung Fu Was Founded into a Multimillion-Dollar Empire Is Accused of Fathering Children out of Wedlock and Embezzlement.” Daily MailAugust 72015. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3184621/Chinese-CEO-monk-turned-temple-kung-fu-founded-commercial-empire-facing-investigation-authorities.html (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Top China Travel. “Muslim in Henan.” http://www.topchinatravel.com/china-muslim/muslim-in-henan.htm (accessed July 6 2017).

  • Export Citation

TravagninS. “The Impact of Politics on the Minnan Buddhist Institute: Sanmin zhuyi and aiguo zhuyi in the Context of Sangha Education.” Review of Religion and Chinese Society 2no. 1 (2015): 2150.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

TsaiL. L. Accountability without Democracy: Solidary Groups and Public Goods Provision in Rural China. New York: Cambridge University Press2007.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

TuanY.-F. Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press1977.

TubilewiczC. Critical Issues in Contemporary China. Oxford: Routledge2006.

TweedT. A. Crossing and Dwelling: A Theory of Religion. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press2006.

UhalleyS. and X. Wu. China and Christianity: Burdened Past Hopeful Future. New York: M. E. Sharpe2001.

UNESCO. “Mogao Caves.” http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/440 (accessed September 7 2016).

  • Export Citation

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. “An Update on the Current Treatment of Followers of ‘the Shouters’ in the Fujian Province in China.” March 162007. http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b6fe175d.html (accessed June 12 2017).

  • Export Citation

U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom. 2015 Annual Report of the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom. http://www.uscirf.gov/sites/default/files/USCIRF%20Annual%20Report%202015%20%282%29.pdf (accessed April 27 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

U.S. Department of State. “International Religious Freedom Report 2008: China (Includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau.” 2008. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2008/108404.htm (accessed May 8 2017).

  • Export Citation

ValussiE. “Printing and Religion in the Life of Qing Dynasty Alchemical Author Fu Jinquan.” Daoism: Religion History and Society 4 (2012): 152.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

VogelE. F. One Step Ahead in China: Guangdong under Reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press1990.

WangG. 王桂新. “Population Growth and Sustainable Urban Development in Shanghai” 上海人口规模增长与城市发展持续性. Fudan xuebao shehui kexue ban 复旦学报(社会科学版) 5 (2008): 4857.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

WangL. 王鲁平. “The First Official Confucius-veneration Ritual after the Establishment of the PRC” 新中国首次举行官方祭祀孔子大典纪实. China NewsSeptember 292004. http://www.chinanews.com/news/2004/2004-09-29/26/489358.shtml (accessed August 9 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

WangQ. 王齐格. “Ovoo Worship and Shaman Culture” 敖包祭祀与萨满文化. Journal of Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities (Social Sciences) 内蒙古民族大学学报(社会科学版) 39no. 6 (2013): 1517.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

WangR. 王瑞鹏. “The Constraints on Urbanization in Xinjiang Province” 新疆城镇化发展的制约因素分析. Hubei Ethnicities College Journal 湖北民族学院学报 1 (2013): 1619.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Wang Xian. “Islamic Religiosity Revolution and State Violence in Southwest China: The 1975 Shadian Massacre.” MA thesis Asia Pacific Policy Studies University of British Columbia 2013.

Wang Xiuhua. “Explaining Christianity in China: Why a Foreign Religion Has Taken Root in Unfertile Ground.” MA thesis Sociology Baylor University 2015.

WangY. Daoism in China: An Introduction. Warren, CT: Floating World Editions2006.

WangY. 王怡. “A Brief Historical Account of Christianity in Sichuan Province” 基督教在四川的历史要略. September 252007. http://www.pacilution.com/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=1025 (accessed July 5 2017).

  • Export Citation

Wangyixinwen 网易新闻. “The Number of Emigrants in Major Provinces” 各主要省份劳务输出情况. September 42009. http://news.163.com/09/0904/19/5ID2NDT900013MOK.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

WasserstromJ. N. Global Shanghai 1850–2010: A History in Fragments. Oxford: Routledge2008.

WatanabeT. “Apocalyptic Movement Stirs Social Crisis in South Korea.” Los Angeles TimesSeptember 281992. http://articles.latimes.com/1992-09-28/news/mn-97_1_south-korea (accessed May 8 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

WatanabeT. “No Doomsday Rapture for S. Korea Sect.” Los Angeles TimesOctober 291992. http://articles.latimes.com/1992-10-29/news/mn-925_1_south-korea (accessed May 8 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

WelchH. Buddhism under Mao. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press1972.

WelchH. “The Chang T’ien Shih and Taoism in China.” Journal of Oriental Studies 4 (1961): 188212.

WellerR. P. “Global Religious Changes and Civil Life in Two Chinese Societies: A Comparison of Jiangsu and Taiwan.” The Review of Faith & International Affairs 13no. 2 (2015): 1324.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

WellerR. P. Unities and Diversities in Chinese Religion. Seattle: University of Washington Press1987.

WesleyL. “Is the Chinese Church Predominantly Pentecostal?” Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 7no. 2 (2004): 225254.

WhyteB. Unfinished Encounter: China and Christianity. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse1988.

WickeriP. L. Reconstructing Christianity in China: K. H. Ting and the Chinese Church. New York: Orbis2007.

WiestJ. “Sino-Vatican Relations under Pope Benedict XVI: From Promising Beginnings to Overt Confrontation.” In Catholicism in China 1990 to Present edited by C. Y. Chu189216. New York: Palgrave Macmillan2014.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

WintersC. A. Mao or Muhammad: Islam in the People’s Republic of China. Hong Kong: Asian Research Services1979.

WolfA. P. Religion and Ritual in Chinese Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press1974.

WongE. “Wary of Islam, China Tightens a Vise of Rules.” New York TimesOctober 182008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/19/world/asia/19xinjiang.html (accessed October 18 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

WongK.-Y. and D. K. Y. Chu. “Export Processing Zones and Special Economic Zones as Generators of Economic Development: The Asian Experience.” Geografiska Annaler. Series B. Human Geography 66no. 1 (1984): 116.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

WuJ. “The Chinese Buddhist Canon.” In The Wiley Blackwell Companion to East and Inner Asian Buddhism edited by M. Poceski363382. Oxford: John Wiley2014.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

WuJ.D. HuM. WangY. HuangJ. Wu and H. Tang. “Analysis of Population Evolvement and Its Effects on Resource and Environment in Shanghai.” China Population Resources and Environment 2011no. 4: 164168.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

WuX. “Research on Coordinative Development of Urbanization, Industrialization and Agricultural Modernization in Central Region of China—Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei and Henan as Examples.” Research of Agricultural Modernization 1 (2012): 17.

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

XiL. Redeemed by Fire: The Rise of Popular Christianity in Modern China. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press2010.

XinD. “Unlawful Surveys to be Dealt Severely [sic].” China DailyMarch 72007. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2007-03/07/content_821274.htm (accessed June 30 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Xinhuanet 新华网. “The Confucius-veneration Ritual May Fail to be Handed Down to Future Generations” 非物质文化遗产, 《祭孔大典》面临失传. January 202006. http://news.xinhuanet.com/collection/2006-01/20/content_4078452.htm (accessed June 7 2017).

  • Export Citation

Xinhuanet 新华网. “Daoist Academy to Be Opened in Fujian Province” 林致知:福建正筹建海峡道教学院 面向全国招生. November 222016. http://www.fj.xinhuanet.com/yuanchuang/2016-11/22/c_1119967163.htm (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

Xinhuanet. “The First List of 72 Famous Ovoo in Inner Mongolia Is Released” 内蒙古首批知名敖包名单公布 共有72座. June 272016. http://www.nmg.xinhuanet.com/2016-06/27/c_1119119767.htm (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

Xinhuanet. “Laoshan Debate to be Hold in Qingdao City”「崂山论道」将在青岛举行. June 92016. http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2016-06/09/c_129049601.htm (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

Xinhuanet. 2008. “The Number of Chinese Communist Youth League Members Reaches 75,439,000” 共青团成员达到7千543万9千人. http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2008-05/04/content_8104045.htm (accessed March 23 2017).

  • Export Citation

Xinhuanet. “A Shaman Museum Founded” 萨满文化博物馆落户中国达斡尔民族园. October 222006. http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2006-10/22/content_5234287.htm (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

Xinhuanet. “Xi Jinping Requires Improvement in the Party’s Work on Religious Affairs in a New Situation” 习近平:全面提高新形势下宗教工作水平. April 232016. http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2016-04/23/c_1118716540.htm (accessed August 9 2016).

  • Export Citation

Xinhuanet. “A Young Heir to a Shaman” 八零后萨满传承人. December 282015. http://education.news.cn/2015-12/28/c_1117597221.htm (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

Xinjiang Government 新疆政府. “Distribution of Ethnic Groups” 民族分布. http://www.xinjiang.gov.cn/ljxj/qhrk/index.html (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

Xinlang 新浪. “The Sixtieth Anniversary of the Nanyue Buddhist Association” 南岳佛协迎来六十华诞. November 222016. http://news.sina.com.cn/o/2016-11-22/doc-ifxxwmws3505961.shtml (accessed November 22 2016).

  • Export Citation

Xinlangfoxue 新浪佛学. “2013 Buddhist Summer Camp” 二零一三暑期佛教夏令营. 2013. http://fo.sina.com.cn/zt/fjxly/index.shtml (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

Xinlangtiyu 新浪体育. “A Free-Fight Competition in China and the Daoist Martial Arts” 道家武学秉持尚武精神 《中国龙虎榜》迎接世界挑战. August 92016. http://sports.sina.com.cn/others/freefight/2016-04-09/doc-ifxrcizs7138317.shtml (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

Xinwenjike 新闻即刻. “The Supreme Procuratorate Transfers the Case of Shaolin Temple to the Provincial Procuratorate in Henan Province” 最高检将举报释永信材料转河南检方 少林寺回应:要相信党. August 212015. http://news.sina.com.cn/c/zg/jpm/2015-08-21/13381377.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

Xiridongfang 昔日东方. “People from Hui Ethnic Group Who Criticize Corrupted Officials Are Persecuted by Police in Jiangsu Province” 回民声讨贪官 江苏千警镇压. September 282013. http://orientaldaily.on.cc/cnt/china_world/20130928/00178_026.html (accessed November 17 2016).

  • Export Citation

Xizang Pindao 西藏频道. “Religions in Xizang” 西藏的宗教. http://xz.people.com.cn/GB/138902/139219/139607/8407524.html (accessed July 30 2017).

  • Export Citation

XuD. “Shouted Down.” South China Morning PostJuly 72013. http://www.scmp.com/magazines/post-magazine/article/1275196/shouted-down (accessed June 12 2017).

  • Search Google Scholar
  • Export Citation

XuJ. “Body, Discourse, and the Cultural Politics of Contemporary Chinese Qigong.” The Journal of Asian Studies 58no. 4 (1999):