A Parallel Evolution? Issues in Vernacular Architecture and the Development of Church Building in Syria and Georgia

in Architecture and Asceticism: Cultural interaction between Syria and Georgia in Late Antiquity
Open Access

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

A Brief Overview of the Origins of Christian Architecture in Syria and Georgia

Having briefly introduced the regions under discussion in this work and begun to explore some of the linguistic and geographical confusion surrounding the relationship of Kartli and its neighbouring territories in late antiquity, we must now turn to the extant material culture and see if archaeology and art history can cast any light on whether there were trading links or other modes of contact clearly demonstrable between Syria and Mesopotamia and the Caucasus during this period. One logical place to start would seem to be to examine the evolution of Christian architecture in these different regions, given that a Syrian influence is often claimed for a variety of early churches in Georgia. However, before we move on to the specifics it is necessary to provide a brief overview of what we know about the evolution of ecclesiastical architecture both immediately before, and in the generations immediately after, the Peace of Constantine in the first half of the fourth century CE.

Whilst it is widely accepted that the first securely dated Christian place of worship anywhere in the world is the house-church at Dura Europos beside the River Euphrates in Syria, it is not until the second half of the fourth century that we find the ‘Church’ as a specific building constructed for Christian meetings and rituals becoming relatively commonplace. After the edict of Milan was promulgated in 313 there was no reason why Christians could not worship openly, but naturally it took time for early adherents of the faith to adapt to their new circumstances. It is therefore in the second half of the fourth century that we begin to find clear archaeological evidence for Christian places of worship in early centres of the faith such as Syria, Asia Minor, Rome and North Africa.

Although the traditional conversion narrative places the evangelisation of Iberia/Kartli in the 330s there has long been a belief in Georgian academia that the first churches were extremely small and therefore it was not until the later fifth century or early sixth century that substantial stone-built churches evolved.1 A lot of this is an argument from silence because, aside from the tiny cruciform chapel at Samtavro believed to have been built beside the bush where St. Nino took up residence and the odd ‘basilica’ at Nekresi,2 until recently no churches in Georgia had been ascribed to the fourth century. In the west of the country there have been archaeological reports asserting that there are churches in Bichvinta/Pitsunda, the ancient Pityus, that are even earlier than the fourth century3 but extremely early dates must be treated with caution due to the swirling claims and counter-claims made over the history and sovereignty of Abkhazia.4 This is complicated by the fact that a number of these assertions concerning early churches are made by Russian scholars, whose conclusions are then rejected by Georgians as a matter of principle.

The argument that early churches were tiny structures that could hold only as few as two or three people at one time has been strengthened by the fact that most research carried out into the material culture of this period has been undertaken by architectural historians and there is a great unwillingness to challenge the typology of early church architecture established in the first half of the twentieth century by the acknowledged founder of Georgian art history, Giorgi Chubinashvili. With the death of Chubinashvili in 1973 and then the end of the Soviet Union in December 1991 there began a period of stagnation in Georgian art historical scholarship, exacerbated by the civil war in the early 1990s, meaning that studies of ecclesiastical architecture have in general progressed little since Chubinashvili’s time. There is an unwillingness to challenge a long-established status quo that places the known monuments in a firm chronological and typological framework.

Separately from the discipline of art history there have been a series of archaeological excavations concentating on Classical period sites in Kartli. As with many other countries in the Near East and Caucasus there has long been an archaeological bias towards the earliest periods of human evolution through to the perceived grandeur of the Graeco-Roman era, but late antiquity which is referred to as being ‘early medieval’ in contemporary Georgia, has thus far received little attention from archaeologists. This means that assumptions are being made about the society and material culture of this era based upon written sources that were generally written down several centuries after the events they purport to recount and art historical analysis of the extant standing architecture of the period—which is dominated by ecclesiastical sites and the substantial body of carved stone stelae and reliefs that have come down to the present day.

Obviously, without archaeological excavation we are limited in what conclusions we can draw as to the earliest evolution of church ritual and Christian practice in Kartli. If we are primarily preoccupied with how far the interior disposition of these early churches may have changed since their construction it is perhaps easy to accept the official interpretation that monumental church construction only commenced in fifth to sixth century Kartli and that earlier ritual practice was confined to extremely small and simple chapels.5 However if we accept the premise that Christianity took root as early as the first half of the fourth century in Kartli, and archaeological evidence appears to support this assertion, then where did people worship when they came together to participate in rituals as large congregations? At what period does the ‘church’ in the sense of a clearly designated Christian ritual space become established as a recognisable place of Christian worship? Does this process happen later in Kartli, or do church buildings develop independently at the same time as they are beginning to appear in other christianised territories such as Syria or Asia Minor?

The Availability of Construction Materials and the Evolution of the ‘Church’ as a Building Type

Surprisingly for a country that is so fiercely proud of its national traditions and often presents a strongly partisan view of its past, there has been little consideration of the possibility that a native ecclesiastical tradition was entrenched as early as the fourth century. Yet when this possibility is considered there is no logical reason why this should not have been the case. Georgia is wealthy in terms of natural resources and high-quality stone is easily available in the centre and south of the country, with Bolnisi tuff being especially prized for its aesthetic qualities. In the High Caucasus schist and slate are used to construct the traditional towers of the mountain peoples. However towards the east of Georgia in the region of Kakheti there is a lack of high-grade building materials. Here all but the most prestigious buildings are constructed of stones largely salvaged from the pebbles and boulders of various dimensions that are carried along as part of the seasonal mudflow that dominates the main watercourses.6 This lends itself to a more rustic style with irregular stone courses that may vary in hue and lack the grandeur of the well-dressed masonry found in southern and central Kartli.

With the exception of the high plateau bordering Armenia to the south west and the arid steppe bordering Azerbaijan to the south east, Georgia has a plentiful supply of forests that are capable of providing timber for construction purposes, and historically most Georgian regions outside the high mountain cultures have favoured a traditional architecture that combines a wooden superstructure on a stone foundation. This can vary from the stone buildings with elaborate wooden balconies native to Tbilisi through to the Mingrelian Oda house where a single storey wooden house is balanced on stone supports to allow ventilation in summer and protect against marshy ground in winter, but it is clear that stone and wood have always been plentiful in Georgia, thus allowing for experimentation in architecture and allowing for the growth of a diverse range of vernacular traditions.

These options were not available to the early Christians of Syria. With the exception of Lebanon, all the territories of Greater Syria7 lacked forests and the kind of timber necessary for large building programmes. Wood was a precious resource and particularly necessary for the upper floors of buildings or for providing the framework to support tiled roofs. In the western regions there were plentiful sources of good quality stone but to the east options were more limited. Along the course of the Euphrates there was a supply of gypsum, but this was friable and liable to dissolve on prolonged contact with water. Elsewhere in the steppe and desert options were even more limited and mud brick architecture was employed for the overwhelming majority of buildings, with only the most well endowed projects being able to afford the cost of transporting stone to more remote eastern territories.

The Problem of Dating and Changing Interpretations of Late Antique Society

When it comes to considering the date of the first churches in both regions it is widely acknowledged how complex the issue can be. The house-church at Dura Europos is securely dated to the mid-third century as it was active in the years immediately before the town was destroyed by the Sassanians in 256 CE. Naturally there are few situations where we can be so precise about when a building ceased to be active—it is for this reason, rather than for any major cultural similarities, that Dura Europos is often linked with Pompeii in popular imagination.8 Elsewhere we have to rely on the often scant epigraphical data or solely on typological studies of architectural types. The shortcomings of the typological method are being increasingly highlighted by modern technological advances in archaeology, which, perhaps unsurprisingly, show earlier methods to have significant shortcomings as they often had to rely on only a partial view of the evidence. In western Syria this has been illustrated by rapidly changing interpretations of how society changed during the early Islamic era.

Whilst the old assumption that the disruption of Levantine society in the seventh century was largely a result of the expansion of Arab tribes out of the Arabian Peninsula has long been discredited, it was not until the end of the twentieth century that archaeology began to suggest plausible alternative narratives to explain why the majority of meaningful building campaigns on the Syrian Limestone Massif appeared to come to an end after the first decade of the seventh century.9 The old paradigm was examined by Kennedy in his influential 1985 article ‘From Polis to Madina: Urban Change in Late Antique and Early Islamic Syria’.10 Here he convincingly argued against a binary narrative that posited a sudden break or dislocation in late antique Syria but instead demonstrated a gradual decline and societal change that saw Romano-Byzantine culture slowly evolve and adapt into an early Islamic society; in urban terms this was the change from the Roman Polis to an Islamic Madina referenced in the title of his article. This position was further expanded in the following decade with Foss’ ‘Syria in Transition, A.D. 550–750’11 and research into how centres of population not only contracted but also, in some cases, expanded and moved location into marginal zones on the edge of the fertile crescent, continued into the current century with research conducted by Geyer.12

Together these studies have convincingly demonstrated that survey methods alone have given us only a partial story as to how Syrian society functioned in late antiquity and that it was only when survey was used in conjunction with other archaeological data that a more nuanced and accurate picture of late antique and early Islamic Syria was able to emerge. However, to add a note of caution to the proceedings, it must be noted that despite the exceptional volume of late antique architecture still extant in Syria relatively few excavations concentrating on late antiquity had been undertaken in Syria before the outbreak of the civil war in 2011. This picture was changing and more archaeologists, in particular in Syria itself, were choosing to specialise in this period around the time the war began but the progress made in the early part of the twenty-first century has been placed in limbo by the hostilities.

That the survey work occurred at all was due to the fact that Georges Tchalenko, a fully-trained architect, was engaged by the French Mandatory Authorities in Syria to restore Qalʿat Semʿan in the 1930s and for a variety of personal reasons stayed on to devote his working life to the region.13 This brings us to another methodological anomaly when comparing data from Syria with that of comparable information from Georgia. In Syria art history and architectural history do not appear as academic disciplines in institutes of tertiary education, or indeed as subjects at any educational level. Therefore these questions are looked at in terms of archaeological data, whilst historians consider the texts and epigraphic evidence and architects are called in solely to consider issues relating to conservation and consolidation of ancient structures; art history and its related skills are not usually tools in the study of the Syrian past. On the other hand art history and architectural history are two highly regarded disciplines in Georgian society and this recognition formally began with practitioners such as Giorgi Chubinashvili being accorded the full rank of Academician in the Georgian Academy of Sciences—a highly sought after privilege in Soviet society.

Disciplinary Boundaries within the Humanities and Methodological Problems

In Georgia the lacunae we encounter in late antique studies appear to relate more to issues of ancient chronology and matters of religious belief than they do to a gap in the academic landscape of the country. Above all it could be argued that the issue is a methodological crisis provoked by a rigid philosophical stance on the role and significance of various academic disciplines. As in Syria, Georgia is a poor country with an overabundance of exceptional archaeological resources. Both have sites reaching back to the earliest periods of human activity, with Dmanisi in Kvemo Kartli (Southern Georgia) providing archaeological evidence for the first human remains yet found outside of Africa. With this embarassment of riches, scarce resources are targeted towards these early sites of international significance. Later periods receive less attention unless they possess another outstanding feature—in most cases this means sites that are aesthetically pleasing and have to potential to generate a significant income from tourism with Palmyra in Syria and Uplistsikhe in Georgia both notable sites to fall into this latter category. Therefore in practical terms archaeological research tends to end with the waning of the Roman Empire and later periods are neglected by comparison.

There is also a religious element to this chronology in both countries; with the official recognition afforded to Christianity in the early fourth century, late antique archaeology is often viewed solely through the prism of religion—namely how the spread of Christianity impacted on the wider culture of the Roman Empire as it fell to ‘barbarian’ peoples in the west and morphed into what was later called the Byzantine Empire in the east. How this spread of Christianity is interpreted is, naturally, impacted by the circumstances of contemporary societies and in this case the divergence of attitude is made even more extreme by the present circumstances of these two countries.

Syria was one of the first countries to embrace Islam, so much so that the first Islamic dynasty—the Umayyads—chose Damascus as their capital. Therefore from the seventh or eighth century Syria can be described as a Muslim country. However, whilst the wars of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries have accelerated the exodus of Christians from the Middle East, a significant Christian minority remained, and indeed thrived, even after Islam became the dominant faith of the region. The impact of this on archaeological practice manifests itself as a privileging of Islamic, particularly early Islamic, archaeology with a concentration on sites linked to the Umayyads and then an emphasis on sites linked with particularly significant moments of Arab history; this has meant that monuments linked to personages such as Nur al-Din who unified much of the Bilad al-Sham and Salah al-Din who triumphed against the invading western Crusaders have received a great deal of attention. As an extension of this, and again working on the rationale that certain sites have potential to generate income from tourism, Crusader sites have also often been explored. Obviously from a methodological point of view this emphasis on Islamic identity is problematic as it essentially means that there are two schools of archaeological practice in Syria; those who work on the earlier periods and look at society in its entirety and those who work on the Islamic era, and as is implied by that term, interpret the data first and foremost through an Islamic perspective. However, despite the obvious shortcomings of this practice it does mean that more modern periods, even up to the twentieth century in some rare cases such as at the Citadel of Damascus,14 have been explored by archaeologists in Syria.

In Georgia religion or specifically Christianity, both its absence and its presence, have had a disproportionate impact on the study of material culture. Under Soviet rule the archaeology of Christianity was not a permissible area of study and this is a strong contributory factor in why there is, with only one or two exceptions, no current tradition of post-Classical archaeology in the country. Instead the academic literature clearly delineates a break whereby the discipline of archaeology dominates until the first centuries of the Common Era and then, in the fifth century, the story is picked up by art historians. Confusingly for outsiders the fifth century onwards is designated as the ‘medieval period’ by Georgian scholars,15 whilst this is technically correct with the (somewhat arbitrary) date for the beginning of the Middle Ages accepted as being 476 and the abdication of Romulus Augustus, the last Roman Emperor in the west, most specialists working on late antiquity would categorise the fifth century as being firmly in that period. Whatever your perspective, a span of a thousand years seems excessive for any one historical period and for this reason alone it would seem to make sense to encourage a more sophisticated division of period than merely early, middle and late medieval. Given that Christianity is widely accepted as arriving in Georgia in the first half of the fourth century, this creates an extra difficulty as we have around a hundred years unaccounted for before the Georgian medieval era is deemed to begin, something that happens almost in parallel with the institution of the Georgian alphabet.

In fact it is the pivotal role of the creation of the Georgian alphabet that appears to have created the dislocation between how the fourth and fifth centuries are studied in Georgia; in the fourth century Georgian inscriptions and record-keeping of all forms relied on non-native scripts to record information16 and it was not until the fifth century that the creation of a new script specifically to record the Georgian language encouraged the evolution of an indigenous literary culture. Therefore Kartvelology17 entered a new era at this time and, perhaps as a philosophical or psychological reaction to this defining moment, in the twentieth century a pattern emerged whereby archaeologists concentrated on the periods up until the fourth century CE but thereafter the past was explored primarily through the disciplines of history and art history with written texts taking centre stage and monuments being used to support the hypotheses formulated on reading the oldest Georgian literary works.

It is only recently that the archaeology of early Christian sites and other locations linked to events relating such as the Arab and Persian invasions of the country have come to be regarded as profitable areas of study. First of all, as mentioned above, post-Classical monuments have been primarily the objects of art historical research and the clear boundaries as to which periods needed archaeological study and which were ‘historical’ periods needing to be studied by the different branches of historical research largely prevented archaeological methodologies being applied to post fifth-century CE sites. Monuments or archaeological sites have particularly received attention if there has been a perceived link with a formative figure of the Georgian past—for what Western Europeans would designate the ‘High Middle Ages’ there has been particular focus on the reigns of King Davit Aghmashenebeli (King David the Builder) from 1089 until 1125 and Queen Tamar (known in Georgian as King Tamar) whose rule from 1184 to 1213 is often referred to as the ‘Golden Age’ of the country due to the fact that it was at this time that the national epic, The Man in the Panther’s Skin was written by Shota Rustaveli and there was a flowering of architecture and painting during this long and prosperous interlude in a region often trampled in the ongoing battles between neighbouring empires.

Peter Brown and the Rise of Late Antique Studies

This shaping of a national narrative by concentrating on certain events, reigns or individuals who are perceived to have played a pivotal role in the formation of the nation state is, of course, a common phemomenon. However in societies with less of a tradition of advanced studies across the Humanities then the privileging of certain events can cause severe distortion in the historical record. Whilst in Syria we are facing a problem of omission—late antiquity has, until recently, not received as much attention as some other historical epochs, we can compare this lacuna to what has happened to the study of late antiquity elsewhere. The same era was largely overlooked in the west until the work of Peter Brown led the way in a wider revival of interest sparked after the publication of The World of Late Antiquity AD 150–750.18 From the 1990s onwards there has been an explosion in the study of late antiquity as European and American scholars have sought to explore a period written off by Gibbon and his followers as a time of terminal decline.

Where this rediscovery of late antiquity has in Syria had the virtue of joining the gaps and providing a linking narrative between the Classical and early Islamic eras, both already the subjects of serious study in the country, in Georgia the study of this period has progressed in a different manner. Lacking a suffciently established archaeological framework for this time, the events of the fourth century CE onwards have largely been viewed through the lens of later medieval texts and the period is almost totally absent from museum displays. So, taking this back to basics and starting at the beginning, what do we know about late antique Kartli in material terms? More specifically, can the information we have tell us anything about how the Georgians of the time were interacting with the rest of the world?

As mentioned above, there has been very little archaeological exploration of this period but there has been some well-documented research into the Classical era occupation of a number of sites in Kartli and, in some cases, these settlements have remained active as late as the third or early fourth centuries CE. In addition there has been continuity of usage in several important burial grounds, which has provided copious evidence of burial traditions over a long period of time. Therefore, although these have not been projects targeting the late antique period, a certain amount of data can be gleaned from work concentrating on the Classical era.

The most famous of these sites are those in the vicinity of Mtskheta, the ancient capital of Kartli, and for our purposes the most significant source of information is the huge burial ground at Samtavro.19 This site saw one of its peaks in activity in the fourth and fifth centuries CE—the very time when the process of Christianisation centred on Mtskheta is recorded as occurring in the Georgian historical sources. In actual fact there is a small amount of evidence to suggest that there were some early Christians resident in Mtskheta and its environs as early as the second or third centuries CE with the discovery of two silver rings inset with carnelian intaglios. The two bear almost identical images of two fish flanking a central cross. One intaglio appears to be truncated at the top, which may have led to the two being catalogued as “images of two fish and an anchor”20 One of the rings was discovered in the Samtavro cemetary, but the other is recorded as being found near the national cathedral, Svetiskhoveli, in central Mtskheta and both provide possible evidence of Christians or possibly Judaeo-Christians in Mtskheta up to a century before the official evangelisation of the country.

This evidence of earlier Christian, Jewish or Judaeo-Christian presence is echoed in the town of Urbnisi, which is also mentioned in the Georgian evangelisation narrative and which has been published along with material from Mtskheta by Mgaloblishvili and Gagoshidze.21 Naturally the picture of religious practices at this period suggests a certain plurality of practices with Christianity and Judaism co-existing to all appearences peacefully alongside the existing pagan beliefs of the region. This varied picture is represented in the Samtavro funerary evidence where the long bones in early Christian burials appear to have been rearranged in line with pagan practices,22 although it is difficult to assign a purely religious motive for the change from tile-lined tombs to the use of stone cists between the fourth and fifth centuries CE.23 Naturally processes of religious conversion are gradual and a certain degree of syncretism is to be expected in the archaeological record, but the evidence of Mtskheta and Urbnisi does accord with the main points of the vita of St. Nino in suggesting that there was a pre-fourth century Jewish presence in both Urbnisi and Mtskheta and it demonstrates that Christianity was indeed already present in both towns by the fourth century.

The Fourth Century Expansion of Christianity

This brings us on to our next point. We know that there were many Christians in Syria in the fourth century from the evidence of the abundant extant ecclesiastical architecture alone, without the need to explore the texts or archaeological small finds for the region. Nevertheless it is self-evident that the evidence for early Christian Syria is plentiful in all areas. With Georgia the fact that early references to the fourth century evangelisation of Georgia by a woman were circulating outside the country shortly after the period of conversion,24 taken in tandem with the archaeological evidence cited above, strongly supports the view that Kartli was evangelised in the earlier part of the fourth century. In fact some of the archaeological data points to a Christian presence even earlier than this, which would perhaps suggest that the fourth century push for conversion was helped by the existence of some pre-existing Christian communities already established in the territory of Kartli.

Therefore it is mysterious that we do not encounter early church buildings of the same date to complete the picture as we do in Syria, especially in a context where there was already a long-established tradition of building in stone. The insistence of Chubinashvili that small churches dominated early ecclesiastical architecture was tied up with his beliefs that early Georgian churches were influenced by the design of traditional Georgian dwellings known as darbazi houses. These hall-houses had distinctive pyramidal roofs created by overlapping layers of wooden beams and have been posited as the direct inspiration for the centrally-planned churches common throughout the southern Caucasus.25 It is this predominance of the (larger) centrally planned type of church building that has added to the belief that church architecture only took off in the fifth or sixth century drawing its inspiration from earlier Georgian domestic architecture. In this reading the basilica form has been perceived as a ‘foreign’ influence and Georgian scholars have used the floorplans of Butler and Lassus to link the origins of the basilica form and the influences of other cultures to Georgian ecclesiastical architecture. This argument is encountered for example in a consideration of the origins of Georgian martyria:

As is well known, the native Aiadana type building of the classical period of Achaemenid Iran spread across the world in three directions: West, to Syria and Palestine where it played a role in certain so-called Syrian-Nabatean temples and later in square planned Christian basilicas; North to Iberia and Albania; to Iran itself and, later, in the Islamic world.26

These assumptions are often based on outdated arguments that have since been superseded recent research. For example in the argument above, a 1923 article by Butler is cited27 and elsewhere Silagadze refers to an article published by Monneret de Villard in 1936.28 Even though, as discussed previously, there has been more survey than excavation carried out thus far on late antique Syrian sites, it is still undeniable there has been a great deal of work completed since the interwar period and it is somewhat anachronistic to base arguments purely on the likes of Butler and company in the twenty-first century.

Another limitation encountered with this approach is the fact that many of these comparisons are made solely on the basis of comparing floorplans. This has long been a conventional mode of art historical practice, notably employed in such reference works as Krautheimer’s Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture29 but as the world shrinks and, with the notable exception of the world’s war zones, more and more sites become easily accessible, then questions are raised as to the accuracy of this methodology. A superficial similarity at the level of a two dimensional floorplan may be misleading when a variety of other factors are taken into consideration. As Maranci recently commented with regard to seventh century Armenian architecture:

Whilst it seems indisputable that the designers of Zuart‘noc‘ were acquainted with the aisled tetraconch form, one must ask whether it appeared to them as originally built or in a state of renovation, partial collapse, or ruin.30

She returns to this point with particular emphasis on the relation of this issue to the Syrian material:

Yet the clear visual similarity of plans veils a much more complex set of problems, requiring close individual consideration of each monument and its potential as a source. Whilst the Syrian and Mesopotamian churches are routinely discussed in connection with the origins of Zuart‘noc‘, few scholars discuss their structural histories or state of preservation at the time of the latter’s construction.31

In short what may appear to be cut-and-dried cases of similar typology may in fact prove more difficult to substantiate when the respective dates of the monuments in question are closely compared and later innovations or complicated chronological developments are stripped away. If these arguments bear some weight when we discuss a seventh century monument, as Maranci is doing, then we can argue that the search for similarities and archetypes is even more fraught with difficulty when we try to look for relationships between fourth century monuments.

Back in the 1950s Georges Tchalenko had already identified that there was more than one source of inspiration for fourth century Syrian basilicas. Whereas the link between these new ritual spaces and the Roman civic basilica was clear, they could also draw upon more humble domestic spaces for influence.32 Tchalenko identified one of the earliest churches on the Syrian limestone massif as being adapted from the plan for neighbouring provincial villas and this case once again highlights the problems of relying solely on Butler’s interpretation of church evolution. Taking issue with Butler’s assertion that the church and the neighbouring villa in the hamlet of Qirq Bizeh were contemporary with each other, and that one villa had later been altered to function as an early church, Tchalenko instead sought to demonstrate that the church was built several decades later than the neighbouring house and was designed specifically for use as a chapel.33 He posited that this was the first building on the limestone massif that was built specifically for use as a church, which would have made it the next logical step onwards from the use of modified domestic spaces evidenced at Dura Europos in the preceding century. His reasoning was that the earlier part of the fourth century was still an experimental period for Christian architecture and, out in the rural hinterland of Antioch, it was more logical for the patrons of country estates to adapt familiar forms of domestic architecture than to emulate the urban civic basilica; the familiarity of the rural villa would have been relatively simple for a local workforce to alter to meet ritual needs and for these reasons Tchalenko argued that Qirq Bizeh offered a variant strain feeding into the origins of the simple hall church.34

This argument offers an alternative to the view that single-naved hall churches evolved almost completely from the same root as the early basilica form, which derived from Roman civic basilicas35 and it can also offer a possible explanation as to why a significant proportion of the churches of the limestone massif terminate in a flat east end rather than a semi-circular apse. The author has, in the past,36 like many others viewed this phenomenon as linked to interactions with Mesopotamia where there was a tradition of flat walled cellae37 in local temples, but Tchalenko’s suggestion of a variant strand of domestic influence offers a more local, vernacular reading to explain the occurrence of small churches terminating in flat east walls in northwest Syria. The suggestion that in the fourth century the emergence of church architecture was formed as much by vernacular influences as it was by larger pan-imperial architectural developments could offer the key to the interpretation of the earliest Christian ritual spaces in a variety of more remote and/or rural locations that were situated a significant distance from the major cities and their more cosmopolitan cultures.

A Kakhetian Case Study: Nekresi Monastery and Its Environs

Recently archaeological evidence has come to light in Kakheti in eastern Georgia that intriguingly mirrors the fourth-century evidence in Syria. Excavations undertaken by the Simon Janashia State Museum of Georgia at Chabukauri and Dolochopi, both in the territory of Nekresi, seem likely to rewrite our understanding of the earliest Christian architecture in Georgia.38 Ironically Nekresi monastery was put forward by Chubinashvili as the earliest extant example of Georgian ecclesiastical architecture with the ungainly structure that he dubbed a ‘basilica’ described as being a fourth century proto-basilica (Fig. 1).39 This interpretation has now been disproved with archaeological excavation at the site of the monastery finding no evidence of any occupation at the site earlier than the sixth century40 and the ‘fourth century basilica’ is now definitively identified as a sixth century mortuary chapel that bears extensive evidence of pilgrims collecting eulogiae at the site in the form of oil that had passed over the bones of the saints. These early holy men were presumably monks at the monastery who were interred in the crypt beneath the main floor of the small structure that is atypically open to the elements on all four sides and therefore bears no relation at all to a conventional basilica.

d36182163e2321Figure 1

Nekresi ‘basilica’ looking west

This concentration on the site of the monastery itself has, in the past, overlooked the fact that the territories around Nekresi were densely populated in earlier periods. A series of archaeological excavations to the west, south and east of the monastic site have produced a picture of a vibrant and cosmopolitan society that flourished until a series of natural disasters and the depredations of the Arabs led to a terminal decline for the region in the second half of the first millennium CE.41 The rise and fall of religions is also a factor in this process as the location of Nekresi in the far east of Georgia meant that it was always firmly under Persian hegemony. Until the excavations on the monastery site it had long been assumed that Nekresi was founded on the place of a Zoroastrian fire temple. This assumption was logical in that the monastery is linked with the personage of St. Abibos Nekreseli, one of the Thirteen (As)Syrian Fathers who was martyred by the Persians for pouring water on one of their holy fires in his attempt to prove the falsity of the Zoroastrian faith.42 A belief that Nekresi was built on the place where Abibos quenched the fire seemed natural given that many fire temples are deliberately sited in high places. However this belief was anachronistic when taken in conjunction with the accepted interpretation that the monastery buildings dated from the fourth century, when according to the tradition of the (As)Syrian Fathers, Abibos is believed to have been martyred in the sixth century.

Once again, archaeological excavation appears to have offered at least a partial solution in explaining the relationship of Christianity with the earlier faiths practised in the region. At the end of the twentieth century a large complex dated to the second- to third-century CE was excavated in arable fields to the south of the hill on which Nekresi monastery stands. This has been identified as a Zoroastrian fire temple and solves part of the puzzle for us—early Christian monuments are often sited deliberately on top of earlier cult complexes, but it is not unknown for them to alternatively be placed in a manner that sets them in deliberate opposition with an earlier faith. One example from Syria would be the fact that Symeon Stylites the Elder deliberately set up his pillar on a hill to the north of the pagan holy place on the top of Jebel Sheikh Barakat (the Mountain of the Old Man of Blessings). In this way he was spared the possible ‘contagion’ of standing on soil perceived to be tainted by paganism, but his presence signalled that there was a new, more powerful, God present in the valley. On this occasion it is not unreasonable to argue that the building of a monastery on the peak overlooking the former Zoroastrian temple was intended as a strong visual statement of the supremacy of the Christian faith.

In 2004 a further season established that the temple was aligned with the summer and winter solstices suggesting that it possibly incorporated some element of solar worship into the rituals carried out at the site.43 The late twentieth century excavation had yielded ceramics of the second, third and fourth centuries and charcoal from a threshold gave a radiocarbon date in the fifth century suggesting that the complex was destroyed at that time.44 Naturally the interpretation of this event was that some form of religious persecution occurred, possibly caused by the increasing confidence of the Christians, which ended in the destruction of the temple. An alternate reading is offered by Kipiani who argues that the spatial organisation of the complex is not compatible with that of a fire temple and, taking into account the astrological elements of the temple planning noted by the 2004 excavation team, he posits the theory that this complex was in actual fact a Manichaean monastic complex.45 His arguments are echoed by those of Mgaloblishvili and Rapp who have also discussed the evidence for the presence of Manichaeans in eastern Georgia, suggesting that the faith may have persisted in certain regions until the sixth century.46 Intriguingly Kipiani also argues that this ‘Manichaean’ architecture could have provided the inspiration for the phenomenon of the Georgian ‘triple church basilica’ a unique form of ecclesiastical architecture that we will discuss at length later in this work.47

Leaving aside for the moment the issues raised by the possibility that Nekresi was a bastion of Manichaeism rather than Zoroastrianism in late antiquity, the evidence from the temple shows clearly that by the fifth century the earlier faith was viewed as obsolete and a new religion, Christianity, had become dominant in the territory of Nekresi. However if the temple was destroyed in the fifth century and the monastery was not constructed until the sixth century, where did the faithful worship in the intervening century? In addition Nekresi is a monastic complex and would not have met the daily needs of the local laity. Where were they worshipping?

Nekresi Continued: The Lost Cities of Chabukauri and Dolochopi

d36182163e2375Figure 2

View looking east in the main nave of Chabukauri basilica

The answers to these questions are slowly being answered by excavations at sites to the east and west of Nekresi and the temple. Just over one kilometre to the northwest of the temple complex a substantial basilica was uncovered at the end of the twentieth century (Fig. 2). Far from being a small church designed to hold only a handful or worshippers as conventional Georgian interpretations of ecclesiastical architecture had argued, this basilica on the ‘so-called Chabukauri plot’48 measured over 33 metres along the longitudinal axis and was 15 metres wide making it an exceptionally large early basilica. This size would have been deemed impressive in Syria or Asia Minor at this time, given that the small finds from the site pointed to a fourth century date for this church. Interestingly, shortly after its construction the stucture appeared to have been fatally compromised—with the destruction believed to have been caused by an earthquake—and a smaller basilica was built utilising part of the northern aisle of the original structure as the south wall of this new church.49 Evidence from the later building put its period of usage as being the fifth and sixth centuries and the timing of this complex, along with its close proximity to the former temple across the rolling arable land at the foot of the Caucasus, suggested that at last the question of how and where people worshiped after the destruction of the temple was answered. More interestingly perhaps, the dates suggested a period of overlap where substantial places of Christian worship were built before the local temple was destroyed. This seems a much more logical chronology as it presents us with a view of a Zoroastrian (or Manichaean) temple slowly declining over the course of a century as more and more locals chose to adopt the new (Christian) faith, until eventually it became redundant and was burned and looted of its valuable stone for new building projects.

But this discovery of a presumed fourth-century basilica marked only the beginning of the exploratory process and, in a number of ways, raised far more questions than it answered. For example an earlier apsed structure was uncovered to the northwest of the basilica and the beautifully fired terracotta tiles used to pave this structure provide an indication of the importance of this building, even if its function currently remains unknown (Fig. 3). The excavation of this terracotta-paved apse also highlighted the fact that, due to the dense scrubby undergrowth surrounding the basilica, it was very difficult to place this impressive discovery within a wider context. At the time of writing, basic questions such as how far the boundaries of this late antique/early medieval settlement reached at its furthest extent or whether there were any other churches within the town still remain. Nor have there been any answers to questions relating to just when this settlement was founded or even when it was finally abandoned, allowing the scrubby foliage at the furthest foothills of the Caucasus to envelop it once more.

d36182163e2394Figure 3

Apsed structure of unknown function north of Chabukauri basilica

The situation then became even more complex in 2012 when an excavation began to the east of Nekresi. The new excavation was just over four kilometres east of the temple complex as the crow flies, but the route is more circuitous in reality as a high, densely forested hill stands between the two sites. This place was called Dolochopi after a long abandoned village in that area and was hidden in the forest on the west bank of the Duruji River.50 Once again a huge basilica was uncovered—in this case it was 36 metres by 18.5 metres in its central three naved section, but had further aisles added to both north and south in the style of the typical “three church basilica” that will be discussed later in this volume. This substantial building seemed to date to the fifth century and further excavation revealed that it was the second basilica on the site (Fig. 4). In this case radiocarbon dating has confirmed that the earlier church was a fourth century structure that appears to have burned down and been replaced in the early fifth century by the impressive basilica, that then appears to have suffered possible earthquake damage at the same time as the first church at Chabukauri.51

d36182163e2410Figure 4

Dolochopi basilica looking east

Once again the excavators were faced with a substantial basilica almost in a vacuum. The evidence pointed to a wealthy and thriving Christian community in Dolochopi by the fourth century and, based on data from the basilica, earthquake damage and a destruction event suggested that although the complex was active for several centuries, it then declined although local people continued to use the east end of the northernmost aisle as a mortuary chapel until the twelfth or thirteenth centuries.52 This paints a clear picture of a settlement that was expanding until natural factors such as earthquakes and the fact that the region was plundered by both the Persians and the Arabs in the first millennium CE all contributed to a terminal decline. The mortuary evidence proves that people were living in a village in the region until the peak of the Middle Ages, but then it seems that the settlement died out completely. However, once again, dense foliage—in this case not low-lying shrubs but established deciduous forest—has envelopped the site and therefore there is currently no way of establishing the parameters of the town on this site and answering such simple questions as to whether this was the only church in Dolochopi or whether there were other civic or cult buildings present in late antiquity at this place.

Archaeological Excavation versus Survey Evidence

We will be returning to the evidence from the churches in Nekresi territory later in this book, but this brief introduction to these sites has been to highlight the fact that, as in Syria and the re-evaluation of the late antique landscape carried out in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, evidence gained from archaeological excavation has so far proved that the situation appears to have been very different from the interpretation advanced by Chubinashvili and his followers. Whilst early Christian archaeology remains in its infancy in Georgia as a distinct sub-field of archaeology we must note that initial conclusions must be viewed as provisional. On the other hand, thus far they suggest that it is time for us to completely re-think our interpretations of early Christian society in Georgia.

These findings fit with our experience of Syria where the move from survey alone, towards a methodology that employs survey and excavation data in tandem, have proved that the best results are achieved by combining a variety of research methods to fully explore a problem. With this in mind we shall now turn to the ‘small finds,’ the portable objects discovered in excavations or kept for generations in church treasuries, in order to see if they offer any suggestion of a Syrian-Georgian relationship in late antiquity.

1Chubinashvili returned to this question a number of times over his career and so his ideas on the evolution of (small) early churches can be found in Kartuli khelovnebis istoria, vol. 1, Sakhelgami; Tbilisi, 1936, Arkhitektura Kakhetii. Issledovanie razvitiia arkhitektury v vostochnoǐ provintsii Gruzii v IVXVIII vv., Academy of Sciences of Georgia; USSR, 1959 and (in an English translation of a 1970 article in Russian) in ‘On the initial forms of Christian Churches’ in Mgaloblishvili, Tamila (ed.), Ancient Christianity in the Caucasus, Curzon; Richmond, 1998, pp. 185–195.
2For more on Nekresi see below.
3Khrushkova, L.G., ‘The Spread of Christianity in the Eastern Black Sea Littoral (Written and Archaeological Sources)’, Ancient West and East 6 (2007), pp. 177–219.
4For example see Gamakharia, Jemal, Beradze, Tamaz & Gvantseladze, Teimuraz (eds.), Assays (sic.) from the History of Georgia. Abkhazia from ancient times till the present days, Ministry of Education and Culture of Abkhazia, Institute and Ethnology of Iv. Javakhishvili; Tbilisi, 2011. This is an officially published document that has been prominently displayed in a display cabinet in the entrance to the National Parliamentary Library of Georgia and which follows the officially sanctioned state interpretation of the history of Abkhazia. The partial and flawed nature of the essays in the book attest to the fact that Soviet tactics of controlling historical narratives are still acceptable in post-communist Georgian society.
5Thanks are due to Professor Nodar Bakhtadze of the Simon Janashia State Museum of Georgia and Ilia State University for posing the question that led to this line of thought. He argued that by accepting the assertions of Chubinashvili in an unquestioning manner, various Georgian scholars have ignored or skewed their interpretation of data to fit the accepted chronology rather than allowing the data to be interpreted in the most logical, and probable, manner.
6See Tsereteli, Emil, Gongadze, Merab, Bolashvili, Nana, Lominadze, Giorgi, Gaprindashvili, George & Gaprindashvili, Merab, ‘Mudflow Phenomena in Eastern Georgia (Kakheti Region) and Their Development Trends Related to Climate Change’, International Journal of Scientific Research 3:2 (2014), pp. 193–197 for images of the varying sizes of stone carried by these flows coming down from the high Caucasus.
7Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Palestine, Israel and the Hatay region of Turkey in today’s terms.
8See for example https://www.le.ac.uk/ar/stj/dura.htm where the epithet is used on the University of Leicester website discussing their excavations at the site.
9See the magisterial three volume work by Georges Tchalenko Villages antiques de la Syrie du Nord. Le Massif du Bélus à l’ époque romaine. Bibliothèque archéologique et historique 50, Paul Geuthner; Paris, 1953. This work has never been surpassed, but as Tchalenko himself would have been the first to acknowledge, the work is based on survey rather than extensive excavation and forming conclusions from extant remains alone can significantly skew our understanding of the historical picture.
10Kennedy, Hugh, ‘From Polis to Madina: Urban Change in Late Antique and Early Islamic Syria’, Past and Present 106 (1985), pp. 3–27.
11Foss, Clive, ‘Syria in Transition, A.D. 550–750: An Archaeolological Approach’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 51 (1997), pp. 189–269.
12Geyer, Bernard, ‘Expansion and Decline of Syria’s Arid Margin’, The Arab World Geographer 5/2 (2002), pp. 73–84.
13See Tchalenko, John in Tchalenko, Georges, with additional material by Tchalenko, John & Loosley, Emma, Notes on the Sanctuary of St. Symeon Stylites at Qalʿat Simʿān, Brill, forthcoming.
14In the Citadel of Damascus a Franco-Syrian team recorded data from the 1920s when the French Mandatory Authorities adapted the site for use as a prison—a situation that remained the same until the gaol was finally closed in 1986, see Berthier, Sophie, ‘La Citadelle de Damas: les apports d’ une étude archéologique’, in Kennedy, Hugh, Muslim Military Architecture in Greater Syria: From the Coming of Islam to the Ottoman Period, Brill; Leiden, 2006, pp. 151–164.
15See http://museum.ge/index.php?lang_id=ENG&sec_id=69&info_id=13955 (Accessed 26.01.2017) to see a summary of the “Medieval Treasury” exhibition opened at the Simon Janashia National Museum of Georgia in June 2016. The text summarises the highlights of the display and includes artefacts dating back to the fifth or sixth centuries in this description demonstrating that this era is viewed as ‘Medieval’ in Georgia.
16See chapter 1.
17The study of Kartvelian history, languages, religions and culture.
18Brown, Peter, The World of Late Antiquity AD 150–750, Thames & Hudson; London, 1989 (First edition 1971).
19Samtavro cemetary covers almost 20 hectares and was used from the third millennium BCE with peaks in usage in the late Bronze Age and the Iron Age and then again in the late Roman through to late antique period. See p. 1, Sagona, A., Nikolaishvili, V., Sagona, C., Ogleby, C., Pilbrow, V., Briggs, C., Giunashvili, G., Manegaladze, G., ‘Excavations at Samtavro, 2008–2009: An Interim Report’, Ancient Near Eastern Studies 47 (2010), pp. 1–136. The National Agency for Cultural Heritage Preservation of Georgia puts the chronological span of interrments at the site as dating from the mid third millennium BCE until the tenth century CE at http://www.heritagesites.ge/eng/archeology/archeology/58 (accessed 06.02.2017). Excavation at Samtavro began in the nineteenth century and has continued sporadically ever since. There is currently a project at the Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia to conserve and study the early records of the excavations in order to make the findings of the first expeditions available to contemporary scholars who continue to work on the site, pers. comm. Dr Darejan Kacharava and see Sagona, A., Nikolaishvili, V., Sagona, C., Ogleby, C., Pilbrow, V., Briggs, C., Giunashvili, G., Manegaladze, G., ‘Bridging two continents: Renewed investigations at Samtavro, Georgia’, Journal of Archaeology of the Turkish Academy of Sciences/Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi 13 (2010), pp. 313–338.
20In early 2017 both of these objects were on show in a temporary exhibition at the entrance to the Archaeological Treasury of the Simon Janashia Museum of Georgia. They were displayed with the treasury of the Archaeological Museum of Mtskheta whilst that institution was being renovated. The ring with the truncated cross was catalogued as “Ring with images of two fish and anchor intaglio, Silver, Cornelian, Samtavro Burial 71 2nd to 3rd century AD.” The ring with a complete cross was described as “Intaglio with the images of two fish and an anchor, Cornelian, Silver, Svetiskhoveli, Burial 17, 3rd century AD.” The intaglios are published in Surguladze, T., Bibiluri, T. & Dzneladze, M., ‘Adreuli kristianobis simbolo mtskhetidan’, Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR 101:3 (1981), pp. 741–744.
21Mgaloblishvili, Tamila & Gagoshidze, Iulon, ‘The Jewish Diaspora and Early Christianity in Georgia’, in Mgaloblishvili, Tamila (ed.), Ancient Christianity in the Caucasus, Curzon; Richmond, 1998, pp. 39–58.
22p. 323, Sagona, A., et al, ‘Bridging two continents.’
23ibid.
24See chapter 1.
25See for example Chubinashvili, Giorgi N. in an essay translated into English, ‘On the initial forms of Christian Churches’ in Mgaloblishvili, Tamila (ed.), Ancient Christianity in the Caucasus, Curzon; Richmond, 1998, pp. 185–195.
26Translation by the author, pp. 136–137 Silagadze, Nino, ‘Kartuli “saplavs zeda” eklesiebi da mati paralelebi aklo aghmosavletshi’, Khelovnebatmtsodneoba 5 (2003), pp. 135–142.
27Butler, Howard Crosby, ‘Nabataean Temple Plans and the Plans of Syrian Churches’ in Glück, H. (ed.), Studien zur Kunst des Ostens, Avalun Verlag; Wien & Hellerau, 1923, pp. 9–16.
28p. 136 footnote 4 of Silagadze, Nino, ‘Kartuli “saplavs zeda” eklesiebi’ mentions Resafa using a reference to Monneret de Villard, H., ‘The Fire Temples’, Bulletin of the American Institute of Persian Art and Archaeology, 4 (1936), New York, pp. 176–184.
29Krautheimer, Richard, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, Yale University Press; New Haven & London, 1965, 4th Edition revised by Krautheimer, Richard & Ćurčić, Slobodan, 1986.
30p. 116, Maranci, Christina, Vigilant Powers: Three Churches of Early Medieval Armenia, Brepols; Turnhout, 2015.
31p. 127, ibid.
32p. 151, Tchalenko, Georges, Églises syriennes à bêma. Bibliothèque archéologique et historique 105, Paul Geuthner; Paris, 1990.
33p. 151, ibid.
34p. 151, ibid.
35pp. 202–203, Krautheimer, Richard, Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture, Yale University Press; New Haven & London, 1965, 4th Edition revised by Krautheimer, Richard & Ćurčić, Slobodan, 1986.
36p. 18, Loosley, Emma, The Architecture and Liturgy of the Bema in Fourth to Sixth-Century Syrian Churches, USEK, Patrimoine Syriaque vol. 2; Kaslik, Lebanon, 2003 (re-issued in a second edition by Brill, 2012).
37For a discussion of this issue see Loosley, Emma, ‘Syria’ in Caraher, William, Davis, Thomas and Pettegrew, David K. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Early Christian Archaeology, Oxford University Press; New York & Oxford, forthcoming.
38The discussion that follows is possible thanks to the collegiality and generosity of Professor Nodar Bakhtadze of the Simon Janashia State Museum of Georgia and Ilia State University. Professor Bakhtadze was kind enough to host the author at the 2016 and 2017 excavations at Dolochopi basilica and to offer access to his research, both published and unpublished, for the author to study in addition to accompanying her on site visits to Nekresi and arranging for her to visit Chabukauri. For further information on the excavations please consult Baktadze, Nodar, ‘Dolochopis bazilikaze 2012 tsels chatarebuli arkeologiuri kvlevis angarishi’, Kadmosi 4 (2012), pp. 273–303, Baktadze, Nodar, Mamiashvili, Vazha & Gabekhadze, Bachana, ‘Dolochopis bazilikis arkeologiuri kvleva nakalakar Nekresshi’, Onlain arkeologia 8, pp. 110–133 (downloaded from https://www.heritagesites.ge/ka/files/98 17.08.2016), Baktadze, Nodar, ‘Qvarelis durujispirira bazilikis arkeologiuri kvlevis shedegebi’, Sakartvelos erovnuli muzeumis moambe: Sazogadoebriv metsnierebata seria 4 (49B) (2013), pp. 175–198 and Baktadze, Nodar, ‘Archeological Research upon One of the Earliest Georgian Christian Basilica’, Temporis Signa: Archeologia della tarda antichità e del medioevo IX (2014), pp. 65–73. For Nekresi monastery see Baktadze, Nodar, Tevdorashvili, Natela & Bagrationi, Giorgi, Nekresi. Tsnobari momlotsvelta da mogzaurtatvis, Nekresi, 2010.
39Bakthtadze, Nodar, ‘The Oldest Basilicas Revealed in Nekresi Former City and Hypotheses on the Architectural Design of the First Georgian Christian Churches’, Jena, 2017 (forthcoming).
40Nodar Bakhtadze, pers. comm.
41To the north the monastery abuts the foothills of the High Caucasus range meaning that the territory is too mountainous to be suitable for large settlements.
42pp. 218–225, vol. 4 (1968), Abuladze, Ilia, Dzveli kartuli agiograpiuli literaturis dzeglebi, 6 vols., Gamomtsemloba ‘Metsniereba’; Tbilisi, 1963–1989.
43Simonia, Irakli, Ruggles, Clive & Bakhtadze, Nodar, ‘An Astronomical Investigation of the Seventeen Hundred Year Old Nekresi Fire Temple in the Eastern Part of Georgia’, Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage 12:3 (2009), pp. 235–239.
44p. 237, ibid.
45Kipiani, Guram, ‘Nekresis “didi kvadrati” ’, Kadmosi 1 (2009), pp. 214–251.
46Mgaloblishvili, Tamila & Rapp Jr., Stephen H., ‘Manichaeism in Late Antique Georgia?’, in Van den Berg, Jacob Albert (ed.), In Search of Truth: Manichaica, Augustiniana and Varia Gnostica, Brill; Leiden and Boston, 2011, pp. 263–290.
47See chapter 5.
48p. 65, Baktadze, Nodar, ‘Archeological Research upon One of the Earliest Georgian Christian Basilica’, Temporis Signa: Archeologia della tarda antichità e del medioevo IX (2014), pp. 65–73.
49Interestingly this second church has a synthronon. Only two basilicas in Kartli, one at Chabukauri and the other at nearby Dolochopi, are known to possess this liturgical feature. See chapter 6 for a discussion of the liturgy and liturgical furniture.
50See note 38 above for more information on these excavations.
51Results of samples submitting for tested have yielded dates of 387 CE (93.2 % probability), SUERC-70629 and between 388 CE (68.2 %) and 401 CE (95.4 %), SUERC-76888.
52Pers. comm. from time spent at the 2016 season of excavations at Dolochopi.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

Table of Contents
Index Card
References
  • Abuladze Ilia Dzveli kartuli agiograpiuli literaturis dzeglebi 6 vols. Gamomtsemloba ‘Metsniereba’; Tbilisi 1963–1989

  • Aleksidzé Z. (Introduction) Trans. Mahé J.-P. Le nouveau manuscript géorgien sinaïtique N Sin 50 Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium Vol. 586 Subsidia 108 Louvain 2001

  • Brock Sebastian ‘An Early Syriac Life of Maximus the Confessor’ Analecta Bollandiana 91 (1973) pp. 299–346

  • Brock Sebastian The Syriac Fathers on Prayer and the Spiritual Life Cistercian Publications; Kalamazoo 1987

  • Brock Sebastian The History of Mar Maʿin with a Guide to the Persian Martyr Acts Gorgias Press; Piscataway NJ 2008

  • Cleveland Coxe A. Ante-Nicene Fathers. Volume 8: The Twelve Patriarchs Excerpts and Epistles The Clementina Apocrypha Decretals Memoirs of Edessa and Syriac Documents Remains of the First Ages Roberts Alexander and Donaldson Alexander (eds.) Revised and Chronologically arranged with brief prefaces and occasional notes by A. Cleveland Coxe Christian Literature Publishing Co.; New York 1886

  • Connolly R.H. ‘Expositio officiorum ecclesiae Georgio Arbelensi vulgo adscripta & Abrahae Bar Lipeh interpretatio officiorum’ Corpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 64717276 Scriptores Syri 91 92 (1911–1915)

  • Cureton William (Trans.) & Wright William Ancient Syriac Documents Relative to the Earliest Establishment of Christianity in Edessa and the Neighbouring Countries from the Year After Our Lord’s Ascension to the Beginning of the Fourth Century Williams & Norgate; London & Edinburgh 1864

  • Doran Robert Trans. Stewards of the Poor: The Man of God Rabbula and Hiba in Fifth-Century Edessa Cistercian Publications; Kalamazoo 2006

  • Egeria Trans. Wilkinson J. Egeria’s Travels Aris & Phillips; Warminster 1999

  • Eusebius Trans. Williamson G.A. The History of the Church Penguin; London 1989

  • Germanus of Constantinople Trans. Meyendorff Paul On the Divine Liturgy St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press; New York 1984

  • Isidore of Charax Trans. Schoff Wilfred H. Parthian Stations Commercial Museum of Philadelphia; Philadelphia 1914

  • John of Ephesus Trans. R. Payne Smith The Third Part of the Ecclesiastical History Oxford University Press; Oxford 1860

  • John of Ephesus Trans. & Ed. Brooks E.W. Lives of the Eastern Saints in Graffin R. & Nau F. (eds.) Patrologia Orientalis vol. 17 Librairie de Paris; Paris 1923 pp. 1–307

  • John Rufus Trans. & Ed. Nau F. Plérophories in Graffin R. & Nau F. (eds.) Patrologia Orientalis vol. 8 Librairie de Paris; Paris 1912 pp. 5–208

  • John Rufus Trans. & Ed. Horn Cornelia B. & Phenix Jr Robert R. The Lives of Peter the Iberian Theodosius of Jerusalem and the Monk Romanus Society of Biblical Literature; Atlanta 2008

  • Kldiashvili Darejan & Skhirtladze Zaza Garejis epigrapikuli dzeglebi. Tomi I: Ts. Davitis lavra Udabnos monasteri Garejia Studies Centre; Tbilisi 1999

  • Lang David Marshall Lives and Legends of the Georgian Saints Mowbrays; London & Oxford 1976

  • Lucian Trans. Harmon A.M. ‘De Syria Dea’ Lucian vol. 4 Loeb Classical Library 162 Harvard University Press; Cambridge MA & London 1925

  • Machitadze Archpriest Zakaria Lives of the Georgian Saints St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood; Platina CA 2006

  • Maximus the Confessor Trans. Shoemaker Stephen J. The Life of the Virgin Yale University Press; New Haven and London 2012

  • Metreveli Roin & Jones Stephen (eds.) Kartlis Tskhovreba Georgian National Academy of Sciences Commission For The Study of Georgian Historical Sources Gamomtsemloba Artanuji; Tbilisi 2014

  • Mgaloblishvili Tamila Klarjuli mravalt‘avi Dzveli k‘art‘uli mcerlobis dzeglebi 12; Tbilisi 1991 With English summary ‘The Klardjeti Polycephalon’ pp. 466–490

  • Moses Khorenats’i Trans. Thomson Robert W. History of the Armenians Caravan Books; Ann Arbor 2006

  • Peeters Paul ‘Sainte Sousanik martyre en Arméno-Géorgie’ Analecta Bollandiana 53 (1935) pp. 5–48 & pp. 245–307

  • Phillips George Trans. The Doctrine of Addai The Apostle Trübner & Co; London 1876

  • Procopius Trans. Dewing H.B. History of the Wars. Books III Loeb Classical Library 48 Harvard University Press; Cambridge MA & London 1914

  • Procopius Trans. Dewing H.B. History of the Wars. Books VII.36–VIII Loeb Classical Library 217 Harvard University Press; Cambridge MA & London 1928

  • Procopius Trans. Dewing H.B. Buildings Loeb Classical Library 343 Harvard University Press; Cambridge MA & London 1940

  • Pseudo-Joshua the Stylite Trans. Trombley Frank R. & Watt John W. The Chronicle of Pseudo-Joshua the Stylite Liverpool University Press; Liverpool 2000

  • Rufinus of Aquileia Trans. Amidon Philip R. S.J.The Church History of Rufinus of Aquileia Books 10 and 11 Oxford University Press; Oxford 1997

  • Scher Addaï Trans. & Ed. Histoire Nestorienne (Chronique de Séert) in Graffin R. (ed.) Patrologia Orientalis vol. 7 Fasc. 2. Librairie de Paris; Paris 1950

  • Skhirtladze Zaza Tsminda Shio Mghvimelis tskhovrebis dzveli nuskha Sakartelos Erovnuli Arkivi; Tbilisi 2014

  • Staniforth Maxwell Trans. & Louth Andrew Ed. Early Christian Writings Penguin; London 1987

  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus Trans. Walford Edward Ecclesiastical History Samuel Bagster & Sons; London 1844

  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus Trans. Price R.M. A History of the Monks of Syria Cistercian Publications; Kalamazoo 1985

  • Theodoret of Cyrrhus Antonius and Anonymous Trans. Doran R. The Lives of Simeon Stylites Cistercian Publications; Kalamazoo 1992

  • Thomson Robert W. Trans. Rewriting Caucasian History: The Medieval Armenian Adaptation of the Georgian Chronicles the original Georgian texts and the Armenian adaptation Clarendon Press; Oxford 1996

  • Van den Ven Paul La vie ancienne de S. Syméon Stylite le Jeune (521–592)I. Introduction et texte grecII. Traduction et Commentaire Vie grecque de sainte Marie mère de S. Syméon Indices Subsidia Hagiographica 32 Société des Bollandistes; Brussels 1962 & 1970

  • Wardrop Margery Trans. ‘Life of Saint Nino’ Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica 5 (1903) pp. 3–88

  • Abdullah Yaarob ‘The Works of the Syrian Mission in the Byzantine City (Tell Al Kasra) in Five Seasons (2006–2010)’ Res Antiquitatis 2 (2011) pp. 269–285

  • Abousamra Gaby ‘Syriac and Karshuni Inscriptions on Wall Paintings in the Qadisha Valley Lebanon’ Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies 4:2–3 (2016) pp. 148–193

  • Abramishvili Guram & Aleksidze Zaza ‘A National Motif in the Iconographic Programme depicted on the Davati Stela’ Le Muséon 103 (1990) pp. 283–292

  • Abramishvili Guram ‘Beit mar isaak gabulelis monastris shinamdzghvar tomas epistole’ Narkvevebi 2 (1996) pp. 64–71

  • Abramischwili Rostom & Michael ‘Archäologische Denkmäler im Stadtgebiet von Tbilissi’ in Miron Andrei & Orthmann Winfried (eds.) Unterwegs zum Goldenen Vlies. Archäologische Funde aus Georgien Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte Saarbrücken; Saarbrücken 1995 pp. 185–205.

  • Aghion Irène Durand Jannic Gaborit-Chopin Danielle & Germain Marie-Odile (eds.) Byzanze. L’ art byzantin dans les collections publiques françaises Exposition au Musée du Louvre du 3 novembre 1992 au 1er février 1993 Réunion des Musées Nationaux; Paris 1992

  • Aleksidzé Zaza & Mahé Jean-Pierre ‘Manuscrits géorgiens découverts à Sainte-Catherine du Sinaï’ Comptes rendus des séances de l’ Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres 139e année N. 2 (1995) pp. 487–494.

  • Alexidze Zaza ‘The new recensions of the “Conversion of Georgia” and the “Lives of the 13 Syrian Fathers” recently discovered on Mt. Sinai’ in Il Caucaso: Cerniera fra culture dal Mediterraneo alla Persia (secoli IVXI) Centro italiano di studi sull’alto medievo; Spoleto 1996 pp. 409–426

  • Aleksidze Zaza ‘Mandilioni da keramioni dzvel kartul mtserlobashi’ Academia 1 (2001) pp. 9–15

  • Aleksidze Zaza ‘Establishment of National Churches in the Caucasus’ The Caucasus and Globalization 2:3 (2008) pp. 142–150

  • Allen W.E.D. A History of the Georgian People from the Beginning down to the Russian Conquest in the Nineteenth Century Kegan Paul Trench Trubner & Co; London 1932

  • Alpago Novello Adriano ‘Armenian architecture from East to West’ in Alpago Novello Adriano Jeni Giulio Manoukian Agopik Pensa Alberto Uluhogian Gabriella & Zekiyan Boghos Levon The Armenians. 2000 Years of Art and Architecture Bookking International; Paris 1995 pp. 131–191

  • Amiranasvili Shalva ‘Georgian Art’ Bedi Kartlisa 26 (1969) pp. 170–190

  • Anderson William ‘An Archaeology of Late Antique Pilgrim Flasks’ Anatolian Studies 54 (2004) pp. 79–93

  • Andrews Tara L. ‘Identity Philosophy and the Problem of Armenian History in the Sixth Century’ in Wood Philip (ed.) History and Identity in the Late Antique Near East Oxford University Press; Oxford 2013 pp. 29–41

  • Antreassian Elise Findikyan Daniel & Zakian Christopher Living the Gospel of Christ: Transfiguration Diocese of the Armenian Church of America Eastern; New York 2013

  • Arkhipova E.I. ‘Bronzovoe Kadilo iz Sudaka v Odesskom Arkheologicheskom Muzee’ Bizantiǐskiǐ Bremennik 67 (92) 2008 pp. 207–216

  • Arzhantseva Irina ‘The Christianization of North Caucasus (Religious Dualism among the Alans)’ Die Christianisierung Des Kaukasus Verlag Der Österreichischen Akademie Der Wissenschaften; Vienna 2002 pp. 17–36

  • Arzhantseva Irina ‘Alans: between Byzantium and Khazaria’ in Helmig Guido Schollemann Barbara & Untermann Matthias (eds.) Centre-Region-Periphery: Medieval Europe Basel 2002 vol. 1 Folio-Verlag; Hertingen 2002 pp. 3–8

  • Arzhantseva Irina ‘The Alans: Neighbours of the Khazars in the Caucasus’ in Golden Peter B. Ben-Shammai Haggai & Róna-Tas András (eds.) The World of the Khazars. New Perspectives. Selected Papers from the Jerusalem 1999 International Khazar Colloquium hosted by the Ben Zvi Institute Brill; Leiden & Boston 2007 pp. 59–73

  • Arzhantseva Irina ‘The Cult of Saint Eustace in the North Caucasus’ Nāme-ye Irān-e Bāstān 11/2 (2011–2012) pp. 1–12

  • Ashkan Maryam & Ahmad Yahaya ‘Persian Domes: History Morphology and Typology’ Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research 3:3 (2009) pp. 98–115

  • Ayazi Souri & Miri Sima Decorative Architectural Stucco from the Parthian and Sassanid eras National Museum of Iran; Tehran undated

  • Bakhtadze Nodar Kvemo kartlis kldis dzeglebi Sakartvelo; Tbilisi 1991

  • Bakhtadze Nodar ‘Manglisis midamoebshi akhlad gamovlenili samonastro ansambli’ Khelovnebatmtsodneoba 5 (2003) pp. 5–15

  • Bakhtadze Nodar Kldis khurotmodzghvrebis genezisi da ganvitarebis gzebi sakartveloshi National Museum of Georgia; Tbilisi 2007

  • Baktadze Nodar Tevdorashvili Natela & Bagrationi Giorgi Nekresi. Tsnobari momlotsvelta da mogzaurtatvis Nekresi 2010

  • Baktadze Nodar ‘Dolochopis bazilikaze 2012 tsels chatarebuli arkeologiuri kvlevis angarishi’ Kadmosi 4 (2012) pp. 273–303

  • Baktadze Nodar Mamiashvili Vazha & Gabekhadze Bachana ‘Dolochopis bazilikis arkeologiuri kvleva nakalakar Nekresshi’ Onlain arkeologia 8 pp. 110–133 (downloaded from https://www.heritagesites.ge/ka/files/98 17.08.2016)

  • Baktadze Nodar ‘Qvarelis durujispirira bazilikis arkeologiuri kvlevis shedegebi’ Sakartvelos erovnuli muzeumis moambe: Sazogadoebriv metsnierebata seria 4 (49B) (2013) pp. 175–198

  • Bakhtadze Nodar Ceramics in Medieval Georgia Georgian National Museum; Tbilisi 2013

  • Baktadze Nodar ‘Archeological Research upon One of the Earliest Georgian Christian Basilica’ Temporis Signa: Archeologia della tarda antichità e del medioevo IX (2014) pp. 65–73

  • Bakhtadze Nodar Gabekhadze Bachana & Mamiashvili Vazha

  • ‘Typological and Chronological Problems of David-Gareji (Georgia) Cave Churches Against the Background of Cappadocian Rock-cut Monuments’ Hypogea 2017—Proceedings of International Congress of Speleology in Artificial Cavities—Cappadocia March 6/8 2017

  • Bakthtadze Nodar ‘The Oldest Basilicas Revealed in Nekresi Former City and Hypotheses on the Architectural Design of the First Georgian Christian Churches’ Jena 2017 (forthcoming)

  • Baldovin John F. Liturgy in Ancient Jerusalem Grove; Nottingham 1989

  • Baltrušaitis Jurgis L’ Église Cloisonné en Orient et en Occident Les Éditions D’ Art et D’ Histoire; Paris 1941

  • Balty Janine & Briquel Chatonnet Françoise ‘Nouvelles Mosaïques Inscràites D’ Osrhoène’ Monuments et Mémoires Fondation Eugène Piot 79 (2000) pp. 31–72

  • Bangert Suzanne ‘The Archaeology of Pilgrimage: Abu Mina and Beyond’ in Gywn David M. & Bangert Susanne (eds.) Religious Diversity in Late Antiquity Brill; Leiden & Boston 2010 pp. 293–327

  • Bank A.V. Vizantiiskoe Iskusstvo V Sobraniiakh Sovetskogo Soieza Izdatelstvo “Sovetskii Khudozhnik”; Leningrad & Moscow 1966

  • Barag Dan ‘Glass Pilgrim Vessels from Jerusalem: Part IJournal of Glass Studies 12 (1970) pp. 35–63

  • Barag Dan ‘Glass Pilgrim Vessels from Jerusalem: Parts II and IIIJournal of Glass Studies 13 (1971) pp. 45–63

  • Baramidze Malkhaz & Pkhakhadze Guranda ‘The Settlement at Chorati’ in Gamkrelidze Gela (ed.) Rescue Archaeology in Georgia: Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan South Caucasian Pipelines Georgian National Museum; Tbilisi 2010 pp. 457–471

  • Bardill Jonathan ‘The Church of Sts. Sergius and Bacchus in Constantinople and the Monophysite Refugees’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 54 (2000) pp. 1–11

  • Barkava M. Dolidze E. Beridze V. & Gurgenidze N. Giorgi Chubinashvili (1895–1973): Biobibliograpia Gamomcemloba “Mecniereba”; Tbilisi 1977

  • Baroudi Fadi (ed.) Momies du Liban. Rapport préliminaire sur la découverte archéologique de ʿĀṣī-l-Ḥadaṭ Édifra; Beirut 1994

  • Becker Adam H. ‘Martyrdom Religious Difference and “Fear” as a Category of Piety in the Sasanian Empire: The Case of the Martyrdom of Gregory and the Martyrdom of Yazdpaneh’ Journal of Late Antiquity 2:2 (2009) pp. 300–336

  • Bell Gertrude Lowthian Amurath to Amurath William Heinemann; London 1911

  • Bell Gertrude Lowthian (with intoduction and notes by Mango Marlia Mundell) The Churches and Monasteries of the Ṭur ʿAbdin The Pindar Press; London 1982

  • Berdzenishvili Irma ‘The Ecclesiastical Architecture of Abkhazia in the Early Middle Ages’ in Skinner Peter Tumanishvili Dimitri & Shanshiashvili Anna (eds.) Georgian Art in the Context of European and Asian Cultures: Proceedings of the Vakhtang Beridze 1st International Symposium of Georgian Culture June 21–29 Georgia Georgian Arts and Culture Centre; Tbilisi 2009 pp. 201–204

  • Berger Pamela ‘The Temples/Tabernacles in the Dura-Europos Synagogue Paintings’ in Brody Lisa R. & Hoffman Gail L. (eds.) Dura Europos: Crossroads of Antiquity McMullen Museum of Art Boston College; Boston MA 2011 pp. 123–140

  • Berger Teresa Gender Differences and the Making of Liturgical History: Lifting a Veil on Liturgy’s Past Ashgate; Farnham 2011

  • Beridze Vaktang ‘L’ architecture religieuse georgienne des IVe–VIIe siecles’ Kartuli khelovnebisadmi misdzghnili II saertashoriso simpoziumi Institut Tschubinaschvili d’ histoire de l’ art georgien Metsniereba; Tbilisi 1977

  • Beridse Wachtang Neubauer Edith & Beyer Klaus G. Die Baukunst des Mittelalters in Georgien Union Verlag; Berlin 1980

  • Berthier Sophie ‘La Citadelle de Damas: les apports d’ une étude archéologique’ in Kennedy Hugh Muslim Military Architecture in Greater Syria: From the Coming of Islam to the Ottoman Period Brill; Leiden 2006 pp. 151–164

  • Binns John Ascetics and Ambassadors of Christ: The Monasteries of Palestine 314–631 Oxford University Press; Oxford 1996

  • Birdsall J. Neville ‘The Old Syriac Gospels and the Georgian version: the question of relationship’ in Lavenant René (ed.) VI Symposium Syriacum 1992 Pontificio Istituto Orientale; Rome 1994 pp. 43–50

  • Biscop J.-L. & Sodini J.-P. ‘Églises syriennes apparentées à Qalʿat Semʿan: les exemples de Turin et de Fasuq dans le gebel Wastani’ Syria 64:1/2 (1987) pp. 107–129

  • Bitton-Ashkelony Brouria ‘Pilgrimage in Monastic Culture in Late Antiquity’ in Stone Michael E. Ervine Roberta R. & Stone Nira (eds.) The Armenians in Jerusalem and the Holy Land Peeters; Leuven 2002 pp. 1–17

  • Blair Sheila S. & Bloom Jonathan M. ‘Syria and the Middle Euphrates after Dura’ in Brody Lisa R. & Hoffman Gail L. (eds.) Dura Europos: Crossroads of Antiquity McMullen Museum of Art Boston College; Boston MA 2011 pp. 111–121

  • Boin Douglas Coming Out Christian in the Roman World Bloomsbury; New York & London 2015

  • Bolkvadze Givi ‘The First Christian Church in Mtskheta—The Lower Church of “Holy of Holies” ’ Journal of Georgian Archaeology 1 (2004) pp. 203–207

  • Bol’skaia A.I. ‘Rel’efnaia Plita iz Zedazenskogo Monastyria’ Ars Georgica 8 (1979) pp. 91–106 + plates

  • Boltounova Anna I. ‘Quelques notes sur l’ inscription de Vespasien trouvée à Mtskhetha’ Klio: Beiträge zur alten Geschichte 53 (1971) pp. 213–222

  • Börm Henning ‘Procopius and the East’ in Meier (ed.) The Brill Companion to Procopius Leiden; Brill 2017 (forthcoming)

  • Bowersock G.W. ‘Notes on the New Edessene Mosaic of Prometheus’ Hyperboreus 7 (2001) fasc. 1–2 pp. 411–416

  • Bowersock G.W. Mosaics as History: The Near East From Late Antiquity to Islam The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press; Cambridge MA & London 2006

  • Bowersock G.W. The Throne of Adulis: Red Sea wars on the eve of Islam Oxford University Press; Oxford 2013

  • Bowes Kim Private Worship Public Values and Religious Change in Late Antiquity Cambridge University Press; Cambridge 2008

  • Bradshaw Paul. F. Reconstructing Early Christian WorshipSPCK; London 2009

  • Braund David ‘Roman and Native in Transcaucasia from Pompey to Sucessianus’ in Maxfield V.A. & Dobson M.J. (eds.) Roman Frontier Studies University of Exeter Press; Exeter 1991 pp. 419–423

  • Braund David Georgia in Antiquity. A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BCAD 562 Clarendon Press; Oxford 1994

  • Briquel Chatonnet Françoise Desreumaux Alain & Moukarzel Joseph ‘Découverte d’ une inscription syriaque mentionnant l’ évêque Rabbula’ in Kiraz George (ed.) Malphono w-Rabo d-Malphone. Studies in Honor of Sebastian P. Brock Gorgias Press; Piscataway 2008 pp. 19–28

  • Briquel-Chatonnet Françoise ‘L’ inscription de Bamuqqa et la question du bilinguisme gréco-syriaque dans le massif calcaire de Syrie du Nord’ in Briquel-Chatonnet Françoise & Debié Muriél (eds.) Sur les pas des Araméens chrétiens. Mélanges offerts à Alain Desreumaux Geuthner; Paris 2010 pp. 269–277

  • Briquel Chatonnet F. & Desreumaux A. ‘Syriac Inscriptions in Syria’ Hugoye 14.1 (2011) pp. 27–44

  • Briquel Chatonnet F. & Desreumaux A. ‘Oldest Syriac Christian Inscription Discovered In North-Syria’ Hugoye 14.1 (2011) pp. 45–61

  • Brock Sebastian P. Review of Old-Syriac (Edessean) Inscriptions by H.J.W. Drijvers Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 36:1 (1973) pp. 133–134

  • Brock Sebastian P. ‘The conversations with the Syrian Orthodox under Justinian (532)’ Orientalia Christiana Periodica 47 (1981) pp. 87–121

  • Brock Sebastian P. ‘Christians in the Sasanian Empire: A Case of Divided Loyalties’ in Mews Stuart (ed.) Religion and National Identity: Papers Read at the Nineteenth Summer Meeting and the Twentieth Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society Basil Blackwell; Oxford 1982 pp. 1–19

  • Brock Sebastian P. ‘The ‘Nestorian’ Church: a lamentable misnomer’ Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester 78:3 (1996) pp. 23–35

  • Brock Sebastian ‘Transformations of the Edessa Portrait of Christ’ Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies 18:1 (2004) pp. 46–56

  • Brock Sebastian P. ‘A Further Funerary Mosaic Inscription From Osrhoene’ ARAM 18–19 (2006–2007) pp. 715–721

  • Brock Sebastian P. ‘Saints in Syriac: A Little-Tapped Resource’ Journal of Early Christian Studies 16:2 (2008) pp. 181–196

  • Brock Sebastian P. ‘Edessene Syriac inscriptions in late antique Syria’ in Cotton Hannah M. Hoyland Robert G. Price Jonathan J. & Wasserstein David J. (eds.) From Hellenism to Islam. Cultural and Linguistic Change in the Roman Near East Cambridge University Press; Cambridge 2009 pp. 289–303

  • Brock Sebastian P. ‘Miaphysite not monophysite!’ Cristianesimo nella storia 37:1 (2016) pp. 45–54

  • Brody Lisa R. ‘Yale University and Dura-Europos: From Excavation to Exhibition’ in Brody Lisa R. & Hoffman Gail L. (eds.) Dura Europos: Crossroads of Antiquity McMullen Museum of Art Boston College; Boston MA 2011 pp. 17–32

  • Brown Peter The World of Late Antiquity AD 150–750 Thames & Hudson; London 1989 (First edition 1971)

  • Brown Peter ‘The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity’ The Journal of Roman Studies 61 (1971) pp. 80–101

  • Brown Peter ‘Town Village and Holy Man: The Case of Syria’ reprinted in Brown Peter Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity University of California Press; Berkeley 1982 pp. 153–165

  • Brown Peter Authority and the Sacred Cambridge University Press; Cambridge 1995

  • Brown Peter ‘The Rise and Function of the Holy Man in Late Antiquity 1971–1997’ Journal of Early Christian Studies 6:3 (1998) pp. 353–376

  • Brown Peter ‘Images as a Substitute for Writing’ in Chrysos Evangelos & Wood Ian (eds.) East and West: Modes of Communication. Proceedings of the First Plenary Conference at Merida Brill; Leiden 1999 pp. 15–34

  • Bubulashvili Eldar Holy Relics Of The Church Of Georgia Akhali Ivironi; Tbilisi 2011

  • Bulia Marina & Janjalia Mzia Mtskheta Tbilisi 2000

  • Bulia Marina Volskaya Aneli & Tumanishvili Dimitri Davitgareji Monasteries: Laura Udabno Tbilisi 2008

  • Bulia Marina Volskaya Aneli Tumanishvili Dimitri & Jojua Teimuraz Davitgareji Monasteries: Natlismcemeli Bertubani Tbilisi 2010

  • Burchuladze Nana (ed.) Medieval Georgian Ecclesiastical Art in The Georgian National Museum Tbilisi 2012

  • Burney Charles & Lang David Marshall The Peoples of the Hills. Ancient Ararat and Caucasus Weidenfeld & Nicolson; London 1971

  • Burton Richard Francis exhibit presented on Thursday March 14th 1872 Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries (Second Series) 5 (1873) pp. 289–291.

  • Butler Howard Crosby ‘The Princeton University Archaeological Expedition to Syria’ Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 46 No. 185 (1907) pp. 182–186

  • Butler Howard Crosby ‘Nabataean Temple Plans and the Plans of Syrian Churches’ in Glück H. (ed.) Studien zur Kunst des Ostens Avalun Verlag; Vienna & Hellerau 1923 pp. 9–16

  • Butts Aaron Michael ‘Assyrian Christians’ in Frahm Eckhart (ed.) A Companion to Assyria Wiley-Blackwell; Malden 2017 DOI: 10.1002/9781118325216.ch32.

  • Canepa Matthew P. The Two Eyes of the Earth: Art and Ritual of Kingship between Rome and Sasanian Iran University of California Press; Berkeley 2009

  • Canepa Matthew P. ‘Preface: Theorizing Cross-Cultural Interaction Among Ancient and Early Medieval Visual Cultures’ Ars Orientalis 38 (2010) pp. 7–29

  • Canepa Matthew P. ‘Distant Displays of Power: Understanding Cross-Cultural Interaction Among the Elites of Rome Sasanian Iran and Sui-Tang China’ Ars Orientalis 38 (2010) pp. 121–154

  • Carrington Philip According to Mark: a Running Commentary on the Oldest Gospel Cambridge University Press; Cambridge 1960

  • Caseau Béatrice ‘The Fate of Rural Temples in Late Antiquity and the Christianisation of the Countryside’ Late Antique Archaeology 2:1 (2004) pp. 103–144

  • Caseau Béatrice ‘Objects in Churches: The Testimony of Inventories’ in Lavan Luke Swift Ellen & Putzeys Toon Objects in Context Objects in Use: Material Spatiality in Late Antiquity Brill; Leiden 2007 pp. 551–579

  • Castelli Elizabeth A. Martyrdom and Memory. Early Christian Culture Making Columbia University Press; New York 2004

  • Chaaya Anis ‘The Qadisha Valley Lebanon’ Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies 4:2–3 (2016) pp. 127–147

  • Chachanidze Vasilii I. Petr Iver i Arkheologicheskie Raskopki Gruziskogo Monastbria v Ierusalime Metsniereba; Tbilisi 1977

  • Charachidzé Georges Le système religieux de la Géorgie païenne. Analyse structurale d’ une civilisation Librairie François Maspero; Paris 1968

  • Chernykh E.N. ‘Postscript: Russian archaeology after the collapse of the USSR—infrastructural crisis and the resurgence of old and new nationalisms’ in Kohl Philip L. & Fawcett Clare (eds.) Nationalism politics and the practice of archaeology Cambridge University Press; Cambridge 1995 pp. 139–148

  • Chilashvili L. Kiknadze G. Apkhazava N. & Bakhtadze N. ‘Areshis nakalakaris gatkhrebi (1978–1979 tsts.)’ Sakartvelos sakhelmtsipo muzeumis arkeologiuri ekspeditsiebi 7 (1980) pp. 64–78

  • Chilashvili L. Kiknadze G. Apkhazava N. Bakhtadze N. & Gotsadze K. ‘Areshis ekspeditsiis shedegebi’ Sakartvelos sakhelmtsipo muzeumis arkeologiuri ekspeditsiebi 8 (1986) pp. 92–105

  • Chichileishvili Maia ‘Brinjaos satsetskhluri kedis mkharetmtsodneobis muzeumidan’ Kheloznebatmtsodneobiti etiudebi VI (2015) pp. 70–82

  • Chikhladze Vera ‘The Zhinvali Cemetery’ in Sagona Antonio & Abramishvili Mikheil (eds.) Archaeology in Southern Caucasus: Perspectives from Georgia Peeters; Leuven 2008 pp. 449–465

  • Chikhladze Vera ‘Chorati Early-Christian Period Cemetery’ in Gamkrelidze Gela (ed.) Rescue Archaeology in Georgia: Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan South Caucasian Pipelines Georgian National Museum; Tbilisi 2010 pp. 479–492

  • Chkhatarashvili Meri ‘Minis churcheli rustavidan’ Dziebani 4 (1999) pp. 70–77

  • Chubinashvili Giorgi Georgische Baukunst Band II: Die Kirche In Zromi und Ihr Mosaik Verlag Des Museums Der Bildenden Künste «Metechi»; Tbilisi 1934

  • Chubinashvili Giorgi N. Kartuli khelovnebis istoria vol. 1 Sakhelgami; Tbilisi 1936

  • Chubinashvili Giorgi N. ‘Siriĭskaĭa chasha v Ushgule’ Vestnik Gosudarstvennogo muzeu Gruzii 11-5 (1941) pp. 1–19

  • Chubinashvili Giorgi N. Arkhitektura Kakhetii. Issledovanie razvitiia arkhitektury v vostochnoǐ provintsii Gruzii v IVXVIII vv. Academy of Sciences of Georgia; USSR 1959

  • Chubinashvili Giorgi N. Tsromi iz istorii gruzinskoǐ arkhitektury pervoǐ treti VII veka Izdatel’stvo ‘nakyka’; Moscow 1969

  • Tschubinaschwili Georg ‘Zu Anfangsformen Der Christlichen Kirche’ Kartuli khelovnebisadmi misdzghnili II saertashoriso simpoziumi Institut

  • Tschubinaschvili d’ histoire de l’ art georgien Metsniereba; Tbilisi 1977

  • Chubinashvili Giorgi N. ‘Bolnisskiǐ sion (k voprosu ėvoliutsii bazilichnoĭ formy)’ Iz Istorii Srednevekovogo Iskusstva Gruzii Sovetskiĭ Khudozhnik; Moscow 1990 pp. 60–71

  • Chubinashvili Giorgi N. ‘On the initial forms of Christian Churches’ in Mgaloblishvili Tamila (ed.) Ancient Christianity in the Caucasus Curzon; Richmond 1998 pp. 185–195

  • Cimok Fatih (ed) Antioch Mosaics A Turizm Yayinlari; Istanbul 1995

  • Cline Rangar H. ‘A Two-Sided Mold and the Entrepreneurial Spirit of Pilgrimage Souvenir Production in Late Antique Syria-Palestine’ Journal of Late Antiquity 7:1 (2014) pp. 28–48

  • Conybeare F.C. ‘The Date of Moses of Khoren’ Byzantinische Zeitschrift 10 (1901) pp. 489–504

  • Cowe S. Peter ‘Generic and Methodological Developments in Theology in Caucasia from the Fourth to Eleventh Centuries within a Eastern Christian Context’ in Il Caucaso: Cerniera fra culture dal Mediterraneo alla Persia (secoli IVXI) Centro italiano di studi sull’alto medievo; Spoleto 1996 pp. 647–683

  • Croke Brian ‘Justinian Theodora and the Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 60 (2006) pp. 25–63

  • Curta Florin ‘Ethnic Identity and Archaeology’ in Smith Claire (ed.) Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology Springer Reference; New York 2014 pp. 2507–2514

  • Dalton O.M. Catalogue of Early Christian Antiquities and Objects from the Christian East in the Department of British and Mediaeval Antiquities and Ethnography of the British Museum London & Oxford 1901

  • Debié Muriél ‘Record Keeping and Chronicle Writing in Antioch and Edessa’ ARAM 11 & 12 (1999–2000) pp. 409–417

  • De Blaauw Sible ‘Architecture and Liturgy in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Traditions and Trends in Modern Scholarship’ Archiv Für Liturgiewissenschaft 33 (1991) pp. 1–34

  • Decker Michael ‘Towers Refuges and Fortified Farms in the Late Roman East’ Liber Annuus 56 (2006) pp. 499–520

  • De Jong Albert ‘The Disintegration and Death of Religions’ in Stausberg Michael & Engler Steven (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of The Study of Religion Oxford University Press; Oxford 2016 pp. 646–664

  • Deleeuw Patricia ‘A Peaceful Pluralism: The Durene Mithraeum Synagogue and Christian Building’ in Brody Lisa R. & Hoffman Gail L. (eds.) Dura Europos: Crossroads of Antiquity McMullen Museum of Art Boston College; Boston MA 2011 pp. 189–199

  • Demetradze Irina & Kipiani Guram ‘Cultural landscapes of Seusamora in Eastern Georgia’ in Kluiving S.J. & Guttmann-Bond E.B. (eds.) Landscape Archaeology between Art and Science Amsterdam University Press; Amsterdam 2012 pp. 33–44

  • Didebulidze Mariam & Tumanishvili Dimitri Ancient Georgian Art Tbilisi 2008

  • Diehl Charles ‘L’ école artistique d’ Antioche et les trésors d’ argenterie syrienne’ Syria 2:2 (1921) pp. 81–95

  • Dirven Lucinda ‘Strangers and Sojourners: The Religious Behavior of Palmyrenes and Other Foreigners in Dura-Europos’ in Brody Lisa R. & Hoffman Gail L. (eds.) Dura Europos: Crossroads of Antiquity McMullen Museum of Art Boston College; Boston MA 2011 pp. 201–220

  • Dix Gregory The Shape of the Liturgy Dacre Press; London 1943

  • Djobadze Wachtang Z. ‘The Sculptures on the Eastern Façade of the Holy Cross of Mtzkhet‘a’ Oriens Christianus 44 (1960) pp. 122–135 & 45 (1961) pp. 70–77

  • Djobadze Wachtang Z. Materials for the study of Georgian monasteries in the Western environs of Antioch on the OrontesCorpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 372 Subsidia 48 Louvain 1976

  • Djobadze Wachtang Archaeological Investigations in the Region West of Antioch On-The-Orontes Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden Gmbh; Stuttgart 1986

  • Djobadze Wachtang Early Medieval Georgian Monasteries in Historic Tao Klarjet’i and Šavšet’i Franz Steiner Verlag; Stuttgart 1992

  • Dodd Erica Cruikshank Byzantine Silver Stamps Dumbarton Oaks Studies 7; Washington DC 1961

  • Dodd Erica Cruikshank ‘Byzantine Silver Stamps: Supplement I. New Stamps from the Reigns of Justin II and Constans IIDumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964) pp. 237–248

  • Dodd Erica Cruikshank ‘Byzantine Silver Stamps: Supplement II. More Treasure from Syria’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 22 (1968) pp. 141–149

  • Dodd Erica Cruikshank ‘Three Early Byzantine Silver Crosses’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 41 (1987) pp. 165–179

  • Doig Allan Liturgy and Architecture From the Early Church to the Middle Ages

  • Ashgate; Farnham 2008

  • Dolukhanov Pavel M. ‘Archaeology and nationalism in totalitarian and post-totalitarian Russia’ in Atkinson John A. Banks Iain & O’Sullivan Jerry (eds.) Nationalism and Archaeology. Scottish Archaeological Forum Cruithne Press; Glasgow 1996 pp. 200–213

  • Dolukhanov Pavel M. ‘Archaeology in the ex-USSR: post-perestroyka problems’ Antiquity 67 (1993) pp. 150–156

  • Donceel-Voûte Pauline Les pavements des églises byzantines de la Syrie et du Liban. Décor archéologie et liturgie Public. de l’ Inst. Supér. d’ Archéol. et d’ Histoire de l’ Art; Louvain-la-Neuve 1988

  • Downey Glanville ‘The Dating of the Syrian Liturgical Silver Treasure in the Cleveland Museum’ The Art Bulletin 35:2 (1953) pp. 143–145

  • Downey Glanville A History of Antioch in Syria from Seleucus to the Arab Conquest Princeton University Press; Princeton 1961

  • Drijvers Han J.W. ‘Quq and the Quqites: An Unknown Sect in Edessa in the Second Century ADNumen 14:2 (1967) pp. 104–129

  • Drijvers Han J.W. ‘Edessa und das jüdische Christentum’ Vigilae Christianae 24:1 (1970) pp. 4–33

  • Drijvers Han J.W. ‘Some New Syriac Inscriptions and Archaeological Finds from Edessa and Sumatar Harabesi’ Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 36:1 (1973) pp. 1–14

  • Drijvers Han J.W. Cults and Beliefs at Edessa E.J. Brill; Leiden 1980

  • Drijvers Han J.W. ‘The Protonike Legend the Doctrina Addai and Bishop Rabbula of Edessa’ Vigiliae Christianae 51:3 (1997) pp. 298–315

  • Drijvers Han J.W. ‘The Image of Edessa in the Syriac Tradition’ in Kessler Herbert L. & Wolf Gerhard (eds.) The Holy Face and the Paradox of Representation Nuova Alfa Editoriale; Bologna 1998 pp. 13–31

  • Drijvers Han J.W. & Healey John F. The Old Syriac Inscriptions of Edessa and Osrhoene Brill; Leiden and Boston 1999

  • Drijvers Jan Willem ‘Helena Augusta the Cross and the Myth: some new reflections’ Millennium 8 (2011) pp. 125–174

  • Dundua G.F. ‘Opisanie i Atributstsiia Otdelykh Monetiykh Nakhodok Ėllinisticheskoĭ Ėpokhi b Iberii’ Numizmatika Antichnoĭ Gruzii Metsniereba; Tbilisi 1987

  • Dundua Giorgi ‘Hoards of Foreign Coins of the Classical Period from Colchis (4th century B.C.–4th century A.D.)’ Journal of Georgian Archaeology 1 (2004) pp. 160–169

  • Dunlop D.M. ‘Al-Bayhaḳī Ẓahīr al-Dīn Abu ʿL-Ḥasan ʿAlī B. Zayd B. Funduḳ’ in Gibb H.A.R. Kramers J.H. Lévi-Provençal Schacht E.J. (eds.) with Stern S.M. Lewis B. Pellat Ch. Schacht J. Dumont C. & Savory R.M. Encyclopaedia of Islam Volume I (AB) Brill; Leiden 1986 pp. 1131–1132

  • Edwards Robert W. ‘Two New Byzantine Churches in Cilicia’ Anatolian Studies 32 (1982) pp. 23–32

  • Edwards Robert W. ‘Medieval Architecture in the Oltu-Penek Valley: A Preliminary Report on the Marchlands of Northeast Turkey’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 39 (1985) pp. 15–37

  • Edwards Robert W. ‘The Fortifications of Artvin: A Second Preliminary Report on the Marchlands of Northeast Turkey’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 40 (1986) pp. 165–182

  • Eiland Murray & Bakhtadze Nodar ‘Early Christianity in the Caves of Caucasian Georgia’ Minerva 11:1 (Jan-Feb 2000) pp. 44–46

  • Elbakidze Maka ‘The Subject of Holiness in Georgian Hagiographic Texts’ Societal Studies 4:3 (2012) pp. 923–935

  • Elsner Jaś ‘The Birth of Late Antiquity: Riegl and Strzygowski in 1901’ Art History 25:3 (2002) pp. 358–379

  • Elton Hugh ‘Alahan and Zeno’ Anatolian Studies 52 (2002) pp. 153–157

  • Elvira Barba Miguel Angel ‘Un Nuevo Incensario Palestino’ Erytheia: Revista de estudios bizantinos y neogriegos 7:2 (1986) pp. 253–269

  • Evans Helen C. & Ratliffe Brandi (eds.) Byzantium and Islam: Age of Transition 7th to 9th Century Metropolitan Museum of Art & Yale University Press; New York & New Haven 2012

  • Farioli Campanati Raffaella ‘Il mosaico pavimentale d’epoca umayyade della chiesa di S. Giorgio nel Deir al-Adas (Siria)’ Milion—Studi e ricerche d’arte bizantina 3 (1995) pp. 257–269

  • Finney Paul Corby ‘Early Christian Architecture: The Beginnings (A Review Article)’ Harvard Theological Review 81 (1988) pp. 319–339

  • Fisher Greg ‘Kingdoms or Dynasties? Arabs History and Identity before Islam’ Journal of Late Antiquity 4:2 (2011) pp. 245–267

  • Foss Clive ‘Syria in Transition A.D. 550–750: An Archaeolological Approach’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 51 (1997) pp. 189–269

  • Fourdrin Jean-Pascal ‘Les églises à nef transversal d’ Apamène et du Ṭûr ʿAbdîn’ Syria 62:3/4 (1985) pp. 319–335

  • Fowden Elizabeth Key The Barbarian Plain: Saint Sergius between Rome and Iran University of California Press; Berkeley 1999

  • Fowden Garth & Fowden Elizabeth Key Studies on Hellenism Christianity and the UmayyadsMELETHMATA 37; Athens 2004

  • Frankfurter D.T.M. ‘Stylites and Phallobates: Pillar Religions in Late Antique Syria’ Vigiliae Christianae 44:2 (1990) pp. 168–198

  • Frazer Margaret English ‘A Syncretistic Pilgrim’s Mould from Mamre (?)’ Gesta 18:1 (1979) pp. 137–145

  • Freeman Charles AD 381 Heretics Pagans and the Christian State Pimlico; London 2008

  • Frøyshov Stig Simeon R. ‘The Georgian Witness to the Jerusalem Liturgy: New Sources and Studies’ in Groen Bert Hawkes-Teeples Steven & Alexopoulos Stefanos (eds.) Inquiries into Eastern Christian Worship. Selected Papers of the Second International Congress of the Society of Oriental LiturgyRome 17–21 September 2008 Peeters; Leuven 2012 pp. 227–268

  • Fuller Michael & Fuller Neathery ‘Archaeological Discoveries at Tell Tuneinir Syria’ Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies 12:2 (1998) pp. 69–82

  • Furtwängler A. Gagoshidze I. Löhr H. & Ludwig N. (eds.) Iberia and Rome: The Excavations of the Palace at Dedoplis Gora and the Roman Influence in the Caucasian Kingdom of Iberia Beier & Beran; Langenweißbach 2008

  • Gadilia Ketevan ‘Bible Translation And The Context: How Does Bible Translation Reflect Language And Culture Contacts?’ in Tomelleri Vittorio S. Topadze Manana Lukianowicz Anna & Rumjanoev Oleg Language and Cultures in the Caucasus: Papers from the International Conference “Current Advances in Caucasian Studies” Macerata January 21–23 2010 Verlag Otto Sagner; Munich-Berlin 2011 pp. 23–40

  • Gagoshidze Giorgi & Chantladze Natia Monopizituri Dzeglebi Sakartveloshi (arkitektura reliepebi tsartserebi) I Kvemo Kartli Gamomtsemloba Artanuji; Tbilisi 2009

  • Gagoshidze Giorgi ‘Katskhis Sveti’ Akademia 1 (2010) pp. 55–68 (English translation: Gagoshidze Giorgi translated from the Georgian by Loosley Emma ‘Katskhi Pillar’ Collectanea Christiana Orientalia 12 (2015) pp. 208–306)

  • Gagoshidze Giorgi ‘Paleographic Study of the Georgian Tombstone from Khirbat Umm Leisun Jerusalem’ ʿAtiqot 83 (2015) pp. 181–184

  • Gagoshidze Giorgi ‘Evsuki katolikosis satsetskhluri moskovis kremlis muzeumidan’ Dzveli khelovneba dhges 6 (2015) pp. 46–51

  • Gagoshidze Iulon & Margishvili Soso ‘Mepe Plavius Dedes Vinaobistvis’ Iberia-Colchis 9 (2013) pp. 68–87

  • Gamakharia Jemal Beradze Tamaz & Gvantseladze Teimuraz (eds.) Assays (sic.) from the History of Georgia. Abkhazia from ancient times till the present days Ministry of Education and Culture of Abkhazia Institute and Ethnology of Iv. Javakhishvili; Tbilisi 2011

  • Gambashidze Irine & Mindiashvili Giorgi Archaeological Investigations at IV-217 KP 225 Akhaltsikhe District Samtskhe-Javakheti Region 2007https://agt.si.edu/_images/uncover_more/site_reports/_site_report_pdf/georgia/KP225%20Report%20Eng.pdf (accessed 28.03.16)

  • Gaprindachvili G. Garedji Sabchota Sakartvelo; Tbilisi 1987

  • Garsoïan Nina L’ Église Arménienne et le Grand Schism D’ OrientCorpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 574 Subsidia 100 Louvain 1999

  • Garsoïan Nina ‘The Aršakuni Dynasty (A.D. 12–[180?]–428)’ in Hovannisian Richard G. (ed.) The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times. Vol. 1 The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century St. Martin’s Press; New York 2004 pp. 63–94

  • Garsoïan Nina ‘The Marzpanate (428–652)’ in Hovannisian Richard G. (ed.) The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times. Vol. 1 The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century St. Martin’s Press; New York 2004 pp. 95–115

  • Gasanov Magomed ‘On Christianity in Dagestan’ Iran and the Caucasus 5 (2001) pp. 79–84

  • Gatier Pierre-Louis ‘La christianisation de la Syrie: l’ exemple de l’ Antiochène’ Topoi Supplément 12 (2013) pp. 61–96

  • Genequand Denis ‘Projet «Implantations umayyades de Syrie et de Jordanie» Rapport de la mission de prospection (Juin/Juillet 2002)’ Schweizerisch-Liechtensteinische Stiftung für Archäologische Forschungen im Ausland Jahresbericht 2002 2003 pp. 69–96

  • Geyer Bernard ‘Expansion and Decline of Syria’s Arid Margin’ The Arab World Geographer 5/2 (2002) pp. 73–84

  • Gippert Jost ‘Iranians and Iranian Languages in Ancient Georgia’ Perspektiva 21/6 (2004) pp. 106–113

  • Gippert Jost ‘The “Bun-Turks” in Ancient Georgia’ in Bläsing Uwe Arakelova Victoria & Weinreich Matthias (eds.) Studies on Iran and The Caucasus. In Honour of Garnik Asatrian Brill; Leiden & Boston 2015 pp. 25–43

  • Goiladze Vakhtang Asurel mamata samsshoblo da sakartvelo 2002 (self-published)

  • Gori Maja ‘The Stones of Contention: The Role of Archaeological Heritage in Israeli-Palestinian Conflict’ Archaeologies: Journal of the World Archaeological Congress 9:1 (2013) pp. 213–229

  • Gough Michael ‘Alahan Monastery: A Masterpiece of Early Christian Architecture’ The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 26:10 (1968) pp. 455–464

  • Gough Michael ‘The Emperor Zeno and Some Cilician Churches’ Anatolian Studies 22 (1972) pp. 199–212

  • Grabar André ‘Les ambons syriens et la function liturgique de la nef dans les églises antiques’ Cahiers archéologiques 1 (1945) pp. 129–133

  • Grabar André ‘Le témoignage d’ une hymne syriaque sure l’ architecture de la cathédrale d’ Édesse au VIe siècle et sur la symbolique de l’ édifice chrétien’ Cahiers archéologiques 2 (1947) pp. 41–67

  • Grant Michael From Rome to Byzantium. The Fifth Century AD Routledge; London & New York 1998

  • Greenwood Tim ‘The Armenian Presence in Edessa after the Muslim Conquest’ in Hovannisian Richard G. (ed.) Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa Mazda; Costa Mesa CA 2006 pp. 137–154

  • Griffith Sidney H. ‘From Aramaic to Arabic: The Languages of the Monasteries of Palestine in the Byzantine and Early Islamic Periods’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 51 (1997) pp. 11–31

  • Griffith Sidney H. ‘The Doctrina Addai as a Paradigm of Christian Thought in Edessa in the Fifth Century’ Hugoye 6:2 (2009) pp. 269–292

  • Gruen Erich S. Rethinking the Other in Antiquity Princeton University Press; Princeton N.J. 2011

  • Guidetti Mattia ‘The Byzantine Heritage in Dār al-Islām: Churches and Mosques in al-Ruha between the sixth and the twelfth century’ Muqarnas 26 (2009) pp. 1–36

  • Guscin Mark The Image of Edessa Brill; Leiden and Boston 2009

  • Gwiazda Mariusz ‘Le Sanctuaire de Saint-Syméon-le-Jeune au Mont Admirable à la lumière de la documentation photographique du père Jean Mécérian’ Mélanges de l’ Université Saint-Joseph 65 (2013–2014) pp. 317–340

  • Gzella Holger ‘Aramaic in the Parthian Period: The Arsacid Inscriptions’ in Gzella Holger & Folmer Margaretha L. (eds.) Aramaic in its Historical and Linguistic Setting Harassowitz Verlag; Wiesbaden 2008 pp. 107–130

  • Gzella Holger A Cultural History of Aramaic: From the Beginnings to the Advent of Islam Brill; Leiden and Boston 2015

  • Haas Christopher ‘Mountain Constantines: The Christianization of Aksum and Iberia’ Journal of Late Antiquity 1.1 (2008) pp. 101–126

  • Haas Christopher ‘Ioane Zedazneli: A Georgian Saint in the Syrian Ascetical Tradition’ in Skinner Peter Tumanishvili Dimitri & Shanshiashvili Anna (eds.) Georgian Art in the Context of European and Asian Cultures: Proceedings of the Vakhtang Beridze 1st International Symposium of Georgian Culture June 21–29 Georgia Georgian Arts and Culture Centre; Tbilisi 2009 pp. 95–100

  • Haas Christopher ‘Geopolitics and Georgian Identity in Late Antiquity: The Dangerous World of Vakhtang Gorgasali’ in Nutsubidze T. Horn C.B. Lourié & Ostrovsky A. Georgian Christian Thought and Its Cultural Context Brill; Leiden and Boston 2014 pp. 29–44

  • Hajj May ‘Wall Paintings in the Qadisha Valley Lebanon: Various Styles and Dates’ Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies 4:2–3 (2016) pp. 194–208

  • Hamilton R.W. ‘Thuribles: Ancient or Modern?’ Iraq 36:1/2 (1974) pp. 53–65

  • Harmanşah Ömür ‘ISIS Heritage and the Spectacles of Destruction in the Global Media’ Near Eastern Archaeology 78:3 (2015) pp. 170–177

  • Harper Richard P. ‘Excavations at Dibsi Faraj Northern Syria 1972–1974: A Preliminary Note on the Site and its Monuments’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 29 (1975) pp. 319–338

  • Harvey Susan Ashbrook ‘The Sense of a Stylite: Perspectives on Simeon the Elder’ Vigiliae Christianae 42:4 (1988) pp. 376–394

  • Harvey Susan Ashbrook ‘The Stylite’s Liturgy: Ritual and Religious Identity in Late Antiquity’ Journal of Early Christian Studies 6:3 (1998) pp. 523–539

  • Hawkins Ernest J.W. Mundell Marlia C. & Mango Cyril ‘The Mosaics of the Monastery of Mār Samuel Mār Simeon and Mār Gabriel near Kartmin with A Note on the Greek Inscription’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 27 (1973) pp. 279–296

  • Hayward K.M. ‘The Indo-European Language and the History of its Speakers: The Theories of Gamkrelidze and Ivanov’ Lingua 78 (1989) pp. 37–86

  • Healey John F. ‘The Early History of the Syriac Script. A Reassessment’ Journal of Semitic Studies 45:1 (2000) pp. 55–67

  • Healey John F. ‘A New Syriac Mosaic Inscription’ Journal of Semitic Studies 51:2 (2006) pp. 313–327

  • Hewitt George Review of Ancient Christianity in the Caucasus Iberica Caucasia I Tamila Mgaloblishvili (ed.) Curzon; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Series 3 11:3 (2001) pp. 377–379

  • Hewsen Robert H. ‘Armenia on the Tigris: The Vilayet of Diarbekir and the Sanjak of Urfa’ in Hovannisian Richard G. (ed.) Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa Mazda; Costa Mesa CA 2006 pp. 47–80

  • Heyn Maura K. ‘The Terentius Frieze in Context’ in Brody Lisa R. & Hoffman Gail L. (eds.) Dura Europos: Crossroads of Antiquity McMullen Museum of Art Boston College; Boston MA 2011 pp. 221–233

  • Hill Stephen ‘Matronianus “Comes Isauriae:” An Inscription from an Early Byzantine Basilica at Yanıkhan Rough Cilicia’ Anatolian Studies 35 (1985) pp. 93–97

  • Hoffman Gail L. ‘Theory and Methodology: Study of Identities Using Archaeological Evidence From Dura-Europos’ in Brody Lisa R. & Hoffman Gail L. (eds.) Dura Europos: Crossroads of Antiquity McMullen Museum of Art Boston College; Boston MA 2011 pp. 45–69

  • Hollis Howard C. ‘An Arabic Censer’ The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 25:7 (1938) pp. 137–138

  • Horn Cornelia B. ‘St. Nino and the Christianization of Pagan Georgia’ Medieval Encounters 4:3 (1998) pp. 242–264

  • Horn Cornelia B. Asceticism and Christological Controversy in Fifth-Century Palestine: The Career of Peter the Iberian Oxford Universtiy Press; Oxford 2006

  • Horn Cornelia B. ‘The Lives and Literary Roles of Children in Advancing Conversion to Christianity: Hagiography from the Caucasus in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages’ Church History 76:2 (2007) pp. 262–297

  • Horn Cornelia B. ‘Transgressing Claims to Sacred Space: The Strategic Advance of the Portability of Relics for Antichalcedonians in Syria-Palestine in the Fifth and Sixth Centuries CE’ in Nutsubidze T. Horn C.B. Lourié & Ostrovsky A. Georgian Christian Thought and Its Cultural Context Brill; Leiden and Boston 2014 pp. 45–68

  • Hovannisian Richard G. ‘Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa’ in Hovannisian Richard G. (ed.) Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa Mazda; Costa Mesa CA 2006 pp. 1–46

  • Humphries Mark ‘Rufinus’s Eusebius: Translation Continuation and Edition in the Latin Ecclesiastical History’ Journal of Early Christian Studies 16:2 (2008) pp. 143–164

  • Ings Simon Stalin and the Scientists: A History of Triumph and Tragedy 1905–1953 Faber & Faber; London 2016

  • Irvine Christopher The Cross and Creation in Christian Liturgy and ArtSPCK; London 2013

  • Janin Rev. Père Trans. Boylan P. The Separated Eastern Churches Sands and Company; London 1933

  • Jeffery Peter ‘The Sunday Office of Seventh-Century Jerusalem in the Georgian Chantbook (Iadgari): A Preliminary Report’ Studia Liturgica 21 (1991) pp. 52–75

  • Jensen Robin M. ‘The Dura Europos Synagogue Early Christian Art and Religious Life in Dura Europos’ in Fine Steven (ed.) Jews Christians and Polytheists in the Ancient Synagogue. Cultural interaction during the Greco-Roman period Routledge; London and New York 1999 pp. 174–189

  • Jersild Austin Orientalism and Empire: North Caucasus Mountain Peoples and the Georgian Frontier 1845–1917 McGill-Queen’s University Press; Montreal & Kingston 2002

  • Jobst Werner ‘Archäologie und Denkmalpflege im Bereich des ‘Großen Palastes’ von Konstantinopel’ Milion—Studi e ricerche d’arte bizantina 3 (1995) pp. 227–236

  • Jones Cheslyn Wainwright Geoffrey Yarnold Edward & Bradshaw Paul The Study of LiturgySPCK & Oxford University Press; London & New York 1978 Revised Edition 1992

  • Jorbenadze Besarion ‘Adreuli shua saukuneebis samarkhi nagebobebi da dakrdzalvis tsesi aghmosavlet sakartveloshi’ Dziebani 3 (1999) pp. 76–84

  • Kadeishvili Niko Zhaletis khurotmodzghruli dzegli Sabchota sakartvelo; Tbilisi 1964

  • Kaegi Walter ‘The Muslim Conquests of Edessa and Amida (Diarbekir)’ in Hovannisian Richard G. (ed.) Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa Mazda; Costa Mesa CA 2006 pp. 111–136

  • Kakhiani K. Chanishvili G. Kopaliani J. Machabeli K. Aleksidze Z. Ghlighvashvili E. & Pataridze N. The Early Christian Period Church Complex from Dmanisi Nekeri; Tbilisi 2012

  • Kakhidze Emzar ‘Apsaros: A Roman Fort in Southwestern Georgia’ in Bilde Pia Guldager & Petersen Jane Hjarl (eds.) Meetings of Cultures in the Black Sea Region: Between Conflict and Coexistence Aarhus University Press; Aarhus 2008 pp. 303–332

  • Kalantarian A.A. Material’naia kul’tura Dvina IVVIII vv. Arkheologicheskie Pamiatniki Armeniia 5 Izdatel’stvo an Armianskoí SSR; Yerevan 1970

  • Kapanadze Khatuna ‘Liturgika da kartuli saeklesio khurotmodzghvreba’ Khelovnebatmtsodneoba 5 (2003) pp. 85–97

  • Karabulut Hasan Önal Mehmet & Dervişoğlu Nedim Haleplibahçe Mozaikleri Şanliurfa/Edessa Arkeoloji Ve Sanat Yayinlari; Istanbul 2011

  • Karaulashvili Irma ‘The date of the Epistula AbgariApocrypha 13 (2002) pp. 85–111

  • Karaulashvili Irma ‘Anchiskhati: keramidioni hierapolisdan tu mandilioni edesidan?’ Mravaltavi 20 (2003) pp. 170–178

  • Karaulashvili Irma ‘The Abgar Legend Illustrated: The Interrelationship of the Narrative Cycles and Iconography in the Byzantine Georgian and Latin Traditions’ in Hourihane Colum (ed.) Artistic Interchange between the Eastern and Western Worlds in the Medieval Period Pennsylvania State University Press; Pennsylvania 2007 pp. 220–243

  • Karaulashvili Irma ‘A Short Overview of the Nationalised Peculiarites of the Abgar Legend in Georgian Armenian and Slavonic traditions’ Scripta 10–11 (2012) pp. 171–184

  • Karaulashvili Irma ‘Les caratéristiques de l’ identité du premier roi chrétien dans les narrations syriaques grecques arméniennes et géorgiennes de l’ antiquité tardive et du début du Moyen Age’ in Dokhtourichvili Mzaro (Mzagve) Dedeyan Gérard & Auge Isabelle (eds.) Actes du colloque. L’ Europe et le Caucase. Les relations interrégionales et la question de l’ identité Edition Université d’ Etat Ilia; Tbilisi 2014 pp. 56–109

  • Karaulashvili Irma ‘Abgar Legend: Text and Iconography’ Kadmos 6 (2014) pp. 164–240

  • Katzenstein Ranee A. & Lowry Glenn D. ‘Christian Themes in Thirteenth-Century Islamic Metalwork’ Muqarnas 1 (1983) pp. 53–68

  • Kaufhold Hubert ‘Notizen über das Moseskloster bei Nabk und das Julianskloster bei Qaryatain in Syrien’ Oriens Christianus Band 79 (1995) pp. 48–119

  • Kekelidze Korneli ‘Sakitkhi siriel moghvatseta kartulshi moslvis shesakheb (kulturul-istoriuli problema)’ Tplisis universitetis moambe 6 (1925) pp. 82–107

  • Kekelidse K. Die Bekehrung Georgiens Zum Christentum J.C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung; Leipzig 1929

  • Kekelidze Korneli ‘Sakitkhi siriel moghvatseta kartulshi moslvis shesakheb (kulturul-istoriuli problema) IIEtyudy 1 (1956) pp. 19–50

  • Kenia Rusudan & Aladashvili Natela Sakartvelos megzuri II. Zemo Svaneti Tbilisi 2000

  • Kennedy David L. ‘ ‘Nomad Villages’ in north-eastern Jordan: from Roman Arabia to Umayyad Urdunn’ Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 25 (2014) pp. 96–109

  • Kennedy Hugh ‘From Polis to Madina: Urban Change in Late Antique and Early Islamic Syria’ Past and Present 106 (1985) pp. 3–27

  • Keser-Kayaalp Elif ‘The Beth Qadishe in the Late Antique Monasteries of Northern Mesopotamia (South-Eastern Turkey)’ Parole de l’ Orient 35 (2010) pp. 325–348

  • Khatchadourian Lori ‘Making Nations from the Ground up: Traditions of Classical Archaeology in the South Caucasus’ American Journal of Archaeology 112:2 (2008) pp. 247–278

  • Khouri-Sarkis Gabriel ‘Réception d’ un évêque syrien au VIe siècle’ L’ Orient Syrien 2 (1957) pp. 137–184

  • Khrushkova L.G. ‘The Spread of Christianity in the Eastern Black Sea Littoral (Written and Archaeological Sources)’ Ancient West and East 6 (2007) pp. 177–219

  • Khrushkova L.G. ‘Neskol’ko pledmetov bizantiǐskoǐ ėpokhi iz Istoricheskogo muzeia g. Sochi Krasnodarskogo kraia’ Plichernomor’e v Srednie Veka VIII (2011) pp. 169–197

  • Khrushkova Lyudmila ‘Early Christian Architecture of the Caucasus: Problems of Typology’ Antiquité Tardive 20 (2012) pp. 343–357

  • Kiknadze Gulnara ‘ “Siriuli” satsetskhuri balaanidan (ksnis kheoba)’ Religia 10–11–12 (1995) pp. 82–90

  • Kiknadze Zurab Kartuli mitologia I. Jvari da saqmo Gelati Academy of Sciences; Kutaisi 1996

  • Kiladze Rolan I. Gigolashvili Marina Sh. Ramishvili Giorgi T. & Kukhianidze Vasili J. ‘On the Possible Date of Adoption of Christianity as the State Religion in Georgia’ Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences 175:2 (2007) pp. 137–140

  • King Charles The Ghost of Freedom. A History of the Caucasus Oxford University Press; Oxford 2008

  • Kipiani Guram ‘Nekresis “didi kvadrati” ’ Kadmosi 1 (2009) pp. 214–251

  • Kleinbauer W. Eugene ‘Zvart’nots and the Origins of Christian Architecture in Armenia’ The Art Bulletin 54:3 (1972) pp. 245–262

  • Kleinbauer W. Eugene ‘The Origin and Functions of the Aisled Tetraconch Churches in Syria and Northern Mesopotamia’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 27 (1973) pp. 89–114

  • Kleinbauer W. Eugene ‘The Double-Shell Tetraconch Building at Perge in Pamphylia and the Origin of the Architectural Genus’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 41 (1987) pp. 277–293

  • Kleinbauer W. Eugene ‘Antioch Jerusalem and Rome: The Patronage of Emperor Constantius II and Architectural Invention’ Gesta 45:2 (2006) pp. 125–145

  • Klejn L.S. Soviet Archaeology. Schools Trends and History Oxford University Press; Oxford 2012

  • Kohl Philip l. ‘Nationalism Politics and the Practice of Archaeology in Soviet Transcaucasia’ Journal of European Archaeology 1.2 (1993) pp. 181–188

  • Kohl Philip L. & Tsetskhladze Gocha R. ‘Nationalism politics and the practice of archaeology in the Caucasus’ in Kohl Philip L. & Fawcett Clare (eds.) Nationalism politics and the practice of archaeology Cambridge University Press; Cambridge 1995 pp. 149–174

  • Kohl Philip L. ‘Nationalism and Archaeology: On the Constructions of Nations and the Reconstructions of the Remote past’ Annual Review of Anthropology 27 (1998) pp. 223–246

  • Krautheimer Richard Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture Yale University Press; New Haven & London 1965 4th Edition revised by Krautheimer Richard & Ćurčić Slobodan 1986

  • Krueger Derek ‘Liturgical Time and Holy Land Reliquaries in Early Byzantium’ in Hahn Cynthia & Klein Holger A. (eds.) Saints and Sacred Matter: The Cult of Relics in Byzantium and Beyond Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine Symposia and Colloquia; Washington D.C. 2015 pp. 111–131

  • Lafontaine-Dosogne Jacqueline with Orgels Bernard Itinéraires archéologiques dans la région d’ Antioche. Recherches sur le monastère et sur l’ iconographie de S. Syméon Stylite le Jeune Bibliothèque de Byzantion 4; Brussels 1967

  • Lafontaine-Dosogne Jacqueline ‘L’ influence du culte de Saint Syméon Stylite le Jeune sur les monuments et les representations figurées de Géorgie’ Byzantion 41 (1971) pp. 183–196

  • Lang D.M. ‘Peter the Iberian and his Biographers’ The Journal of Ecclesiastical History 2:2 (1951) pp. 158–168

  • Lang D.M. & Meredith G.M. ‘Amiran-Darejiani. A Georgian Romance and its English Rendering’ Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 22:3 (1959) pp. 454–490

  • Lang David Marshall A Modern History of Georgia Weidenfeld and Nicolson; London 1962

  • Lang David Marshall The Georgians Thames and Hudson; London 1966

  • Lassus Jean Sanctuaires chrétiens de Syrie. Essai sur la genèse la forme et l’ usage liturgique des édifices du culte chrétien en Syrie du IIIe siècle à la conquête musulmane Geuthner; Paris 1947

  • Lassus Jean & Tchalenko Georges ‘Ambons Syriens’ Cahiers Archéologiques 5 (1951) pp. 75–122

  • Leader-Newby Ruth E. Silver and Society in Late Antiquity Ashgate; Aldershot 2004

  • Lerner Constantine ‘Sara Miapor: An Armenian in The Life of St. Nino and Jerusalem’ in Stone Michael E. Ervine Roberta R. & Stone Nira (eds.) The Armenians in Jerusalem and the Holy Land Peeters; Leuven 2002 pp. 111–119

  • Levine Lee I. The Ancient Synagogue. The First Thousand Years Yale University Press; New Haven & London 2000

  • Levine Lee I. Visual Judaism in Late Antiquity. Historical Contexts of Jewish Art Yale University Press; New Haven & London 2012

  • Lomouri Nodar ‘History of the Kingdom of Egrissi (Lazica) from its origins to the Fifth Century A.D.Bedi Kartlisa 26 (1969) pp. 211–216

  • Lomouri Nodar ‘The History of Georgian-Byzantine Relations’ in Pevny Olenka Z. Perceptions of Byzantium and Its Neighbors (843–1261) The Metropolitan Museum of Art & Yale University Press; New York 2000 pp. 182–187

  • Loosley E. ‘The Early Syriac Liturgical Drama and its Architectural Setting’ in T. Insoll (ed) Case Studies in Archaeology and World Religion. The Proceedings of the Cambridge ConferenceBAR Int. Series 755 (1999) pp. 18–25.

  • Loosley Emma The Architecture and Liturgy of the Bema in Fourth to Sixth-Century Syrian ChurchesUSEK Patrimoine Syriaque vol. 2; Kaslik Lebanon 2003 (re-issued in a second edition by Brill 2012)

  • Loosley E. & Hull D. ‘Dayr Mar Elian: A Monastery of the al-Qalamun Syria. Historical Background and Project Summary’ Les Annales Archéologiques Arabes Syriennes 45–46 (2002–2003) pp. 419–424

  • Loosley E. & Finneran N. ‘Monastic Archaeology in Syria. Excavations at Dayr Mar Elian al-Sharqi Qaryatayn: a Preliminary Report on the 2001 2002 and 2003 Field Seasons’ Levant 37 (2005) pp. 43–56.

  • Loosley E. ‘The Citadel of Zalabiyeh on the Euphrates: Placing the site in its historical context and a summary of the first archaeological field season (2010)’ Res Antiquitatis 2 (2011) pp. 259–268

  • Loosley Emma Review of The Image of Edessa by Guscin Mark Brill; Al-Masaq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean 24:3 (2012) pp. 318–319

  • Loosley E. & Bryant J. ‘Zalabiyeh on the Euphrates: The Historical Evidence and the 2010 Archaeological Discoveries’ Res Antiquitatis 5 (2014).

  • Loosley Emma ‘Syria’ in Caraher William Davis Thomas and Pettegrew David K. (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Early Christian Archaeology Oxford University Press; New York & Oxford forthcoming

  • Loosley Emma ‘Religious Expression in Art and Architecture’ in Lössl Josef and Baker-Brian Nicholas (eds.) A Companion to Religion in Late Antiquity Wiley Blackwell; Oxford forthcoming

  • Loosley Emma ‘The Material Culture of the Syrian Peoples in Late Antiquity and the Evidence for Syrian Wall Paintings’ in King Daniel (ed.) The Syriac World Routledge; Abingdon forthcoming

  • Loosley Emma ‘Cultural Imperialism at the Borders of Empire: The Case of the “Villa of the Amazons” in Edessa’ Journal of Semitic Studies forthcoming

  • Lönnqvist M. Lönnqvist K. Stout Whiting M. Törmä M. Nunez M. & Okkonen J. ‘Tracing New Dimensions in the Roman Military Organization of the Eastern Limes’ in Proceedings CIPA XX International Symposium: International cooperation to save the world’s cultural heritage: Torino Italy 26 September–1 October 2005cipa.icomos.org (accessed 16.11.2015)

  • Lordkipanidse Guram & Braund David ‘Recent Work at Pityus (Pitsunda/Bichvinta USSR)’ in Maxfield V.A. & Dobson M.J. (eds.) Roman Frontier Studies University of Exeter Press; Exeter 1991 pp. 335–336

  • Lourié Basil ‘Peter the Iberian and Dionysius the Areopagite: Honigmann—Van Esbroeck’s Thesis Revisited’ Scrinium 6 (2010) pp. 143–212

  • Lourié Basil ‘John II of Jerusalem’s Homily on the Encaenia of St. Sion and Its Calendrical Background’ in Horn Cornelia B. Lourié Basil Ostrovsky Alexey & Outtier Bernard (eds.) Armenia between Byzantium and the Orient: Celebrating the Memory of Karen Yuzbashyan (1927–2009) Brill; Leiden forthcoming

  • Lourié Basil ‘The Liturgical Cycle in 3 Maccabees and the 2 Enoch Calendar’ Études Bibliques (2016) forthcoming

  • Maraval Pierre ‘The Earliest Phase of Christian Pilgrimage in the Near East (before the 7th Century)’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 56 (2002) pp. 63–74

  • Matchabeli Kitty Svanetis sagandzuridan Gamomtsemloba «Metsniereba»; Tbilisi 1982

  • Machabeli Kiti ‘Brinjaos satsetskhlurebi sakartveloshi’ Khelovneba 6 (1991) pp. 43–58

  • Matchabeli Kitty ‘Early medieval stelae in Georgia in the context of East Christian art’ in Mgaloblishvili Tamila (ed.) Ancient Christianity in the Caucasus Curzon; Richmond 1998 pp. 83–96

  • Matchabeli Kitty ‘Georgia and the Byzantine World: Artistic Aspects’ in Pevny Olenka Z. Perceptions of Byzantium and Its Neighbors (843–1261) The Metropolitan Museum of Art & Yale University Press; New York 2000 pp. 188–197

  • Machabeli Kiti ‘Udzvelesi liturgikuli nivtebi sakartveloshi—brinjaos satsetskhlurebi’ Saertashoriso konperentsia. Religia da sazogadoeba—rtsmena chvens tskhovrebashi 2004 pp. 44–45

  • Matchabeli Kitty Early Medieval Georgian Stone Crosses (in Georgian and English) Tbilisi 2008

  • Machabeli Kitty ‘Palestinian Tradition and Early Medieval Georgian Plastic Art’ Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences 2:1 (2008) pp. 121–128

  • Macler Frédéric ‘L’ architecture arménienne dans ses rapports avec l’ art syrien’ Syria 1:1 (1920) pp. 253–263

  • McDonough Scott ‘A Second Constantine?: The Sasanian King Yazdgard in Christian History and Historiography’ Journal of Late Antiquity 1:1 (2008) pp. 127–140

  • Magness Jodi ‘Heaven on Earth: Helios and the Zodiac Cycle in Ancient Palsetinian Synagogues’ Dumbarton Oaks papers 59 (2005) pp. 1–52

  • Mamatsashvili Lika Koshoridze Irina & Dgebuadze Marina The First Georgian Photographer. Alexandre Roinashvili and His Museum Damani; Tbilisi 2015

  • Maniyattu Pauly Heaven on Earth. The Theology of Liturgical Spacetime in the East Syrian Qurbana Mar Thoma Yogam; Rome 1995

  • Manning Paul ‘Materiality and Cosmology: Old Georgian Churches as Sacred Sublime and Secular Objects’ Ethnos 73:3 (2008) pp. 327–360

  • Maranci Christina ‘Armenian Architecture as Aryan Architecture: The Role of Indo-European Studies in the Theories of Josef Strzygowski’ Visual Resources 13 (1998) pp. 363–380

  • Maranci Christina Medieval Armenian Architecture: Constructions of Race and Nation Peeters; Leuven 2001

  • Maranci Christina ‘Byzantium through Armenian Eyes: Cultural Appropriation and the Church of Zuart’ Noc’ ’ Gesta 40:2 (2001) pp. 105–124

  • Maranci Christina ‘The Historiography of Armenian Architecture: Josef Strzygowski Austria and Armenia’ Revue des etudes arméniennes 28 (2001–2002) pp. 287–307

  • Maranci Christina ‘Building Churches in Armenia: Art at the Borders of Empire and the Edge of the Canon’ The Art Bulletin 88:4 (2006) pp. 656–675

  • Maranci Christina ‘The Archaeology and Reconstruction of Zuart‘noc‘’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 68 (2014) pp. 69–115

  • Maranci Christina Vigilant Powers: Three Churches of Early Medieval Armenia Brepols; Turnhout 2015

  • Maraval Pierre ‘Liturgie et pèlerinage durant les premiers siècles du christianisme’ La Maison-Dieu 170 (1987) pp. 7–28

  • Marchand Suzanne L. ‘The Rhetoric of Artifacts and the Decline of Classical Humanism: The Case of Josef Strzygowski’ History and Theory 33:4 (1994) pp. 106–130

  • Markus R.A. ‘How on Earth Could Places Become Holy?: Origins of the Christian Idea of Holy Places’ Journal of Early Christian Studies 2:3 (1994) pp. 257–271

  • Marquand Allan ‘Strzygowski and His Theory of Early Christian Art’ The Harvard Theological Review 3:3 (1910) pp. 357–365

  • Marro Catherine ‘Upper Mesopotamia and the Caucasus: An essay on the Evolution of Routes and Road Networks from the Old Assyrian Kingdom to the Ottoman Empire’ in Sagona Antonio (ed.) A View from the Highlands: Archaeological Studies in Honour of Charles Burney Peeters; Leuven 2004 pp. 91–120

  • Martin-Hisard Bernadette ‘Les “treize saints pères”. Formation et évolution d’ une tradition hagiographique géorgienne (VIe–XIIe siècles)’ Revue des etudes géorgiennes et caucasiennes 1 (1985) pp. 141–168

  • Martin-Hisard Bernadette ‘Les “treize saints pères”. Formation et évolution d’ une tradition hagiographique géorgienne (VIe–XIIe siècles)’ Revue des etudes géorgiennes et caucasiennes 2 (1986) pp. 75–111

  • Martin-Hisard Bernadette ‘Controverses chrétiennes en terre géorgienne originale’ in Jullien Christelle (ed.) Controverses des chrétiens dans l’ Iran sassanide Studia Iranica 36 Association pour l’ avancement des etudes Iraniennes; Paris 2008 pp. 171–190

  • Matitashvili Shota ‘Kartuli bermonazvnoba VIVIII saukuneebshi: Sirieli Mamebi’ Sami Saunje 2 (2012) pp. 216–230

  • Mayer Wendy & Allen Pauline The Churches of Syrian Antioch (300–638 CE) Peeters; Leuven 2012

  • Mayer Wendy ‘The Changing Shape of Liturgy: From Earliest Christianity to the End of Late Antiquity’ in Berger Teresa & Spinks Bryan D. (eds.) Liturgy’s Imagined Past/s: Methodologies and Materials in the Writing of Liturgical History Today Liturgical Press; Collegeville Minnesota 2016 pp. 275–302

  • Mayor Adrienne Colarusso John & Saunders David ‘Making Sense of Nonsense Inscriptions Associated with Amazons and Scythians on Athenian Vases’ Hesperia: The Journal of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens 83:3 (2014) pp. 447–493

  • McClendon Charles B. ‘The Articulation of Sacred Space in the Synagogue and Christian Building at Dura-Europos’ in Brody Lisa R. & Hoffman Gail L. (eds.) Dura Europos: Crossroads of Antiquity McMullen Museum of Art Boston College; Boston MA 2011 pp. 155–167

  • McVey Kathleen E. ‘The Domed Church as Microcosm: Literary Roots of an Architectural Symbol’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 37 (1983) pp. 91–121

  • McVey Kathleen E. ‘The Sogitha on the Church of Edessa in the context of other early Greek and Syriac hymns for the consecration of church buildings’ ARAM 5:1–2 (1993) pp. 329–370

  • Menze Volker L. Justinian and the Making of the Syrian Orthodox Church Oxford University Press; Oxford 2008

  • Mepisashvili Rusudan & Tsintsadze Vakhtang The Arts of Ancient Georgia Thames and Hudson; London 1979

  • Mepisaschwili Russudan Schrade Rolf & Zinzadse Wachtang Georgien. Wehrbauten und KirchenVEB E.A. Seeman Verlag; Leipzig 1986

  • Merkviladze Davit ‘Asureli mamebi da samonastro organizatsia sakartveloshi’ Amirani XVI (2006) pp. 55–75

  • Metreveli Roin ‘New Editions of “Kartlis Tskhovreba” ’ Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences 3:2 (2009) pp. 188–193

  • Metzger Bruce M. ‘A Greek and Aramaic Inscription Discovered at Armazi in Georgia’ Journal of Near Eastern Studies 15:1 (1956) pp. 18–26

  • Mgaloblishvili Tamila G. ‘Early Byzantine Homilies in Georgian Translations’ Acts of the XVIIIth International Congress of Byzantine Studies Vol. II: History Archaeology Religion Theology Byzantine Studies Press; Shepherdstown WVUSA 1996 pp. 381–387

  • Mgaloblishvili Tamila ‘Introduction’ in Mgaloblishvili Tamila (ed.) Ancient Christianity in the Caucasus Curzon; Richmond 1998 pp. 3–14

  • Mgaloblishvili Tamila & Gagoshidze Iulon ‘The Jewish Diaspora and Early Christianity in Georgia’ in Mgaloblishvili Tamila (ed.) Ancient Christianity in the Caucasus Curzon; Richmond 1998 pp. 39–58

  • Mgaloblishvili Tamila ‘The most Ancient Feast of Vardoba-Athenagenoba’ in Stone Michael E. Ervine Roberta R. & Stone Nira (eds.) The Armenians in Jerusalem and the Holy Land Peeters; Leuven 2002 pp. 157–165

  • Mgaloblishvili Tamila ‘An Unknown Georgian Monastery in the Holy Land’ ARAM 18–19 (2006–2007) pp. 527–539

  • Mgaloblishvili Tamila ‘Georgia in the Times of St. Maximus the Confessor’ in Magaloblishvili Tamila & Khoperia Lela (eds.) Maximus the Confessor and Georgia Bennett and Bloom; London 2009 pp. 17–24

  • Mgaloblishvili Tamila & Rapp Stephen H. Jr ‘Manichaeism in Late Antique Georgia?’ in Van den Berg Jacob Albert (ed.) In Search of Truth: Manichaica Augustiniana and Varia Gnostica Brill; Leiden and Boston 2011 pp. 263–290

  • Mgaloblishvili Tamila New Jerusalems in Georgia Centre for the Exploration of Georgian Antiquities; Tbilisi 2013

  • Mgaloblishvili Tamila ‘The Inscription from Khirbat Umm Leisun and the Georgian Presence in the Holy Land’ ʿAtiqot 83 (2015) pp. 185–193

  • Millar Fergus ‘The Evolution of the Syrian Orthodox Church in the Pre-Islamic Period: From Greek to Syriac?’ Journal of Early Christian Studies 21:1 (2013) pp. 43–92

  • Mirianashvili Lado ‘How did an eulogia brought from Jerusalem in the sixth century assist in promoting Davit-Gareji’s cave monasteries to the regional Caucasian significance’ in Kuzmová Stanislava Marinković Ana & Vedriš Trpimir Cuius Patrocinio Tota Gaudet Regio. Saints’ Cults and the Dynamics of Regional Cohesion Hagiotheca; Zagreb 2014 pp. 369–376

  • Monferrer-Sala Juan Pedro ‘ ‘New skin for old stories’: Queens Zenobia and Māwiya and Christian Arab groups in the Eastern Frontier during the 3rd–4th centuries CE’ in Burnett Charles & Mantas-España (eds.) Mapping Knowledge: Cross-Pollination in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages Oriens Academic; Cordoba 2014 pp. 71–98

  • Mongait Alexander Archaeology in the U.S.S.R. Foreign Languages Publishing House; Moscow 1959

  • Monneret De Villard U. ‘Una chiesa di tipo georgiano nella necropolis tebana’ The Bulletin of the Byzantine Institute 2 (1950) pp. 495–500

  • Muehlberger Ellen ‘Simeon and Other Women in Theodoret’s Religious History: Gender in the Representation of Late Antique Christian Asceticism’ Journal of Early Christian Studies 23:4 (2015) pp. 583–606

  • Mühlfried Florian Being a State and States of Being in Highland Georgia Berghahn; New York 2014

  • Nadiradze Eldar Concise Ethnographical Vocabulary of Georgian Material Culture Meridiani; Tbilisi 2016

  • Nasrallah Joseph ‘Le Qalamoun à l’ époque romano-byzantine (étude de topographie)’ Les Annnales Archéologiques de Syrie 6 (1956) pp. 63–86

  • Nasrallah Joseph ‘Bas-reliefs chrétiens inconnus de Syrie’ Syria 38:1 (1961) pp. 35–53

  • Nersessian Vrej Treasures from the Ark. 1700 Years of Armenian Christian Art The J. Paul Getty Museum; Los Angeles 2001

  • Nikolaishvili Vakhtang ‘The Archaeological Context of the Hebrew Inscriptions Discovered in Eastern Georgia’ Iberia-Colchis 5 (2009) pp. 153–158

  • Noga-Banai Galit The Trophies of the Martyrs. An Art Historical Study of Early Christian Silver Reliquaries Oxford University Press; Oxford 2008

  • Noga-Banai Galit & Safran Linda ‘A Late Antique Silver Reliquary in Toronto’ Journal of Late Antiquity 4:1 (2011) pp. 3–30

  • O’Connor Lucy ‘The Late Antique Wooden Reliquaries from the Chapel of the Sancta Sanctorum’ Bolletino dei Monumenti Musei e Gallerie Pontificie 31 (2013) pp. 202–229

  • O’Connor Lucy ‘Christ in Majesty on a Late Antique eulogia token in the British Museum’ Convivium 1:2 (2014) pp. 74–85

  • Olin Margaret ‘ “Early Christian Synagogues” and “Jewish Art Historians”. The Discovery of the Synagogue of Dura Europos’ Marburger Jahrbuch für Kunstwissenschaft 27 (2000) pp. 7–28

  • Olin Margaret ‘The Émigré Scholars of Dura-Europos’ in Brody Lisa R. & Hoffman Gail L. (eds.) Dura Europos: Crossroads of Antiquity McMullen Museum of Art Boston College; Boston MA 2011 pp. 71–93

  • Ousterhout Robert ‘Architecture as Relic and the Construction of Sanctity: The Stones of the Holy Sepulchre’ Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 62:1 (2003) pp. 4–23

  • Outtier Bernard ‘Notule sur les versions orientales de L’ histoire Philothée (CPG 6221)’ in Noret J. (ed.) Antidoron Hommage à Maurits Geerard pour célébrer l’ achèvement de la Clavis Partrum Graecorum Cultura; Wetteren 1984 pp. 73–79

  • Palmer Andrew with an appendix by Rodley Lyn ‘The inauguration anthem of Hagia Sophia in Edessa: a new edition and translation with historical and architectural notes and a comparison with a contemporary Constantinopolitan kontakion’ Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 12 (1988) pp. 117–167

  • Palmer Andrew ‘The Inauguration Anthem of Hagia Sophia Again’ Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 14 (1990) pp. 247–248

  • Panagopoulos Spyros P. ‘La magie comme méthode thérapeutique dans la première période byzantine: Les rapports hagiographiques (4e–7e siècles après J.-C.)’ Chronos 27 (2013) pp. 49–75

  • Pataridze Lela Politikuri da kulturuli identobani IVVIII ss-is kartul ertobashi: “kartlis tskhovrebis” samqaro Kavkasuri sakhli; Tbilisi 2009

  • Patricios Nicholas N. The Sacred Architecture of Byzantium. Art Liturgy and Symbolism in Early Christian Churches I.B. Tauris; London and New York 2014

  • Payne Richard ‘The Emergence of Martyrs’ Shrines in Late Antique Iran: Conflict Consensus and Communal Institutions’ in Sarris Peter Dal Santo Matthew & Booth Phil (eds.) An Age of Saints? Power Conflict and Dissent in Early Medieval Christianity Brill; Leiden & Boston 2011 pp. 89–113

  • Richard E. Payne ‘Avoiding Ethnicity: Uses of the Ancient Past in Late Sasanian Northern Mesopotamia’ in Pohl Walter Gantner Clemens & Payne Richard E. (eds.) Visions of community in the post-Roman world the West Byzantium and the Islamic world 300–1100 Ashgate: Farnham & Burlington VT 2012 pp. 205–221

  • Peeters. Paul ‘L’ église géorgienne du Clibanion au Mont Admirable’ Analecta Bollandiana 46 (1928) pp. 241–286

  • Peeters Paul ‘Les débuts du Christianisme en Géorgie d’ après les sources hagiographiques’ Analecta Bollandiana 50 (1932) pp. 5–58

  • Peeters Paul ‘Jérémie évêque de l’ Ibérie perse (431)’ Analecta Bollandiana 51 (1933) pp. 5–33

  • Peeters Paul ‘La basilique des Confesseurs à Édesse’ Analecta Bollandiana 58 (1940) pp. 110–123

  • Peeters Paul ‘S. Syméon Stylite et ses premiers biographes’ Analecta Bollandiana 61 (1943) pp. 29–71

  • Peña Ignace Castellana Pascal & Fernandez Romuald Les stylites syriensStudium Biblicum Franciscanum 16 Milan 1987

  • Pentcheva Bissera V. The Sensual Icon: Space Ritual and the Senses in Byzantium The Pennsylvania State University Press; University Park Pennsylvania 2010

  • Peppard Michael ‘New Testament Imagery in the Earliest Christian Baptistery’ in Brody Lisa R. & Hoffman Gail L. (eds.) Dura Europos: Crossroads of Antiquity McMullen Museum of Art Boston College; Boston MA 2011 pp. 169–187

  • Peradze Gregory ‘An Account of the Georgian Monks and Monasteries in Palestine’ Georgica 4 & 5 (1937) pp. 181–246

  • Pétridès S. ‘Un encensoir syro-byzantin’ Échos d’ Orient 7 (1904) pp. 148–151

  • Piccirillo Michele ‘Uno stampo per eulogia trovato a Gerusalemme’ Liber Annuus 44 (1994) pp. 585–590

  • Phillips Christopher The Battle for Syria: International Rivalry in the New Middle East Yale University Press; New Haven & London 2016

  • Piguet-Panayotova Dora ‘Recherches sur les tetraconques à déambulatoire et leur décor en Transcaucasie au VIIe siècle’ Oriens Christianus 73 (1989) pp. 166–212

  • Piguet-Panayotova Dora ‘L’ église d’ Iškhan; patrimoine culturel et creation architecturale’ Oriens Christianus 75 (1991) pp. 198–253

  • Piguet-Panayotova Dora ‘The Capitals of Iškhani’ Akten des XII Internationalen Kongresses für Christliche Archäologie (Bonn 1991) pp. 1107–1113

  • Piguet-Panayotova Dora ‘The Church of Oški. Architectonics and Ornaments (part 1)’ Oriens Christianus 86 (2002) pp. 103–144

  • Piguet-Panayotova Dora ‘The Attarouthi Chalices’ Mitteilungen zur Spätantiken Archäologie und Byzantinischen Kunstgeschichte 6 (2009) pp. 9–76

  • Plontke-Lüning Annegret Frühchristliche Architektur in Kaukasien. Die Entwicklung des christlichen Sakralbaus in Lazika Iberien Armenien Albanien und den Grenzregionen vom 4. bis zum 7. Jh Verlag der Österrreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften; Vienna 2007

  • Poidebard A. La trace de Rome dans le desert de Syrie: Le limes de Trajan a la conquète arabe. Recherches aériennes (1925–1932) Paul Geuthner; Paris 1934

  • Preiser-Kapeller Johannes ‘Between “New Jerusalem” and “The Beast in Human Form.” The Picture of the Later Roman and Early Byzantine State in the Armenian Historiography of the 5th to 8th Century’ Pro Georgia 19 (2009) pp. 51–95

  • Pyatnitsky Yuri Boele Vincent & Kleiterp Marlies Pilgrim Treasures from the Hermitage: Byzantium-Jerusalem Lund Humphries; Aldershot 2005

  • Pyatnitsky Yuri ‘New Evidence for Byzantine Activity in the Caucasus During the Reign of the Emperor Anastasius IAmerican Journal of Numismatics second series 18 (2006) pp. 113–122

  • Raby Julian ‘The Principle of Parsimony and the Problem of the ‘Mosul School of Metalwork’ ’ in Porter Venetia & Rosser-Owen Mariam Metalwork and Material Culture in the Islamic World. Art Craft and Text. Essays presented to James W. Allan I.B. Tauris; London & New York 2012 pp. 11–85

  • Rahmani L.Y. ‘A “Eulogia” Stamp from the Gaza Region’ Israel Exploration Journal 20:1/2 (1970) pp. 105–108

  • Rahmani L.Y. ‘The Adoration of the Magi on Two Sixth-Century C.E. Eulogia Tokens’ Israel Exploration Journal 29:1 (1979) pp. 34–36

  • Rahmani L.Y. ‘The Byzantine Solomon “Eulogia” Tokens in the British Museum’ Israel Exploration Journal 49:1/2 (1999) pp. 92–104

  • Rajak Tessa ‘The Dura-Europos Synagogue: Images of a Competitive Community’ in Brody Lisa R. & Hoffman Gail L. (eds.) Dura Europos: Crossroads of Antiquity McMullen Museum of Art Boston College; Boston MA 2011 pp. 141–154

  • Ramsey William M. & Bell Gertrude L. (with foreword Ousterhout Robert G. & Jackson Mark P.C.) The Thousand and One Churches University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology; Philadelphia 2008

  • Rapp Stephen Harold Jr. “Imagining History at the Crossroads: Persia Byzantium and the Architects of the Written Georgian Past.” Order No. 9722070 University of Michigan 1997 https://search.proquest.com/docview/304378571?accountid=10792 (accessed April 12 2017).

  • Rapp Jr Stephen H. Studies in Medieval Georgian Historiography: Early Texts and Eurasian ContextsCorpus Scriptorum Christianorum Orientalium 601 Subsidia 113 Louvain 2003

  • Rapp Jr Stephen H. ‘Recovering the Pre-National Caucasian Landscape’ in Büttner Ruth & Peltz Judith (eds.) Mythical Landscapes Then and Now: The Mystification of Landscapes in Search for National Identity Antares; Yerevan 2006 pp. 13–52

  • Rapp Jr Stephen H. ‘Georgian Christianity’ in Parry Ken (ed.) The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity Blackwell; Oxford 2007 pp. 137–155

  • Rapp Jr Stephen H. ‘The Iranian Heritage of Georgia: Breathing New Life into the Pre-Bagratid Historiographical Tradition’ Iranica Antiqua 44 (2009) pp. 645–692

  • Rapp Jr Stephen H. The Sasanian World through Georgian Eyes: Caucasia and the Iranian Commonwealth in Late Antique Georgian Literature Ashgate; Farnham 2014

  • Rapp Jr Stephen H. ‘Caucasia and Byzantine Culture’ in Sakel Dean (ed.) Byzantine Culture. Papers from the Conference ‘Byzantine Days of Istanbul’ held on the occasion of Istanbul being European Cultural Capital 2010. Istanbul May 21–23 2010 Türk Tarih Kurumu; Istanbul 2014 pp. 217–234

  • Rapp Jr Stephen H. ‘New Perspectives on “The Land of Heroes and Giants”: The Georgian Sources for Sasanian History’ e-Sasanika 13 (2014) http://www.sasanika.org/esasanika/new-perspectives-land-heroes-giants-georgian-sources-sasanian-history/ (accessed 02.02.2017)

  • Rapp Jr Stephen H. ‘Georgia before the Mongols’ Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asian History Online Publication Date: March 2017 DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190277727.013.282

  • Rautman Marcus ‘A Stylite Ampulla at Sardis’ Travaux et Mémoires 15 (2005) pp. 713–721

  • Rayfield Donald The Literature of Georgia. A History Curzon Caucasus World Curzon Press (2nd Ed.); Richmond 2000

  • Rayfield Donald Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia Reaktion; London 2012

  • Rcheulishvili Giorgi ‘The Aragvi Basin in the Middle Ages’ in Sagona Antonio & Abramishvili Mikheil (eds.) Archaeology in Southern Caucasus: Perspectives from Georgia Peeters; Leuven 2008 pp. 467–477

  • Reinink G.J. ‘ ‘Edessa grew dim and Nisibis shone forth’: the School of Nisibis at the transition of the sixth-seventh century’ in Drijvers J.W. & MacDonald A.A. (eds.) Centres of Learning. Learning and Location in Pre-Modern Europe and the Near East Brill; Leiden New York & Cologne 1995 pp. 77–89

  • Renhart Erich ‘ “… loquere ait Evangelium loquere.” Zu einer έτοιμασία τοῦ θρόνου aus der frühen Kirche in Persien’ in Pillinger R. & Renhart E. (eds.) The Divine Life light and love: euntes in mundum universum: Festschrift in honour of Petro B.T. Bilaniuk Andreas Schnider Verlags-Atelier; Graz 1992 pp. 81–88

  • Renhart Erich ‘Encore une fois: Le Bēmā des Églises de la Syrie du Nord’ Parole de l’ Orient 20 (1995) pp. 85–94

  • Renhart Erich Das syrische Bema. Liturgisch-archäologische Untersuchungen Grazer Theologische Studien 20; Graz 1995

  • Renoux A. ‘La croix dans le rite arménien: historie et symbolisme’ Parole de l’ Orient 5:1 (1969) pp. 123–175

  • Renoux Charles ‘Les hymnes du Iadgari pour la fête de l’ apparition de la croix le 7 mai’ Studi sull’Oriente Cristiano 4 (2000) pp. 93–102

  • Renoux Charles ‘Hymnographie géorgienne ancienne et hymnaire de Saint-Sabas (Ve–VIIIe siècle)’ Irénikon 80 (2007) pp. 36–69

  • Richter-Siebels Ilse Die palästinensischen Weihrauchgefäße mit Reliefszenen aus dem Leben Christi Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades eies Doktors der Philosophie des Fachbereichs Geschichtswissenschaften der Freien Universität Berlin; Berlin 1996

  • Rock Stella Popular Religion in Russia. ‘Double belief’ and the making of an academic myth Routledge; London & New York 2007

  • Ross Steven K. Roman Edessa. Politics and Culture on the Eastern Fringes of the Roman Empire 114–242 CE Routledge; London & New York 2001

  • Rubenson Samuel ‘Asceticism and Monasticism I: Eastern’ in Löhr Winrich & Casiday Augustine (eds.) Cambridge History of Christianity Vol. II Cambridge University Press; Cambridge 2007 pp. 637–668

  • Saginashvili Mariam ‘Gvianromauli minis piala cheremidan’ Dziebani 2 (1998) pp. 68–71

  • Sagona A. Nikolaishvili V. Sagona C. Ogleby C. Pilbrow V. Briggs C. Giunashvili G. Manegaladze G. ‘Bridging two continents: Renewed investigations at Samtavro Georgia’ Journal of Archaeology of the Turkish Academy of Sciences/Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi Arkeoloji Dergisi 13 (2010) pp. 313–338

  • Sagona A. Nikolaishvili V. Sagona C. Ogleby C. Pilbrow V. Briggs C. Giunashvili G. Manegaladze G. ‘Excavations at Samtavro 2008–2009: An Interim Report’ Ancient Near Eastern Studies 47 (2010) pp. 1–136

  • Sakhvadze Ana ‘Late Antique Form Made Imported Glass Vessel on the Territory of Georgia’ Studies in Caucasian Archaeology 1 (2012) pp. 217–233

  • Sandin Karl ‘Liturgy Pilgrimage and Devotion in Byzantine Objects’ Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts 67:4 (1993) pp. 46–56

  • Saradi-Mendelovici Helen ‘Christian Attitudes toward Pagan Monuments in Late Antiquity and Their Legacy in Later Byzantine Centuries’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 44 (1990) pp. 47–61

  • Schachner Lukas Amadeus ‘The Archaeology of the Stylite’ in Gywn David M. & Bangert Susanne (eds.) Religious Diversity in Late Antiquity Brill; Leiden & Boston 2010 pp. 329–397

  • Schick Robert The Christian Communities of Palestine from Byzantine to Islamic Rule. A Historical and Archaeological Study The Darwin Press; Princeton 1995

  • Schor Adam M. ‘Theodoret on the “School of Antioch”: A Network Approach’ Journal of Early Christian Studies 15:4 (2007) pp. 517–562

  • Schor Adam M. ‘Patronage Performance and Social Strategy in the Letters of Theodoret Bishop of Cyrrhus’ Journal of late Antiquity 2:2 (2009) pp. 274–299

  • Schor Adam M. Theodoret’s People. Social Networks and Religious Conflicts in Late Roman Syria University of California Press; Berkeley Los Angeles & London 2011

  • Schwartz Daniel L. Paideia and Cult: Christian Initiation in Theodore of Mopsuestia Centre for Hellenic Studies Harvard University Press; Cambridge MA & London 2013

  • Segal J.B. ‘Some Syriac Inscriptions of the 2nd–3rd Century’ Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 16:1 (1954) pp. 13–36

  • Segal J.B. ‘New Syriac inscriptions from Edessa’ Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 22:1 (1959) pp. 23–40

  • Segal J.B. ‘Four Syriac Inscriptions’ Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 30:2 (1967) pp. 293–304

  • Segal J.B. ‘The Church of St. George at Urfa (Edessa)’ Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 35:3 (1972) pp. 606–609

  • Segal J.B. ‘A Note on a Mosaic from Edessa’ Syria 60 (1983) pp. 107–110

  • Segal J.B. Edessa. The Blessed City 2nd Edition Gorgias Press; Piscataway NJ 2001

  • Seligman Jon ‘A Georgian Monastery from the Byzantine Period at Khirbat Umm Leisun Jerusalem’ ʿAtiqot 83 (2015) pp. 145–179

  • Shaked Shaul ‘Notes on some Jewish Aramaic inscriptions from Georgia’ Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam 32 (2006) pp. 503–510

  • Shatberashvili Vakhtang ‘Two painted glass jugs from the village of Khovle (Georgia)’ in Janssens K. Degryse P. Cosyns P. Caen J. & Van’t dack L. (eds.) Annales of the 17th Congress of the International Association for the History of Glass 2006 Antwerp Aspeditions; Antwerp 2009 pp. 217–221

  • Shnirelman Victor A. ‘From internationalism to nationalism; forgotten pages of Soviet archaeology in the 1930s and 1940s’ in Kohl Philip L. & Fawcett Clare (eds.) Nationalism politics and the practice of archaeology Cambridge University Press; Cambridge 1995 pp. 120–138

  • Shoemaker Stephen J. ‘The Virgin Mary in the Ministry of Jesus and the Early Church According to the Earliest Life of the Virgin’ The Harvard Theological Review 98:4 (2005) pp. 441–467

  • Silagadze Nino ‘Kartuli “saplavs zeda” eklesiebi da mati paralelebi aklo aghmosavletshi’ Khelovnebatmtsodneoba 5 (2003) pp. 135–142

  • Simonia Irakli Ruggles Clive & Bakhtadze Nodar ‘An Astronomical Investigation of the Seventeen Hundred Year Old Nekresi Fire Temple in the Eastern Part of Georgia’ Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage 12:3 (2009) pp. 235–239

  • Sinclair T.A. Eastern Turkey: An Architectural and Archaeological Survey (4 vols) The Pindar Press; London 1987

  • Skhirtladze Zaza ‘Silver Medallion from Gareji’ Jahrbuch der österreichischen Byzantinistik 45 (1995) pp. 277–282

  • Skhirtladze Zaza ‘Canonizing the Apocrypha: the Abgar Cycle in the Alaverdi and Gelati Gospels’ in Kessler Herbert L. & Wolf Gerhard (eds.) The Holy Face and the Paradox of Representation Nuova Alfa Editoriale; Bologna 1998 pp. 69–93

  • Skhirtladze Zaza The Tomb of St. David Garejeli Gareja Studies Centre; Tbilisi 2006

  • Smith E.B. ‘A lost encolpium and some notes on early Christian iconography’ Byzantinisches Zeitschrift 23 (1919) pp. 217–225

  • Smith J.Z. To Take Place: Toward Theory in Ritual University of Chicago Press; Chicago 1987

  • Sodini Jean-Pierre ‘La contribution de l’ archéologie à la connaissance du monde byzantine (IVe–VIIe siècles)’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 47 (1993) pp. 139–184

  • Sommer Michael ‘Modelling Rome’s Eastern Frontier: The Case of Osrhoene’ in Kaizer Ted & Facella Margherita (eds.) Kingdoms and Principalities in the Roman Near East Franz Steiner Verlag; Stuttgart 2010 pp. 217–226

  • Soudavar Farmanfarmaian Fatema ‘Georgia and Iran: Three Millennia of Cultural Relations. An Overview’ Journal of Persianate Studies 2 (2009) pp. 1–43

  • Spinks Bryan D. ‘Imagining the Past: Historical Methodologies and Liturgical Study’ in Berger Teresa & Spinks Bryan D. (eds.) Liturgy’s Imagined Past/s: Methodologies and Materials in the Writing of Liturgical History Today Liturgical Press; Collegeville Minnesota 2016 pp. 3–18

  • Stein Aurel ‘The Roman Limes in Syria: Review. La Trace de Rome Dans Le Desert de Syrie. Le Limes à la conquète arabe. Recherches Aériennes (1925–1932) by A. Poidebard’ The Geographical Journal 87:1 (1936) pp. 66–76

  • Sterk Andrea ‘Mission from Below: Captive Women and Conversion on the East Roman Frontiers’ Church History 79:1 (2010) pp. 1–39

  • Sterk Andrea ‘ “Representing” Mission from Below: Historians as Interpreters and Agents of Christianization’ Church History 79:2 (2010) pp. 271–304

  • Stroumsa Guy G. The End of Sacrifice. Religious Transformations in Late Antiquity The University of Chicago Press; Chicago & London 2009

  • Strube Christine Baudekoration im Nordsyrischen Kalksteinmassiv. Band I. Kapitell- Tür- und Gesimsformen der Kirchen des 4. und 5. Jahrhunderts n. Chr Philipp von Zabern; Mainz 1993

  • Strube Christine Baudekoration im Nordsyrischen Kalksteinmassiv. Band II. Kapitell- Tür- und Gesimsformen des 6. und frühen 7. Jahrhunderts n. Chr. Philipp von Zabern; Mainz 2002

  • Strzygowski Josef & Dashian P.J. ‘Das neugefundene Orpheus-Mosaik in Jerusalem’ Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins (1878–1945) Band 24 (1901) pp. 139–171

  • Strzygowski Josef ‘The Origin of Christian Art’ The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 20:105 (1911) pp. 146 149–153

  • Strzygowski Josef Die Baukunst der Armenier und Europa (2 vols) Kunstverlag Anton Schroll & Co; Vienna 1918

  • Strzygowski Josef Ursprung der Christlichen Kirchenkunst. Neue Tatsachen und Grundsätze der Kunstforschung J.C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung; Leipzig 1920

  • (English trans. Dalton O.M. & Braunholtz H.J. Origin of Christian church art new facts and principles of research The Clarendon Press; Oxford 1923)

  • Strzygowski Josef ‘The Authenticity of Early Christian Silver’ The Art Bulletin 10:4 (1928) pp. 370–376

  • Suny Ronald Grigor The Making Of The Georgian Nation Indiana University Press; Bloomington and Indianapolis Second Edition 1994

  • Surguladze T. Bibiluri T. & Dzneladze M. ‘Adreuli kristianobis simbolo mtskhetidan’ Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR 101:3 (1981) pp. 741–744

  • Taft Robert F. ‘Some notes on the Bema in the East and West Syrian Traditions’ Orientalia Christiana Periodica 34:2 (1968) pp. 326–359

  • Taft Robert F. The Byzantine Rite: A Short History The Liturgical Press; Collegeville Minnesota 1992

  • Taft Robert F. The Liturgy of the Hours in East and West The Liturgical Press; Collegeville Minnesota 2nd revised edition 1993

  • Taft Robert F. ‘Some structural problems in the Syriac Anaphora of the Twelve Apostles IARAM 5:1–2 (1993) pp. 505–520

  • Taft Robert F. ‘The Armenian ‘Holy Sacrifice (Surg Patarg)’ as a mirror of Armenian liturgical history’ in Taft Robert F. (ed.) Orientalia Christiana Analecta 254 The Armenian Christian Tradition. Scholarly Symposium in Honor of the Visit to the Pontificial Oriental Institute Rome of His Holiness Karekin I Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians December 12 1996 Rome 1997 pp. 175–197

  • Taft Robert F. ‘Comparative liturgy fifty years after Anton Baumstark (d. 1948): a reply to recent critics’ Worship 73:6 (1999) pp. 521–540

  • Taft Robert F. ‘Home-Communion in the Late Antique East’ in Johnson Clare V. (ed.) Ars Liturgiae: Worship Aesthetics and Praxis. Essays in Honor of Nathan D. Mitchell Liturgy Training Publications; Chicago 2003 pp. 1–25

  • Talakhadze Ekaterine (ed.) Sakartvelos petroglipebis did katalogi Tamarioni; Tbilisi 2000

  • Taqaishvili E. ‘Antiquities of Georgia’ Georgica 4 & 5 (1937) pp. 96–116

  • Taqaishvili Ekvtime Arkeologiuri Ekspeditsia Lechkhum-Svanetshi 1910 Tsels Paris 1937

  • Tarchnishvili Michel ‘Die Legende des Heiligen Nino und die Geschichte des Georgischen Nationalbewusstseins’ Byzantinische Zeitschrift 40 (1940) pp. 48–75

  • Tarchnishvili Michel ‘Sources arméno-géorgiennes de l’ histoire ancienne de l’ église de Géorgie’ Le Muséon 60 (1947) pp. 29–50

  • Tarchnishvili Michel ‘Namqo atsqoshi’ Bedi Kartlisa 4 (1949) pp. 23.24

  • Tarchnishvili Michel ‘Il monachismo georgiano nelle sue origini e nei suoi primi sviluppi’ Orientalia Christiana Analecta 153 (1958) pp. 307–319

  • Tarchnishvili Michel ‘Die Entstehung und Entwicklung der Kirchlichen Autokephalie Georgiens’ Le Muséon 73 (1960) pp. 107–128

  • Tavamaishvili Giorgi Inaishvili Nino Chichileishvili Maia Khalvashi Merab Janberidze Giorgi & Gujabidze Shota Acharis Sagandzuri Sezani; Batumi 2015

  • Tchalenko Georges Villages antiques de la Syrie du Nord. Le Massif du Bélus à l’ époque romaine. Bibliothèque archéologique et historique 50 Paul Geuthner; Paris 1953

  • Tchalenko Georges and Baccache E. Églises de village de la Syrie du Nord. Institut Français de l’ Archéologie du Proche-Orient 105.1–2; Paris 1979

  • Tchalenko Georges Églises syriennes à bêma. Bibliothèque archéologique et historique 105 Paul Geuthner; Paris 1990

  • Tchalenko Georges with additional material by Tchalenko John & Loosley Emma Notes on the Sanctuary of St. Symeon Stylites at Qalʿat Simʿān Brill; Leiden (forthcoming)

  • Tchekhanovets Yana ‘Early Georgian Pilgrimage to the Holy Land’ Liber Annuus 61 (2011) pp. 453–471

  • Tchekhanovets Yana ‘Georgian inscriptions from Horvat Burgin’ in Chrupcala D. (ed.) Christ is here! Studies in Biblical and Christian archaeology in memory of Michele Piccirillo ofm. Studium biblicum franciscanum; Milano 2013 pp. 159–166

  • Tchekhanovets Yana ‘Bishop Iohane from Khirbat Umm Leisun and the Caucasian Albanian Church’ ʿAtiqot 83 (2015) pp. 195–197

  • Tchkhikvadze Nestan ‘Georgian Manuscripts in the European Depositories (National Library of France)’ Spekali 2 (2010) http://www.spekali.tsu.ge/index.php/en/article/viewArticle/2/11 (accessed 28.03.16)

  • Teteriatnikov Natalia ‘Upper-Story Chapels near the Sanctuary in Churches of the Christian East’ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 42 (1988) pp. 65–72

  • Thelamon Françoise ‘Histoire et structure mythique: la conversion des Ibères’ Revue Historique 247:1 (1972) pp. 5–28

  • Thierry Michel & Nicole ‘La cathédrale de Mrèn et sa décoration’ Cahiers archéologiques: Fin de l’ antiquité et moyen âge 21 (1971) pp. 43–77

  • Thomas Thelma K. ‘Art Historical Frontiers: Lessons from Dura Europos’ in Chi Jennifer Y. & Heath Sebastian (eds.) Edge of Empires: Pagans Jews and Christians at Roman Dura Europos Princeton University Press; Princeton NJ 2011 pp. 40–61

  • Thomson Robert W. ‘Early Armenian Christianity and Edessa’ in Hovannisian Richard G. (ed.) Armenian Tigranakert/Diarbekir and Edessa/Urfa Mazda; Costa Mesa CA 2006 pp. 97–110

  • Thoonen Dubowchik Rosemary ‘A Jerusalem chant for the Holy Cross in the Byzantine Latin and Eastern Rites’ Plainsong and Medieval Music 5:2 (1996) pp. 113–129

  • Toumanoff Cyril ‘Medieval Georgian Historical Literature (VIIth–XVth Centuries)’ Traditio 1 (1943) pp. 139–182

  • Toumanoff Cyril ‘Christian Caucasia between Byzantium and Iran: New Light from Old Sources’ Traditio 10 (1954) pp. 109–189

  • Toumanoff Cyril ‘Caucasia and Byzantine Studies’ Traditio 12 (1956) pp. 409–425

  • Toumanoff Cyril ‘Introduction to Christian Caucasian History. The Formative Centuries (IVth–VIIIth)’ Traditio 15 (1959) pp. 1–106

  • Toumanoff Cyril ‘Introduction to Christian Caucasian History II. States and Dynasties of the Formative Period’ Traditio 17 (1961) pp. 1–106

  • Toumanoff Cyril ‘On the Date of Pseudo-Moses of Chorene’ Hande’s Amso’reay 1961 columns 467–476

  • Toumanoff Cyril Studies in Christian Caucasian History Klincksieck; Paris 1969

  • Toumanoff Cyril ‘Chronology of the early Kings of Iberia’ Traditio 25 (1969) pp. 1–33

  • Toumanoff Cyril ‘Caucasia and Byzantium’ Traditio 27 (1971) pp. 111–158

  • Trigger Bruce G. ‘Alternative Archaeologies: Nationalist Colonialist Imperialist’ Man New Series 19:3 (1984) pp. 355–370

  • Trigger Bruce G. A History of Archaeological Thought Cambridge University Press; Cambridge 1989

  • Trimingham J. Spencer Christianity among the Arabs in Pre-Islamic Times Librairie du Liban; Beirut 1990

  • Trzcionka Silke Magic and the Supernatural in Fourth-Century Syria Routledge; London & New York 2007

  • Tseradze Tinatin & Tskhadadze David The Four Golden Gospels. A Georgian Manuscript Preserved in the Holy Sepulchre Church in Jerusalem Centre for the Exploration of Georgian Antiquities; Tbilisi 2013

  • Tserediani Nino Tuite Kevin & Bukhrashvili Paata ‘Women as bread-bakers and ritual-makers: gender visibility and sacred space in Upper Svaneti’ in Sacred Places Emerging Spaces: Pligrims Saints and Scholars in the Caucasus and Beyond (forthcoming)

  • Tsereteli Emil Gongadze Merab Bolashvili Nana Lominadze Giorgi Gaprindashvili George & Gaprindashvili Merab ‘Mudflow Phenomena in Eastern Georgia (Kakheti Region) and Their Development Trends Related to Climate Change’ International Journal of Scientific Research 3:2 (2014) pp. 193–197

  • Tsereteli Konstantin A New Inscription in Aramaic Script from Mtskheta-Samtavro Metsniereba; Tbilisi 1990

  • Tsereteli Konstantin ‘The Oldest Armazian Inscription in Georgia’ Der Welt des Orients 24 (1993) pp. 85–88

  • Tsereteli Konstantin ‘Mtskhetis arameuli amuleti’ Mtskheta. Arkeologiuri kvleva-dziebis shedegebi 11 Metsniereba; Tbilisi 1996 pp. 95–132

  • Tsereteli Konstantin ‘An Aramaic Amulet From Mtskheta’ Ancient Civilizations from Scythia to Siberia 3:2 (1997) pp. 218–240

  • Tsereteli Konstantin ‘Armazian script’ in Mgaloblishvili Tamila (ed.) Ancient Christianity in the Caucasus Curzon; Richmond 1998 pp. 155–162

  • Tsetskhladze Gocha R. ‘Ancient West and East: Mtskheta Capital of Caucasian Iberia’ Mediterranean Archaeology 19/20 (2006/07) pp. 75–107

  • Tsukhishvili Izolda ‘Medalioni samtavrodan’ Dziebani 11 (2003) pp. 93–94

  • Tuite Kevin ‘Highland Georgian Paganism: Archaism or Innovation?’ Annual of the Society for the Study of the Caucasus 6/7 (1996) pp. 79–91

  • Tuite Kevin ‘Lightning Sacrifice and Possession in the Traditional Religions of the Caucasus’ Anthropos 99:1 (2004) pp. 143–159

  • Tuite Kevin ‘Lightning Sacrifice and Possession in the Traditional Religions of the Caucasus (Continued from Anthropos 99.2004: 143–159)’ Anthropos 99:2 (2004) pp. 481–497

  • Tuite Kevin ‘The Rise and Fall and Revival of the Ibero-Caucasian Hypothesis’ Historiographia Linguistica 35: 1/2 (2008) pp. 24–82

  • Tuite Kevin ‘The Reception of Marr and Marrism in the Soviet Georgian Academy’ in Mühlfried Florian & Sokolovskiy Sergey (eds.) Exploring the Edge of Empire: Soviet Era Anthropology in the Caucasus and Central Asia Reihe; Halle Studies in the Anthropology of Eurasia. Bd. 25 2011 pp. 197–214

  • Tuite Kevin ‘St. George in the Caucasus: Politics Gender Mobility’ in Kahl Thede & Darieva Tsypylma (eds.) Sakralität und Mobilität in Südosteuropa und im Kaukasus Verlag der Österreichen Akademie der Wissenschaften; Wien 2016 (in press)

  • Tuite Kevin ‘Image-mediated diffusion and body shift in the cult of St Eustace in the western Caucasus’ in Bealcovschi Simona (ed.) Le corps et le lieu Montréal 2017 (forthcoming)

  • Tumanischwili Dm. ‘Zur Typologie Der Orientalisch-Christlichen Baukunst’ Kartuli khelovnebisadmi misdzghnili II saertashoriso simpoziumi Institut Tschubinaschvili d’ histoire de l’ art georgien Metsniereba; Tbilisi 1977

  • Tumanishvili Dimitri Khundadze Tamar & Khostaria David Jvari Church of the Holy Cross at Mtskheta Tbilisi 2008

  • Van Der Leeuw Charles Azerbaijan A Quest For Identity: A Short History Curzon; Richmond 2000

  • Van Esbroeck Michel ‘Lazique Mingrélie Svanéthie et Aphkazie du IVe au IXe siècle’ in Il Caucaso: Cerniera fra culture dal Mediterraneo alla Persia (secoli IVXI) Centro italiano di studi sull’alto medievo; Spoleto 1996 pp. 195–221

  • Van Esbroeck Michel ‘Perspectives pour l’ étude des Églises du Caucase’ in Taft Robert F. (ed.) The Christian East Its Institutions and Its Thought: A Critical Reflection Pontificio Istituto Orientale; Rome 1996 pp. 129–144

  • Van Esbroeck Michel ‘La place de Jérusalem dans la ‘Conversion de la Géorgie’ ’ in Mgaloblishvili Tamila (ed.) Ancient Christianity in the Caucasus Curzon; Richmond 1998 pp. 59–74

  • Van Esbroeck Michel ‘Les trois croix dans le kartlis mokcevaCaucasica 2 (1998) pp. 70–76

  • Velmans Tania & Alpago Novello Adriano L’Arte della Georgia. Affreschi e architetture Jaca Book; Milan 1996

  • Verdier Philippe ‘A Medallion of Saint Symeon the Younger’ The Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 67:1 (1980) pp. 17–26

  • Vikan Gary Early Byzantine Pilgrimage Art Dumbarton Oaks Byzantine Collection Publications 5; Washington D.C. 1982 Revised Edition 2010

  • Vikan Gary ‘Sacred Image Sacred Power’ in Vikan Gary (ed.) Icon. Four Essays The Trust for Museum Exhibitions; Washington D.C. 1988 pp. 6–19

  • Vikan Gary ‘Icons and Piety in Early Byzantium’ in Moss Christopher & Kiefer Katherine (eds.) Byzantine East Latin West. Art-Historical Studies in Honor of Kurt Weitzmann Princeton University Press; Princeton 1995 pp. 569–576

  • Vikan Gary ‘Byzantine Pilgrims’ Art’ in Safran Linda (ed.) Heaven on Earth. Art and the Church in Byzantium Pennsylvania State University Press; Pennsylvania 1998 pp. 229–266

  • Voltaggio Michele ‘Xenodochia and Hospitia in Sixth-Century Jerusalem. Indicators for the Byzantine Pilgrimage to the Holy Places’ Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 127:2 (2011) pp. 197–210

  • Vööbus Arthur ‘A Critical Apparatus for the Vetus Syra’ Journal of Biblical Literature 70:2 (1951) pp. 123–128

  • Wade Andrew ‘The Oldest Iadgari. The Jerusalem Tropologion VVIIIe’ Orientalia Christiana Periodica 50 (1984) pp. 451–456

  • Walmsley Alan Review of The Christian Communities of Palestine from Byzantine to Islamic Rule: A Historical and Archaeological Study by Robert Schick Journal of the American Oriental Society 119: 2 (1999) pp. 320–322

  • Walmsley Alan Early Islamic Syria: An Archaeological Assessment Duckworth; London 2007

  • Wardrop Oliver The Kingdom of Georgia: Notes of Travel in a Land of Women Wine and Song Sampson Low Marston Searle & Rivington Ltd; London 1888

  • Weitzmann Kurt ‘An East Christian Censer’ Record of the Museum of Historic Art Princeton University 3:2 (1944) pp. 2–4

  • Williams Alan ‘Zoroastrians and Christians in Sasanian Iran’ Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester 78:3 (1997) pp. 37–53

  • Winkler Dietmar W. ‘Miaphysitism: A New Term for Use in the History of Dogma and in Ecumenical Theology’ The Harp 10:3 (1997) pp. 33–40

  • Whitby Michael ‘Maro the Dendrite; an Anti-social Holy Man?’ in Whitby Michael Hardie Philip & Whitby Mary (eds.) Homo Viator: Classical Essays for Jotn Bramble Bristol Classical Press; Bristol 1987 pp. 309–318

  • Wood Philip The Chronicle of Seert. Christian Historical Imagination in Late Antique Iraq Oxford University Press; Oxford 2013

  • Wood Philip ‘The Chronicle of Seert and Roman Ecclesiastical History in the Sasanian World’ in Wood Philip (ed.) History and Identity in the Late Antique Near East Oxford University Press; Oxford 2013 pp. 43–59

  • Wood Philip ‘Christianity and the Arabs in the sixth century’ in Dijkstra J.H.F. & Fisher G. Inside and Out: Interactions between Rome and the Peoples on the Arabian and Egyptian Frontiers in Late Antiquity Peeters; Leuven 2014 pp. 353–368

  • Wright G.R.H. ‘Simeon’s Ancestors or the Skeleton on the Column’ Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology 1:1 (1968) pp. 41–49

  • Wright G.R.H. ‘The Heritage of the Stylites’ Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology 1:3 (1970) pp. 82–107

  • Yasin Ann Marie Saints and Church Spaces in the Late Antique Mediterranean. Architecture Cult and Community Cambridge University Press; Cambridge 2009

  • Zalesskaya Vera Pamyatniki vizantiyskogo prikladnogo iskusstva IVVII vekov; Gosudarstvennyi Ermitzh; Saint Petersburg 2006

  • Zalesskaja Vera ‘The artifacts of Byzantine Cherson in their historical and cultural context’ http://www.ermitageitalia.it/Studi-e-Ricerche/2008/Vera-Zalesskaja4cda.html?lang=en-US (accessed 06.10.2016)

  • Zaqzuq Abdurrazzaq ‘Nuovi mosaici pavimentali nella regione di Ḥamā’ Milion—Studi e ricerche d’arte bizantina 3 (1995) pp. 237–256

  • Zekiyan Boghos Levon ‘La rupture entre les églises géorgienne et arménienne au début du VIIe siècle’ Revue des etudes arméniennes 16 (1982) pp. 155–174

  • Zernov Nicolas Eastern Christendom Weidenfeld & Nicolson; London 1961

  • Zhuravlev D.V. ‘Dve Glinianye Ampuly c Izobrazheniem Sviatogo Miny iz Kryma’ Rossiǐskaia Arkheologiia 3 (2012) pp. 91–96

  • Zuckerman Constantine ‘The Early Byzantine Strongholds in Eastern Pontus’ Travaux et Mémoires 11 (1991) pp. 527–553

  • Hewsen Robert H. Armenien unde Georgien—Christentum und Territorialentwicklung vom 4. bis zum 7. Jahrhundert Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients (TAVO) B VI 14 Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag; Wiesbaden 1987

Metrics

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 364 309 1
PDF Downloads 57 55 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0
Related Content