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Contents

Acknowledgements VII
A Note on Spelling VIII
Figures and Maps IX
Maps XII
Introduction 1
1 Hungarian Military Organization, 1387–1526 8
1 The Inheritance: Political and Territorial Structures 11
2 The Angevin Legacy 15
3 Sigismund and his Reforms 18
4 The Armies of Hunyadi 26
5 King Matthias – the Myth of the Black Army 28
6 The Jagiellos: Adaptation under Pressure 39
2 The New Enemy: Hungary and the Ottomans, 1389–1429 51
1 The First Contacts between Hungary and the Turks 51
2 The Battle of Nicopolis 55
3 From Nicopolis to Golubac 65
4 The Siege of Golubac 70
3 From Golubac to Belgrade, 1428–1456 77
1 The Last Years of Sigismund 77
2 Albert to Wladislas I – Troubled Times 82
3 The First Ottoman Wars of Hunyadi, 1441–1443 92
4 The War of Illusions: The Long March, 1443–1444 105
5 The King’s Death: The Varna Campaign 120
6 The Last Offensive: The Battle of Kosovo Polje, 1448 141
7 On the Defensive: From Kosovo Polje to Belgrade, 1448–1456 166
8 The Siege of Belgrade, 1456 174
4 From Belgrade to Vienna: King Matthias and the Ottomans, 1458–1483 188
1 Securing the Borders, 1458–1466 188
1.1 Hungary and the Fall of Serbia, 1457–1459 188
1.2 Conflicting Views: King Matthias and Mihály Szilágyi, 1459–1460 199
1.3 The Return of Mehmed II to the North 203
1.4 From Jajce to Zvornik, 1463–1464 208
1.5 “Passive Resistance”, 1465–1466 221
2 Turning West, 1467–1483 228
2.1 The Years of Disengagement, 1467–1475 228
2.2 The Siege of Šabac 243
2.3 Transylvania, Bosnia, Otranto, 1478–1482 260
5 The Wars of the “Long Peace”, 1483–1520 278
1 The Last Years of Matthias 280
2 From War to Peace, 1490–1495 284
3 A War that Nobody Wanted, 1499–1503 298
4 Shifting Alliances, 1508–1511 323
5 Under Pressure Again, 1511–1513 329
6 Towards the Edge of the Abyss, 1514–1520 348
6 The Collapse, 1521–1526 372
1 The Third Siege of Belgrade, 1521 372
2 Preparing for the Deluge: After Belgrade, 1522–1525 395
3 The Final Countdown, 1525–1526 416
4 The Battle of Mohács 424
7 Conclusion: Why Did Hungary Lose? 445
1 The Fall of Medieval Hungary, Part One: The Superiority of Ottoman Military Organization 446
2 The Fall of Medieval Hungary, Part Two: Fiscal Breakdown 452
Bibliography 463
Index 486