Selective Index

Note: This index does not include an entry for d’Ohsson himself. The many citations generated would have limited their value as a finding aid. Members of his immediate family are indexed by surname under “O” (for d’Ohsson), “K” (for Kuleliyan), “M” (for Mouradgea), and “P” (for Pagy). This index selectively lists the many terms pertaining to Islam and Ottoman institutions. Among artists, major contributors are included, as are figures illustrating large scenes ascribed to them.

abdest, ablution30, 130–31, 153–54Abdullah, Yenişehirli, Şeyh ül-İslâm120, 288, 372Abdülhamid I (r. 1774–1789)27, 109, 142, 178, 189, 194, 228, 287, 321, 356absolutism1, 6, 10, 12, 27, 43, 124, 128, 225, 233, 360, 363, 366, 375Abu Bakr (Ebu Bekir), caliph30, 148, 223, 237Abu Hanifa (Turkish, Ebu Hanife, d. 767)112–14, 152–53adet (custom, a source of law)101, 115–16, 143, 232, 289ʿAli, caliph30, 130, 148–49, 162, 199, 223, 237, 300, 375allegiance to ruler, act of.biataloes wood29, 98, 173, 202, 204Anckarström, Jacob Johan14annual appointments (tevcihat)4, 7, 24, 103, 123, 222, 290–91, 293, 335, 361approbation28, 62, 77, 82, 365ʿAqaʾid al-Islam104, 113, 115, 129, 146arbitration, in dispute settlement32, 34, 70–71, 127–28, 229–30Armenian Catholic1, 18, 27, 37, 271, 385Arz odası (Audience Hall)87, 135, 188, 287, 291, 304, 356askeri ruling class3Asp, Per Olof von21, 34, 43, 45, 48–50, 54Aubry, assumed name of Descorches44–45Åkerblad, Johan David49, 54Audience Hall.Arz odasıayan.notablesBab-ı Âli.Sublime PorteBab-ı Defteri.TreasuryBab ül-Saade Ağası.Eunuch, Chief Whitebaltacı, a force of palace guards89, 282, 312, 314Banner of the Prophet, Sancak-ı Şerif298, 351, 354bath, bathing customs.hammamBehce Abdullah119, 288, 372Behcet ül-Fetava120, 372Bektaşi dervishes224, 237, 241, 245, 256–58, 296, 298berat, translator’s warrant17, 24–25, 34, 49, 305Berthault, Pierre-Gabriel (1737–1831)191–93biat (allegiance to ruler, act of)221, 287biniş (sultan’s pleasure outings)288, 328bostancı (palace gardeners)141, 271, 281–83, 285, 297, 312–14, 328, 351bureau chiefs.hacegânburin62–63, 70, 73, 356caliphate, ideas about history of118, 120–21, 123, 130, 138, 148–49, 289, 360, 363Caliphs, Rightly Guided80, 130, 138, 148–49, 153, 162, 371–72Camondo, Abraham38, 47–48Catherine II (r. 1762–1796)11–12, 14, 28, 38, 41, 53, 78, 124–25, 128, 363, 368Celsing, Gustaf (1723–1789)9, 18–20, 23, 48, 65, 76, 108–12, 115, 220, 362Celsing, Ulric (1731–1805)9, 18–20, 22–23, 27–28, 31, 35, 48, 64–65, 108, 110–12, 115, 220, 304, 362cemeteries89, 164, 166ceremonial (teşrifat)63, 83–84, 86–88, 90, 108, 111, 132–34, 136, 165, 167–74, 186–89, 194, 196, 199, 202, 221, 266–67, 281–82, 285, 287–91, 297–98, 303–4, 306, 316, 320–21, 331, 346, 369, 372ceremonial festival greetings.muayedeCeremonies, Master of (Teşrifatçı Başı)98, 134, 172, 174, 186–87, 304charitable foundations.waqf, pl. awqafCharles, Duke, Regent 1792–179613–15, 32, 49Charles XII (r. 1697–1718)9–10, 23, 108, 111, 362, 367Chief Müfti.Şeyh ül-İslâmChief Scribe.Reis ül-Küttab, Reis EfendiChoiseul-Gouffier27, 35, 42–43, 68, 78–83, 146, 159, 218–19, 362–63, 365, 375–76circle of justice (adalet dairesi)3cirid, javelin contest324, 326–28Clugny, J. M. A. de74, 307, 316, 319, 321–27, 330–31, 333–35, 337, 356–58Cochin, Charles-Nicolas (1715–1791)31–32, 34, 63, 66, 69–74, 76, 84, 154, 162, 164–71, 178–82, 187, 195, 245–47, 249, 253, 256, 379codes and “sub-codes,” d’Ohsson’s classification of Islamic law75, 103, 112–13, 115, 123, 128, 142–43, 220–21, 224–34, 257, 262–63, 265, 268–71, 276, 360, 365–67, 373–74, 377codes, legalcivil103, 113, 117, 142, 224–30, 257, 263, 265, 374judicial103, 113, 117, 142, 224–25, 229–30, 257military103, 113, 117, 142, 224–25, 257, 270penal103, 113, 117, 142, 224–25, 230, 232, 257, 276political90, 103, 113, 115, 117, 142, 224–25, 257, 262religious75, 102–3, 113, 115, 117, 128–30, 137, 142, 220codes, legal, ideas about124–26, 280codification102, 124–28, 142–43, 226, 362–63, 366, 374Constantine, painter.KonstantinCoulely.KuleliyanCrimea2, 11, 21, 110, 120, 289, 295, 302, 368çengi, dancing boy215, 217çubuk, long pipes29, 138, 202–3, 266custom (a source of law).adetDahlbergh, Erik (1625–1703)362Dar ül-Saade Ağası.Eunuch, Chief BlackDefterdar.Treasurerdervishes, history and practices of1, 29–30, 66, 73–75, 103, 115, 117, 119, 128, 138, 142, 220, 223–24, 234, 237–58, 296, 298–99, 309, 369–70.Bektaşi, Mevlevi, Rifaidescendants of the Prophet.emirsDescorches, Marie-Louis-Henri (former Marquis de Sainte Croix)44–47, 56–57despotism28–29, 123–24, 128, 233, 360, 363, 368Dhimma.non-Muslims, under Islamic lawDidot, Firmin60, 83, 363Didot, Pierre-François30, 60, 76–77Diez, Heinrich Friedrich von67divan, Ottoman seating arrangement204, 265, 320–21divans of the Grand Vezirconsultative51, 96, 117, 289, 291, 333judicial289–91, 333divans of the palace“crowded” (galebe)291, 304, 312judicial291dogma, Islamic102–4, 113, 115, 117–18, 120, 124, 126, 128–30, 137, 142, 146, 148–49, 219–20, 224–25, 260, 269–70, 275, 306, 360, 368, 373dragoman (tercüman)45, 48, 50Easter, Greek festivities141, 218–19Ebu Bekir Ratib27, 38–40, 52, 306, 364, 373Egypt, French invasion (1798)56–57, 328, 364, 371–72emirs (descendants of the Prophet)172, 222, 298–99, 351, 354Engeström, Lars von, Count14engravingsMouradgea’s use of as sources111, 115, 167–71, 203, 219, 224, 228, 234, 246, 248, 250, 252, 254, 320, 356, 359production processes6, 26, 28–29, 31–32, 35–36, 47–48, 58–59, 61–66, 68–78, 80–81, 83–84, 87, 90, 121, 123, 131, 135, 137, 144–45, 362, 365, 368–69, 379specific plates discussed67–69, 72–75, 78–80, 82–83, 87, 89, 96, 144–55, 158–71, 174–202, 204–19, 224, 234–59, 294, 297, 307–20, 321–28, 330–59, 372, 376, 379Enlightenment1–2, 5, 8–11, 13, 15, 18, 20, 22–24, 36, 61, 70, 80, 101, 111, 116, 118, 122–25, 128, 142, 224, 226, 254, 271, 291, 360–64, 368etching process62–63, 70, 73–74, 82, 324Eunuch, Chief Black (Dar ül-Saade Ağası)19, 64, 67–68, 111, 119, 122, 133–34, 147–48, 167, 172, 174, 194, 199, 281–86, 293, 295, 312, 316, 318, 321, 328Eunuch, Chief White (Bab ül-Saade Ağası)119, 189, 282–84, 304eyalet294–95, 297, 337, 339, 351.provincial administration, governorate generalEyub, Abu Ayyub al-Ansari64–65, 89, 110, 164–66, 183, 185, 287, 316fees, paid for official transactions4, 25, 138, 222–23, 228, 288, 290–92ferace, cloak, mostly for women139, 206festivals, religious.Kurban Bayram; Şeker Bayramfetva104, 107, 113–15, 119, 139, 221, 223, 288, 297, 372, 375Finance Department.Treasuryfragrances202, 266Freemasons1, 4, 8–9, 13–14, 32, 369, 371, 377fur25, 37, 39, 138–39, 173–74, 206, 234, 275, 281, 283, 304–5, 321, 356gender relations121–22, 140–41, 257, 260–67, 361genealogical tree paintings11, 40, 64, 66, 84–85, 91.portraits of sultansghusl (T. gusül), complete washing of the body130, 154, 227gifts, as official compensation37, 135, 174, 187, 189, 228, 232, 263, 271, 281, 284, 287, 290, 295, 298–99, 301, 304, 306, 321governors and governors general, in local administration3, 41, 96, 199, 230, 283, 290, 292, 294–95, 297, 300–301, 328, 335, 337Grand Admiral (Kapudan Paşa)20, 41, 94, 228, 286, 300–301, 305, 330–31, 354, 376Grand Vezir18, 21, 24, 37, 40, 46, 50, 54, 57–58, 78, 96, 98, 103, 117, 134, 138, 166–67, 178–79, 186, 221, 270, 281, 283–84, 286–91, 293, 296–301, 303–5, 312, 316, 320–21, 328, 331–33, 339, 346, 354, 356, 376Gustav III (r. 1771–1792)10, 13–15, 21–23, 25–27, 30, 32, 35–36, 40–41, 45, 62, 64, 66, 76–77, 82–84, 118, 146, 155, 171, 181, 362, 366, 370Gustav IV Adolf (r. 1792–1809)14–15, 53–54, 56, 58hacegân (bureau chiefs)172, 290, 293, 331–32, 334hajj, pilgrimage19, 65, 71, 103, 113, 120, 130, 133, 135–37, 139, 167, 173, 195, 197, 199, 372Halabi, Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al- (c. 1456–1549)103–4, 112, 114–15, 117, 122, 124–27, 129–33, 137, 139, 142–43, 152, 219–20, 224–33, 257, 270, 284, 360, 365–67, 374hammam (bath, bathing customs)63, 69, 71, 87, 104, 121, 131, 152, 154–57, 261–62, 266–67, 272, 285, 316, 319–20, 367Hammer, Joseph von (1774–1856)102, 112, 225, 232–33, 279, 364, 373–74Hanefi school of Islamic law112, 125, 152, 223harem, imperial19, 64, 66, 80, 94, 121–22, 280–88, 309, 312, 316, 320–21, 324, 356, 361, 379Has oda.Privy Chamberhasseki, bodyguards of sultan282, 312–13Heidenstam, Gerhard von (1747–1803)11, 33–34, 36, 43Herbert von Rathkeal, Peter Philip, baron (1735–1802)43–44, 50, 57Hilaire, Jean-Baptiste (1753–c. 1822)67–68, 71, 84, 86, 145, 148–49, 152–54, 158–59, 164, 175–76, 183–84, 186–87, 199, 204, 206, 211–12, 215, 218–19hilʿat (robes of honor; kaftan, pelisse)98, 139, 173–74, 281, 287, 290, 303–4Holy Cities121–22, 133–34, 136, 165, 191–93, 197–99, 221, 282–83, 285, 293, 372honor, concepts of57, 141, 199, 202, 250, 264, 268, 287ʿibadat.Islamic law, worshipİbrahim Müteferrika3, 105–6, 120, 134, 142iç oğlan (pages of inside service)174, 280, 283, 287–88, 321, 324, 326, 328ʿId al-Adha.Kurban BayramʿId al-Fitr.Şeker Bayramiftar134, 186–87ihram, pilgrim garb135, 137, 197ijtihad (Turkish, ictihad)113–14, 116ilm-i hal, basics of Islam113, 115, 129, 137, 142–43, 219–20, 360, 377Imprimerie de Monsieur30, 76–78, 81, 363incense98, 202, 204, 321İshak Bey26–27, 364Islamic law, oncommerce103, 139, 142, 225–26, 228–29, 277divorce103, 142, 226–28ethics and morals102–3, 113, 117, 128–29, 137, 139–42, 219–20, 231, 260, 262, 265, 268, 360, 377hudud punishments103, 230–31inheritance75, 142, 226–27, 234, 257, 259, 275marriage142, 226–28, 261, 374slavery103, 142, 226, 228war142, 225, 232worship (ʿibadat)102–3, 113, 115, 117–18, 126, 128–33, 135–37, 142, 219–20, 226–27Jabarti, ʿAbd al-Rahman al-371–72, 375Jacobin, Jacobinism9, 14, 42–45Janissaries110, 135, 138, 141, 167, 172, 174, 245, 272, 282–83, 288, 291, 295–98, 303–4, 312, 321, 333, 339–48, 366, 374jizyah (cizye)225, 268, 273, 292–93, 305Kaʿba24, 56, 65, 80, 120, 131, 136, 146–48, 192, 372kadı (Ar. qadi)114, 220–23, 228, 230, 234–36, 270.kazaskerkadın (sultan’s consort)91, 284–86, 307, 309, 320–23kaftan.hilʿatkanun101, 105, 109–10, 115–16, 143, 231–32, 289kanunname225, 232kapıcı başı (palace gatekeeper)281, 286, 304, 309, 346Kapudan Paşa.Grand AdmiralKaro, Yosef, Rabbi (1488–1575)126–27Kaunitz, Wenzel Anton von, prince43kayık, caique, skiff94, 286, 321kaza (Ar. qada; district, judicial, later administrative)222, 294, 337.provincial administration, districtkazasker, chief military judge24, 120, 221–22, 230, 234–35, 293, 298, 300Kâğıthane, “Sweet Waters of Europe”91, 211, 213–14Kemalpaşazade Ahmed, Ahmed ibn Kemal (d. 1534)112khutba, sermon at Friday noon prayer132, 223Konstantin Kapıdağlı, painter29, 66–68, 72–74, 90, 98, 122, 148–49, 154, 162, 165, 167, 181, 183, 187, 189, 191–93, 195, 197–99, 202, 204, 211, 234, 237, 246, 256, 309, 319, 324, 331, 333, 335, 337, 356köşk, pavilion2, 24, 64, 195, 285, 288, 301, 304, 324, 331Kuleliyan, Abraham18, 111, 167Kuleliyan, Eva18, 23Kurban Bayram (ʿId al-Adha)65, 90, 132, 135–36, 141, 174, 191, 194, 281, 288, 290L’Espinasse, Louis-Nicolas de (1734–1808)71–75, 89–100, 145, 191–93, 211, 213–14, 307–9, 320–27, 330–31, 333–35, 337, 356–58law merchant (lex mercatoria)127–28Le Barbier, Jean-Jacques (1738–1826)47, 63, 71–72, 84, 87–88, 149, 152, 154, 187–89, 199, 202, 206, 215, 309, 312, 316, 319, 331, 335, 339letters of exchange33–34, 52–53, 140, 229Linnaeus (Carl von Linné, 1707–1778)16, 23, 112, 362Louis XVI (r. 1774–1792)5, 7–9, 27, 77, 79, 83, 118, 287, 363Louis XVIII (r. 1814–1824)30, 60, 77, 83, 363.Provence, Comte deMallet Du Pan, Jacques28–29, 31, 365, 374Marie-Antoinette, Queen (1774–1792)5, 44, 79, 363marriage customs226, 261, 263–67, 286, 295Masons.Freemasonsmausoleums (türbe)64–65, 67, 89, 134, 175–76, 179, 181, 183Mecca19, 24, 56, 65, 67, 70, 72, 80, 83–84, 89, 91, 120, 132, 136–37, 142, 147–48, 159, 161, 167, 173, 191–97, 199, 295, 371–72Medina19, 65, 67, 136–37, 142, 197, 199, 283, 295, 371–72medrese23, 128, 134–35, 176, 220–23, 281, 367mehter, military band141, 187, 281, 296, 298, 303–4Meniński, Franciszek29, 108Mevkufati, Mehmed104, 114–15, 122, 130–31, 227Mevlevi dervishes141, 166, 224, 237, 240, 245, 256–57Mevlid-i Şerif.Nativity OdeMilitary Engineering Academy (Mühendishane-i Berri-i Hümayun) 40Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley (1689–1762)121, 131Moreau, Jean-Michel (1741–1814)32, 71, 73–74, 76, 78, 88–89, 146, 167, 195, 203–4Mouradgea, Ohannes (1721–1787)17muayede (ceremonial festival greetings)90, 287–88Muhammad, Prophet30, 76, 79–80, 83, 103, 113–14, 118, 130, 132, 134, 136–38, 147–49, 162, 167, 171–74, 183, 186, 189, 197, 199, 204, 215, 223, 234, 237, 269–70, 272, 296, 298, 351, 371–72, 375Multaqa al-Abhur103–4, 114, 117, 122, 124–30, 137, 142, 152, 220, 224, 226, 232–33, 257, 270, 284, 360, 367, 374Murat, Antoine de23, 29–30, 34–36, 43, 110Muruzi, George40–43, 46, 52, 54musk202Mustafa III (r. 1757–1774)84, 122, 141, 175–76, 178, 181–82, 269, 296, 305, 354müezzin132, 161–62, 173, 189, 223, 234, 236, 266, 282müfti114, 119, 172–74, 221, 223, 270, 288, 316Mühendishane-i Berri-i Hümayun.Military Engineering AcademyNakib ül-Eşraf, chief of emirs172, 221–22, 234–35namaz (Ar. salat; canonical prayers)131, 158–59, 161, 267, 365Namık Kemal374–75nargile203Nasafi, Abu Hafs ʿUmar ibn Muhammad al-103–4, 113, 115, 124, 129, 146–49, 219, 225, 360, 365, 368, 373Nativity Ode (Mevlid-i Şerif)67, 87, 132, 167–74, 199, 223nevbet87, 135, 187–88New Order (Nizam-ı Cedid)4, 116, 232, 292, 297, 364Née, François-Denis (1732–1817)69–71, 73, 164–65, 167–71, 178–79, 181–82, 246–47, 249, 253Nizam-ı Cedid.New Ordernon-Muslims2, 4, 18, 25, 39, 42, 131, 134, 138–41, 186, 218–19, 226, 267–68, 288, 292, 295, 302, 304–5, 333, 351, 354, 356, 361under Islamic law (dhimma)103, 141, 225, 267–68, 270–73, 303notables (ayan)3, 294, 301oaths (in legal proceedings)103, 140, 229–30oaths (profanity, swearing)141Ohsson, Claire d’ (1776–1861)59–60Ohsson, Constantine d’ (1779–1851)27, 31, 40, 49, 58–60, 74–76, 83, 102–8, 112, 115, 183, 224, 278–79, 297, 334, 339, 351, 373Ohsson, Sophie d’ (1775–1791)36örf (Arabic ʿurf)101, 115–16, 143, 232–33, 289.sultan, roles and functions of, executive authoritypages of inside service.iç oğlanPagy family6, 17, 56, 211Claire (d. 1798)17Palace, Beşiktaş72, 94, 195, 285–86, 321–24Palace, Topkapı.harem, imperialalbums and manuscripts of11, 40, 61, 64, 66–68, 146–48, 153, 178, 366architecture and structures of72, 121, 132, 194, 288, 309, 331as ceremonial space23, 111, 132–33, 136, 194, 196, 221, 287, 304, 331d’Ohsson’s artists and66, 72, 90, 94, 204, 286, 324first court of110, 281imperial family’s use of space in27, 285, 309personnel of282–83scholarly works on379second court of135, 187, 281, 283, 287, 304, 356third court of65, 133, 174, 187, 189, 282–85, 288, 304, 316, 326, 346palace gardeners.bostancıpalace gatekeeper.kapıcı başıPalin, Nils G. (1765–1842)49, 59–60Parent de Vassy, Abbé28, 47, 62, 77, 118, 365parlement7–8, 118pelisse.hilʿatpeyks, imperial bodyguards281–82, 309, 311–12philosophe5–6, 28, 101, 117, 123–24, 360physiocrats6, 15, 361plague23, 29, 263, 274–76, 278, 361Poltava, Battle of (1709)9, 362portraits of sultans11, 26, 64–67, 142, 189, 199, 283, 366.genealogical tree paintingsprivilège du roi62–63, 77, 125Privy Chamber (Has oda)282–83, 286, 288, 316Provence, Comte de30, 60, 77, 79, 82, 118, 363.Louis XVIIIprovincial administration, structure ofdistrict (kaza)222, 294, 337governorate general (eyalet)294–95, 297, 337, 339, 351governorate (sancak, liva)3, 292, 294–95, 337, 339Qur’an64, 80, 112–15, 118, 121–22, 124, 130, 134–36, 149, 162, 181, 183, 186, 189, 229–30, 298–99, 374Ragıb, Mehmed, Paşa19, 24, 166–67, 178–79Ramazan90, 131–35, 161, 186–87, 285, 290reaya (subjects)3–4reformist agenda4, 21, 26–27, 36, 38–42, 52, 74, 79–80, 83, 101, 110, 116, 123, 130, 139, 142, 224, 232–33, 275, 287, 290, 292, 297, 300, 359–67Regency, Swedish, 1792–179614–15, 32, 49–50, 53–54Reis ül-Küttab, Reis Efendi (Chief Scribe)18, 20, 27, 34, 38, 40–42, 45, 52, 54, 57–58, 78, 174, 202, 289, 304–5, 331–32, 334relics65, 132, 174, 183, 282, 285, 351Republic of Letters2, 15, 18, 37, 128, 306, 362–63Reuterholm, Gustaf Adolf, Baron14, 53Riddarhuset12, 59Rifai dervishes84, 111, 224, 234, 237, 240, 246–55, 257Riksdag (Swedish parliament)10, 12robes of honor.hilʿatRomeca, Roméca84, 141, 218–19Roslin, Alexander11, 69Ruffin, Pierre27, 56–57Sadeddin Hoca, historian (d. 1599)106–7, 111, 119, 129sancak, liva3, 292, 294–95, 337, 339.provincial administration, governorateSancak-ı Şerif.Banner of the Prophetsale of office4, 41sarraf, financier18–19, 30–31, 38, 52, 148, 179, 229Şeker Bayram (ʿId al-Fitr)24, 90, 132, 135, 141, 174, 281, 288, 290Selim I (r. 1512–1520)120, 129–30, 149, 351Selim III (r. 1789–1807)24, 21, 26–27, 38–39, 41, 52, 57, 66–67, 74, 91, 116, 181, 199, 211, 228, 232, 287, 292–93, 297, 299–300, 326, 329, 346, 360, 362–64, 375Serpos family, bankers30, 33Şeyh ül-İslâm (Chief Müfti)104, 107, 221, 223, 234–35, 284, 288–89, 297, 300, 372sharia (Turkish şeriat)4, 101–3, 114–16, 122, 126–27, 131, 142–43, 211, 218, 225, 227, 229, 231–33, 257, 273, 284, 288–89, 375as immutable (d’Ohsson’s concept)116, 289sheykhs, religious leaders29, 66, 74, 173, 183, 224, 234, 237, 239–41, 246Shulhan ʿArukh126–27Silâhdar ağa (sultan’s swordbearer)282–83, 312, 316–17, 321sipahi, cavalry296–98, 321slaverydomestic103, 138, 141–42, 206, 215, 226, 228, 230, 260–63, 266, 276, 283–84, 286, 288official3, 15, 39, 80, 179, 228, 231, 276–77, 283–84, 287–91, 293, 316, 320, 342, 361, 375, 394solaks, imperial bodyguards20, 281–82, 295, 309, 311Sparre, Fredrik, Count14, 48Staël, Madame de, born Germaine Necker (1766–1817)8, 26, 28Staël von Holstein, Erik Magnus (1749–1802)8, 14, 25–29, 35, 42, 77Sublime Porte (Bab-ı Âli)18, 34, 45, 57, 96, 111, 141, 187, 289–91, 293, 297–98, 303–4, 331, 333–34subsidies to Swedenfrom France10, 12–13from Ottoman Empire11–13, 15, 39–41, 48, 50–55, 305Sultan Ahmed Mosque67, 83, 87, 132–33, 167, 199, 288sultan, roles and functions ofaccession64, 110, 183, 204, 286–87, 363diplomacy18, 37, 54–55, 74, 100, 291, 301–5, 356dynastic propagation and harem life94, 142, 281, 284–88, 307, 309, 316, 320–24executive authority and decree power (örf)101, 115–16, 123, 143, 225, 232–33, 288–89funeral89, 282, 287, 337judicial authority225, 291pleasure outings64, 66, 94, 281–82, 285, 288, 316, 320, 324, 326, 328preparation for rule119, 286–87, 367ritual and ceremonial84, 87, 90, 132–35, 167, 172–74, 187–89, 194, 199, 221, 285, 287–88, 291, 316, 331seclusion287–89, 356war282, 297–300sultan’s consort.kadınsultan’s daughters, princesses94, 109, 179, 262–63, 265, 272, 280, 282, 286, 288, 312, 320–21, 346sultan’s pleasure outings.binişsultan’s sons, şahzade94, 109, 119, 123, 179, 204, 262–63, 280, 282, 286–87, 312, 321, 361, 367sultan’s swordbearer.Silâhdar ağaSürre Emini24, 194–95Swedish lawbook (1734)127, 142–43, 226, 229, 362, 366tandır84, 86, 139, 211–12tax farmlife-term (malikâne)3, 292–94short-term (iltizam)292–94taxonomy16, 23, 83, 101–2, 111–12, 123, 136, 142, 219–20, 228, 279, 297, 360, 362, 372, 376, 378tercüman.dragomanTercüman-ı Divan-ı Hümayun.Translator of the Imperial Divanteşrifat.ceremonialTeşrifatçı Başı.Ceremonies, Master oftevcihat.annual appointmentsTilliard, Jean-Baptiste (1740–1813)68, 73, 146, 148, 158, 197Translator of the Imperial Divan (Tercüman-ı Divan-ı Hümayun) 21, 40–41, 43, 52, 55, 57, 78, 289, 303–5, 356translators, European envoys’ dependence on18, 111, 304–5Treasurer (Defterdar)24, 52, 172, 194, 273, 291–93Treasury (Bab-ı Defteri)20, 32, 34, 52, 110–11, 271–72, 281, 287–89, 292–93, 296, 301, 320, 334Treaty of Drottningholm (1791)13, 39, 51Treaty of Karlowitz (1699)2, 302Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (1774)2, 111, 120, 302, 304Treaty of Värälä (1790)13, 39, 51Treaty, Spanish-Ottoman (1782)21tuğ, horsetail rank standard41, 276, 283, 294, 297–98, 335tuğra, imperial cipher226türbe.mausoleumsTurhan Valide Sultan179, 181ulema, Ottoman4, 23, 75, 80, 101, 103, 108–10, 113, 115, 117, 119, 125–26, 128, 130, 133–34, 137–39, 142, 165, 220–22, 224, 226, 231–32, 234, 276, 288, 290, 293, 298–99, 306, 364, 375, 378as official branch of ruling class4, 103, 115, 117, 128, 135, 220–23, 230, 234, 281, 287, 291, 296, 300, 306ʿUmar (Ömer), caliph148, 375ʿUthman (Osman), caliph148Uzunçarşılı, İsmail Hakkı (1888–1977)121, 376, 378Valide Sultan, sultan mother41, 66, 179, 280, 284, 286, 301Vasa order22, 84, 369veil206, 211, 246, 260–62, 265, 267, 286Veran, Jacques-Marie (1776–1848)74–75, 309, 312, 316, 324–25, 334–35, 346Verninac, Raymond15, 43, 46, 50, 55, 59waqf, pl. awqaf (charitable foundations)19, 103, 133–34, 175, 199, 222, 283, 293wine, intoxicating beverages122, 137–38, 141, 230–31, 274, 282, 303women, status of63, 67, 69, 71, 80, 84, 87, 104, 110, 121–22, 131, 138–39, 141, 154, 156–58, 162, 202, 206, 211, 218, 226, 246, 260–65, 284–86, 291, 316, 321, 324zu’l-fiqar, ʿAli’s two-pointed sword148–49, 300Zübdet ül-Tevarih147, 149, 153

Enlightening Europe on Islam and the Ottomans

Mouradgea d’Ohsson and His Masterpiece

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