Survey of Primary Sources

In: The Atlantic World and the Manila Galleons
Free access

This book aims to articulate a contribution to, and revises, the traditional understanding of the Atlantic World by emphasising the historical connections between the Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean, and the importance of Spanish America in those connections. It explores the degree to which the colonial Spanish American elite and cities were main components of the economic and cultural encounter between the Spanish Empire and East Asia in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and the reason why the Manila Galleon route was superseded by the Cape route as the main venue of exchange between the Atlantic World and Asia around the mid-seventeenth century. This book studies the historical factors that fostered trade from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic World in the late sixteenth century and the first half of the seventeenth century. Among those factors, there were the commoditisation of, and growing taste for, Asian goods in Spanish America, the strengthening position of Mexican merchants in the Spanish Empire, and the orientation of Manila’s economy toward international trade and strong commitment of the Chinese economy to silver. The book also analyses how growing international conflicts both in the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans, and the delicate balance of powers within the Spanish Empire, weakened the trans-Pacific trade and gave way to the rise of the Cape route.

This appendix describes the main primary sources referred to when writing the text.

[1] Ship Registers. Several sets of sources were used to study the diffusion of Asian goods across the Spanish Empire. There are no official reports or lists of merchandise transported in the Manila galleons. For trans-Pacific trade, the monarchy did not gather lists of merchandise, as it did for trade passing through the Atlantic ports of Veracruz, Nombre de Dios-Portobelo, and Seville. With respect to ships sailing across the Pacific Ocean, the monarchy simply collected the avería tax and the almojarifazgo tax. Collection of the former tax was soon managed by the merchant guild of Mexico. Documents related to the latter tax, although managed by royal servants in collaboration with the merchants of Acapulco, do not contain detailed lists of merchandise – only totals of the tax sums collected. For this reason I used private merchant reports of merchandise, which the commercial agents of Manila sent to Mexico City’s wholesalers along with the merchandise itself, to analyse the exporting and diffusion of Asian goods from the Philippines to Castile. These private merchant reports of merchandise are guarded in the Archivo General de la Nación (agn) of Mexico.

The export of Asian goods from New Spain to Castile (figure 2) and the prices of silk in Veracruz (figure 3) were analysed using more well-known sources: the so-called inward registers to Seville from New Spain (registros de venida de la Nueva España) and the registers of the avería tax. I ruled out other mercantile sources – for instance, the catalogue of ship registers (catálogo de registros de barcos), which shows only the dates of entry in the Americas and of return to Seville for the ships along with their main characteristics (tonnage, captains and masters, ports of reference, etc.). Also excluded were the outward registers to New Spain (registros de ida a la Nueva España) because they are not relevant to the issues discussed in this book. The two sources that were used (i.e., the inward registers to Seville and the registers of the avería tax) are both located in the Archivo General de Indias (agi) of Seville and do not contain exactly the same information.

The inward registers have been used previously as a reference by other authors – including Pierre and Huguette Chaunu, Antonio Garcia-Baquero, and Lutgardo García Fuentes – who have described the sources in detail, especially Pierre and Huguette Chaunu.1 These registers of ships returning to Seville from New Spain are the individual registers of each ship of every fleet that sailed annually from Veracruz to Seville with a stopover in Havana. The fleets consisted of one to three warships (naos capitanas y almirantas) and several smaller vessels. The warships were larger than the rest and, despite their defensive function, carried most of the merchandise. The registers of each ship are organised into three parts. The first part contains all the information regarding the administrative proceedings that the ship’s officials needed to complete before sailing: the license requested by the ship’s master to load the merchandise, a declaration of the ship’s stowage, and the certification issued by the relevant royal office to allow the journey. Note that, unlike the outward registers from Seville to the Americas, the inward registers contain no description of the ship(s). The second part of the document contains the registers of the merchandise, which were made by the ship’s master in the presence of a notary and witnesses; this list ran to hundreds and sometimes thousands of pages for each load and included the type and quantity of merchandise, the name of the merchants who shipped and received the goods, and the avería tax paid for transportation. The margin of each register contains the avería tax to be paid and the sums made to calculate it, along with the type and quantity of the merchandise; from these figures one can infer the total value of the merchandise. The document was written in the Americas. However, some corrections were made in Seville by the civil servants of the House of Trade (Casa de Contratación) with regard to the quantity and value of the merchandise (and hence to the avería tax due). These corrections probably reflect anti-fraud efforts, given that the bales and boxes were rarely opened by agents of the House of Trade. When these corrections have appeared, I recorded the highest quantity and value. Finally, the third part of a ship’s register contains a declaration listing the passengers as well as the names of those who died during the journey.

I processed only the information contained in the second part of the inward registers, which describe the merchandise loaded and the avería tax paid, for the years 1587–1641; these registers are located in the Contratación section of the Archivo General de Indias, files 1793 to 1929B. Processing of all data in each register would have been impracticable – and also unnecessary, given the aim of this research. Silver was pre-eminent among the merchandise transported from New Spain to Seville. Most registers describe mainly silver shipments. The second leading export from New Spain was cochineal dye, the intense red dye made in New Spain from a small insect raised in prickly pears and for which European demand was great. Other products imported from New Spain included other dyes, such as indigo (añil), Brazil wood (palo de Brasilor Brasilete), and Campeche wood (palo de Campeche). Less frequently shipped were products like chocolate. I processed the data from only three types of registers: registers of silk (whether raw or semi-manufactured, whether Chinese or non-Chinese), registers of the rest of Asian manufactures, and registers of gifts. In some cases, these three items constitute the entire inward register. For each shipment entry, I recorded the merchants involved in the transaction and the product: its precise description, quantity, and value.

The “registers of the avería tax” record the payments of this tax, which was used by the Crown to finance its defence of the trans-Atlantic fleets from pirates and enemies of the monarchy. Each entry in these registers includes information on merchandise shipments and also records the merchant owner, quantity of the loaded merchandise, and tax payment.2 I analysed all the avería tax registers that contained data on silk imports and other Asian products to Seville from New Spain for the period 1600–1642 (agi, Contratación section, files 4408 to 4467). These documents are less complex than the inward registers. For instance, the avería tax registers do not record all merchants involved in the shipment of merchandise but only the lading merchant; neither do they detail the types of product inside the bales or boxes. The registers of the avería simply group the merchandise into such categories as “silver,” “cochineal dye,” “Chinese silk,” and so forth; they do not specify, for instance, the precise type of silk. These registers are concentrated in only a few books; this makes them easier to analyse because data on exports are more simplified and more reliable than those of the inward registers, which consist of hundreds of books (some of which have disappeared). Both types of sources refer solely to legal commercial operations; for obvious reasons, fraud and smuggling are not recorded.

[2] Private Reports of Merchandise. Mexican merchants usually received merchandise from their commercial agents in Manila along with business letters and reports of the merchandise consigned to them. I consulted documents of this type for the years between (approximately) 1600 and 1640.3 These reports, which are guarded in the Archivo General de la Nación of Mexico, are patchy and so do not allow for the construction of a series of imports to New Spain from the Philippines. However, the documents are useful insofar as they give information about the type of Asian products that were sent across the Pacific and about the merchants who managed the trade of Asian goods in Manila and Mexico City. This source has been useful to know approximate percentage of Asian textile values (by type of textile) arriving in New Spain from the Philippines [figure 7].

[3] Probate Inventories. The main source used to develop comparisons between Mexico and Seville with regard to levels and patterns of elite consumption of Asian manufactures during the period 1580–1630 is a type of notarial record: probate (postmortem) inventories. The types of probate inventories vary in accordance with their nature and the aims for which they were written; hence there are diverse types of inventories that yield different sorts of information. In conducting the research for this book, I used four types of inventories. For Mexico City, I used mainly the “Goods of Deceased” (Bienes de Difuntos) collection, which is located at the Archivo General de Indias of Seville. The Bienes de Difuntos collects the proceedings opened in the Americas, when people from Castile died in the colonies, with the aim of sending their goods to their heirs (and/or heiresses) in the places of origin of the deceased.4 For information on the consumption of Asian goods in Mexico City, I processed data from simple probate inventories as well as public auctions; the latter record the goods sold in street auctions after their owner’s death. These inventories and auctions are guarded in the Archivo de las Notarías del DF (ANotDF). Although some of the inventories were consulted in the Protocolos section of this archive, others were consulted in the edited versions of these documents published by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma of Mexico (unam). Several of these inventories, along with other notarial records, have been edited by Ivonne Mijares and published in three (digital) volumes. The notarial records that have been edited and compiled in this fashion are those belonging to the notaries Gaspar Calderón (1554–1555) and Antonio Alonso (1557–1581) in volume i; Juan Pérez de Rivera (1582–1631) and Juan Pérez de Rivera Cáceres (1632–1651) in volume ii; and Antonio del Águila (1578–1579), Luis de Aguilera (1598), Martín Alonso (1564–1586), Diego de Ayala (1551–1553), Luis de Basurto (1589–1594), Juan de Lerín Caballero (1689), and Cristóbal Ramírez de Heredia (1596) in volume iii.5 Inventories not compiled in these volumes were consulted in the archive itself.

For Seville, the sources referred to are probate inventories, public auctions of goods, and divisions (particiones) of patrimony between heirs and heiresses. The most exhaustive of the three are the divisions, all of which are located in the Archivo Histórico Provincial of Seville (ahps). For the research reported here I followed the archive’s catalogue of “signatures” of notarial records as well as the volume edited by Jesús Aguado de los Reyes and published in 1996, which collects such signatures for hundreds of Sevillian probate inventories between 1600 and 1650.6

[4] Other Notarial Records. Besides probate inventories, other notarial records were essential to the development of some chapters – especially those that focus on the trade and circulation of Asian goods across both the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean. Among these other protocols, the testaments of New Spanish inhabitants and Castilian immigrants in New Spain played an essential role. Some of these testaments can be found inside the summaries of Bienes de Difuntos (Goods of Deceased) of the Archivo General de Indias, but most are found in the Protocolos section of the Archivo de las Notarías del DF. Unlike the probate inventories of Mexico City, some of which were consulted at the archive, all the testaments cited in the book were taken from the digital volumes published by Mijares.7 Other records besides inventories and testaments were also used as sources in some parts of the text; examples include receipts for payment and other mercantile documents such as bills of exchange and reports of merchandise. Some of these are located in the Archivo de las Notarías del DF, but others are found in the Consulado and Filipinas sections of the Archivo General de la Nación of Mexico.

[5] Official Correspondence. The letters of New Spain’s viceroys and of public officials in the Philippines – for example, the governor of Manila – were useful in describing the conditions and diverse social interests that influenced the trans-Pacific trade. Letters of the Archbishop of Manila and of other religious missionaries in Southeast Asia are part in this official correspondence, which was usually addressed to the King and the Castilian authorities. The Filipinas section of the Archivo General de Indias of Seville contains many letters of this sort.

[6] Business Letters and Reports of Merchandise. Along with the aforementioned documents of merchants, the Consulado and Filipinas sections of the Archivo General de la Nación of Mexico contain many business letters of Mexican merchants and reports of merchandise sent to Mexican merchants from commercial agents in Manila. These documents, as like most of the documents in these sections of the Archivo General de la Nación, are dispersed and not always well organised in the boxes of documents. Much additional effort was required to effect some semblance of organisation. There are hundreds of letters of merchants who wrote and received the documents in these sections. Yet as explained in Chapter 1, my focus was primarily on those letters associated with the Mexican merchant Santi Federighi because, for unknown reasons, many more of these documents have survived than of those associated with other merchants. I focused also on the letters of other merchants that were related to trans-Pacific trade and business involving Manila, Acapulco, and Mexico City. The main group of analysed documents comprises 98 letters, all of which concern the trans-Pacific trade. Of these, 41 belonged to the mercantile network of Santi Federighi; some were sent between Federighi’s commercial agents, but most were addressed to Federighi himself. There are 20 letters associated with the network of another important Mexican merchant, Cristóbal de la Plaza; of these, about half were sent by his commercial agent in Manila, the cleric Juan de la Cruz Godines, with the rest sent from agents in Acapulco. Another 20 letters were from Manila and Acapulco, addressed to the merchant Lorenzo de Aguirre during 1633 and 1634; the remaining letters were associated with other merchants; see figure 9.

Figure 9
Figure 9

Number of merchant letters per year (1595–1643).

[7] Minutes of the City Council (Cabildo) of Mexico and the Merchant Guild of Seville. The minutes of the meetings of the city council of Mexico City and the merchant guild of Seville were important sources for identifying the interests and views of New Spanish and Castilian traders regarding trans-Pacific trade and the trade of Asian products. It would have been ideal to examine the minutes of Mexico City’s merchant guild for evidence of discussions in the guild about the royal regulations of that trade. However, those minutes were not be be found in the Consulado section of the Archivo General de la Nación. As the next-best alternative, I consulted the minutes of the city council of Mexico City, which was strongly linked to the merchant guild there. The minutes of the city council of Mexico City for the years 1580–1640 (approximately) were consulted in the Archivo Histórico del Ayuntamiento de México (aham), which houses the original minutes of the city council’s meetings as well as the copies of those minutes that were made in the nineteenth century. Only nineteenth-century copies, which are guarded in the Actas del Cabildo section, are accessible. For Seville, I consulted all the minutes of that city’s merchant guild from 1596 to 1647; these are located in the Consulados section, books 1 to 4, of the Archivo General de Indias. Although the merchant guild of Seville was founded in 1543, I am aware of no minutes dated prior to 1596 that have survived or are available in the Archivo General de Indias.

[8] Lawsuits Heard in the Court of the Merchant Guild of Mexico. Chapter 4 uses a reference source consisting of a set of documents from the Consulado section – and, to a lesser extent, the Filipinas section – of the agn: the frontispiece summaries of judicial processes between merchants that were administered by the tribunal of justice of the merchant guild of Mexico City. I use the term “frontispiece summary” because in most cases all that has survived is the lawsuit’s front page. Such a summary is, of course, less useful than a record of the entire judicial process. That being said, these frontispieces give information that complements the arguments given in the chapter text: names of the plaintiff and the defendant, the lawsuit’s raison d’être, and sometimes the amount of funds in dispute. Moreover, some of the court transcripts have survived in toto. The merchant guild of Mexico City was established in 1592 and organised during the period 1592–1594. I have identified and analysed 131 frontispieces and transcripts dating from 1595 to 1641. Of those 137 documents, 24 consist of either a complete account or a substantial portion of the lawsuit (i.e., not just the front page).8

[9] Documentation of the Royal Treasury of Acapulco. The Royal Treasuries (Cajas Reales) were royal offices in charge of collecting taxes. The monies collected were used first to pay for the institutional expenses associated with carrying out their duties in America’s main provinces. The funds that remained were sent to the Royal Treasury of the viceroyalty (in the case of New Spain, this was the treasury of Mexico City) and from there to Castile. The documents of the Royal Treasuries are organised into two parts, charges and discharges (cargo y data); the former records tax revenues and the latter records administrative expenses. The documents of the Royal Treasury of Acapulco for the period 1592–1692 are located in the Contaduría section of the Archivo General de Indias, dossiers 897 to 906B. I consulted these documents for the years 1592 to 1650, which are in the dossiers with signatures 897–905A. I analysed in particular the parts of this documentation that report the Royal Treasury’s income sources or are related to the Manila galleons that sailed from the Philippines to Acapulco. Although this source does not account for fraud (e.g., smuggling) and is woefully non-specific when referring to merchandise (which is listed simply as “bales” and “boxes”), documents from the Royal Treasury of Mexico do indicate the value of merchandise and silver loaded on the galleons. The information that I have collected from the Royal Treasury of Acapulco is the same as the collected by Pierre Chaunu several decades ago (see figure 1).9

[10] Letters of Castilian emigrants to the Americas and the Philippines. These letters are contained in two sets of edited sources that include the private letters of immigrants who settled in New Spain from Castile – and in the Philippines from the Americas – during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Most of the letters were written by people who were not wealthy, so they offer an alternative perspective on material from some of the aforementioned sources. More specifically, I searched these letters for complementary references to the circulation and uses of Asian objects in the Americas. The letters that I examined were edited by Enrique Otte (in 1983) and by Rocío Sáchez Rubio and Isabel Testón Núñez (in 1999). The former included emigrants’ letters found in the Archivo General de Indias, and the latter collected letters contained within archives of the Inquisition of New Spain.10

[11] Requests for Licenses to Dispatch Silver to the Philippines and the Repartimiento of 1635–1639. Dispersed among boxes located in the Consulado and Filipinas sections of the Archivo General de la Nación of Mexico is a set of documents that proved useful for reconstructing the commercial relations between the Philippines and New Spain – namely, the requests of licenses to dispatch silver to Manila and the distributions (repartimientos) of rights among the Spanish and American Creole inhabitants of the Philippines to consign merchandise to New Spain. The requests and repartimientos are incomplete, but as a whole they contain valuable information. These documents were processed by the Office of the Chamber (Secretaría de Cámara) of the viceroy of New Spain. Licenses to dispatch silver to the Philippines were requested by Mexican merchants seeking to consign silver to their Philippine agents in exchange for Asian goods.

The repartimientos that I analysed for this book are not the distribution lists that were compiled annually by colonial institutions in the Philippines. According to the system established by the Castilian authorities, only the Spanish and American Creole inhabitants of the Islands could trade with the Manila galleons. Their names were registered in a Book of Distribution (Libro de Repartimiento) and administered by a Committee of Distribution (Junta de Repartimiento). Unfortunately, I have found no clues concerning the survival of any Book of Distribution for the sixteenth or seventeenth century.11 The repartimiento analysed here is the distribution of trade licenses that were conceded as a grant (merçed) by the Count-Duke de Olivares to the merchants of the Philippines, during 1635–1639, in the context of the trade crisis between Manila and Acapulco.

The two sets of documents share some common elements. Both the requests to ship silver from New Spain and the repartimiento contain the names of those Mexicans and merchants living in Manila who traded by way of the Manila galleons as well as the quantity of silver that the former sent to the latter in exchange for merchandise consigned. The following table summarizes the years, merchant names, and silver quantities shipped from New Spain to the Philippines as documented in these sources.

Table 12Licenses to dispatch silver to the Philippines and Repartimiento, 1590–1639
MEXICAN MERCHANTSLICENCEPHILIPPINE MERCHANTS
1590
Alonso Fernández de Flandes3,000 pesosJuan de la Guardia
1597
Diego de Torres Navarro10,000 pesosAntonio de Espinosa Juan de Anteada
Diego de Velasco2,500 pesos 600 pesosGaspar de los Reyes Plata

Cristóbal Min
1598
Juan de Castilla Calderón2,000 pesosLucas de Castro
Francisca Paredes20,000 pesosDiego Muñoz
Francisco Espino Figueroa1,600 pesosCapitán Juan Juárez Gallinato
1599
Catalina Agúndez5,000 pesosJuan Maldonado
Capitán García de Cuadros2,000 pesosFrancisco de Herrera
Licenciado Miguel de Chaves4,000 pesosAntonio de Chaves
Pedro Fernández Segura15,000 pesosJuan Bautista Bocanegra

Juan Bravo de Lagunas

Rodrigo de Salinas
Capitán Diego de Molina Padilla16,800 pesos

6,750 pesos

10,000 pesos
Juan de Zamudio

Capitán Vargas Pachuca

Capitán Gómez de Padilla
Juan de Astudillo14,000 pesosSebastián Ochoa de Villafranca Doña Maria del Castillo

Luis de Heredia

Capitán Francisco de Flores

Isabel Cornejo

Pedro Sarmiento
Luis de Herrera4,000 pesosEnrique de Herrera
Sebastián de Barreda16,000 pesosJuan de Ortiz
Juan Rodríguez de Figueroa24,000 pesosAndrés Duarte de Figueroa
1603
Francisco Palao14,000 pesos

6,000 pesos
Francisco Ruiz de Avendaño

Francisco Franco
1604
Martin de Ynarra14,500 pesos

11,000 pesos

3,200 pesos

3,000 pesos

2,000 pesos

2,000 pesos
Juan de Artosa

Juan de Ortiz

Pedro Ortega

Pedro y Miguel de Medrano

Rodrigo de Quillestegui

Pedro de Llano Sander
Juan de Paraya5,200 pesos

600 pesos

5,000 pesos

4,000 pesos
Juan de Marrón Alvarado

Capitán Ezgarra

Doña Catalina Rodriguez

Capitán Ruiz de Ycoaga
Pedro Ruiz de Ahumada15,000 pesosDiego de Quevedo

Miguel Crespo

Rodrigo de Quevedo
1608
Juan Castillete8,920 pesosLucas de Carvajal
1609
Tomás Salucio

(resident in Manila)
1,500 pesos

5,500 pesos
Sancto de Cabra
1613
Alonso Ortiz3,750 pesos

468 pesos
Juan de Mujica

Gonzalo Leal
Diego Alonso937.5 pesosJuan de Morales
Alexandre Federique187.5 pesos

187.5 pesos

1,406 pesos
Gabriel González

Melchor de los Reyes

Lucas de Vergara
Juan de Barrientos375 pesos

750 pesos

375 pesos

281 pesos
Ana de Vega Cavallos

Don Diego de Baeza

Juan Arias Girón

Juan González Tomellin
Rodrigo de León4,687.5 pesos

937 pesos

468 pesos

562.5 pesos
Pedro de Chaves

Pedro de Vera

Diego de León

Juan Venegas
1615
Juan Hurtado de Leyba2,000 pesos

600 pesos
Bartolomé Vallejo

Alonso Crespo
Tomás de Suaznabar y Aguirre2,000 pesos

6,000 pesos

4,000 pesos

4,000 pesos

4,000 pesos

2,000 pesos

3,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

3,000 pesos

3,000 pesos

2,000 pesos

2,000 pesos

2,000 pesos
Pedro Martinez de Meabe

Alonso de Guillestegui

Capitán Pedro de Chaves

Capitán Lucas de Manozca

Martin de Esquivel

Don Fernando Centeno Maldonado

Pedro de Anciondo

Juan de Arana

Francisco de Bidaurre

Juan de Arriola

Don Rodrigo de Alvarado

Doña Isabel de Alvarado

Doña María de Alvarado

Juan Antonio de Beas

Francisco Martínez de Morales
Capitán Domingo Ortiz de Chagoru1,000 pesos

800 pesos
Andrés de Chagoya

Francisco López Patiño
1630
Esteban de Alcázar

(vecino de Manila)
12,000 pesosEsteban de Alcázar

(vecino de Manila)
1634
Francisco Pacheco6,400 pesosn.a.
Domingo de Barayca2,000 pesosGaspar Méndez
Santi Federighi5,000 pesos

10,000 pesos

5,000 pesos
Alonso Tarancón

Ascanio Guazzoni

Luis Alonso de Roa
Doña Valeriana y doña Jerónima de Camargo2,000 pesosn.a.
Sebastián de Barreda2,000 pesosDon Lorenzo de Olaso

Doña Constancia Gómez

Diego Diaz

Domingo Martin

Don Francisco de Figueroa
Don Fernando Carrillo1,000 pesosn.a.
Pedro de Armendariz2,000 pesosLuis de Tovar Godinez

Capitán Gregorio de Lizarralde
Don Antonio Urrutia Vergara4,000 pesosn.a.
1635
Juan Maldonado de Paz1,000 pesosn.a.
Jerónimo Sanz de Santa Marina1,500 pesosManuel Suárez de Olivera
Don Tomás Velázquez de la Cueva1,000 pesosDiego León de Rivera
Nicolás de Bonilla2,500 pesos

2,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,500 pesos

500 pesos

1,000 pesos
Don Juan de Arceo

Vasco Gutiérrez Mendoza

Francisco de Araujo

Lucas de Castro

Pedro de Riva

Bernabé Martinez

Alonso de Tarancón

Juanes de Galcagorta

Capitán Hernández Machado
Antonio de Recil500 pesosFrancisco de Castejón
Gabriel del Villar1,500 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,500 pesos
Bartolomé Rodriguez de Soto

Enrique Flores

Andrés Martin
Don Juan de Montemayor4,000 pesos

4,000 pesos

4,000 pesos

4,000 pesos

4,000 pesos
Capitán Josepe de Zornosa

Don Jusepe de Montemayor

Juan de Aldazo

Gaspar de Pastrana

Francisco de Salinas
Clemente de Valdés500 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

3,000 pesos
Don Diego de Baeza

Juan Ortuño

Cristóbal de Mercado

Capitán Marcos Zapata
Gonzalo de Francia1,000 pesos

1,500 pesos
Domingo Ramirez

Hernán Garcia
Tomé de Acuña500 pesos

6,000 pesos

1,500 pesos
Racionero Pablo Raminez

Don Juan Claudio de Veraztegui

Antonio de Calcedo
Jaime Calcedo2,000 pesos

1,500 pesos
El deán de Manila

Pedro Bañuelos
6,000 pesos

500 pesos

1,000 pesos

500 pesos

1,000 pesos

500 pesos

3,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

3,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,500 pesos

1,500 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,500 pesos

500 pesos

2,000 pesos

2,000 pesos

500 pesos

1,000 pesos

2,000 pesos

100 pesos

500 pesos

3,000 pesos

1,500 pesos

3,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos
Capitán Juan López de Acaldegui

Alonso Gutiérrez de los Rios

Antono de Mesinas

Andrés de Angulo

Capitán Andrés Navarro

Antonio Alfonso

Antonio de Espinosa

Alonso Baeza

General Alonso Martin

Capitán Agustin

Doña Ana de Castilla

Doña Beatriz Cornejo

Doña Catalina de Aguirre

Doña Catalina de Guzmán

Diego Serrano

Diego Diaz el Viejo

Alférez Domingo Ruiz

Diego Sánchez de Elorriaga

Don Diego de Guillestigui

Diego Bernal

Don Diego Baranda

Diego Jiménez

Doña Francisca Leal

Francisco López Montenegro

General don Fernando de Ayala

Francisco Carrasco

Francisco Ezquerra

Francisco de Larrea
Juan López de Olaiz1,500 pesos

500 pesos

2,500 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

5,000 pesos

2,500 pesos

6,000 pesos

2,500 pesos

1,500 pesos

1,500 pesos

6,000 pesos

4,000 pesos

7,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,500 pesos

1,500 pesos

1,000 pesos

2,000 pesos

1,500 pesos

1,000 pesos

2,000 pesos

2,000 pesos

4,000 pesos

1,500 pesos

16,000 pesos

500 pesos

1,500 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos
Bartolomé y Francisco de Carvajal

Francisco de la Torre

Almirante Jerónimo Enriquez

Licenciado Gabriel de Mújica

Capitán Gregorio Lisaral

Don Gonzalo Ronquillo

Capitán Gabriel Carranza

Capitán Juan de Olaez

Capitán Juan López de Andoain

Capitán Jusepe de la Cueva

Capitán Juan Fernández Aparicio

Capitán Don Juan de Sarmiento

General Don Juan de Alcaraz

Jusepe de Naveda

Capitán Juan de Castañeda

Sargento Juan de Bahamonte

Capitán Juan de Herrera

Juan de Zambrano

Capitán Juan López de Olaez

Juan Bautista Estaño

Juan Bautista de Zubiaga

Doña Jusepa Girón

Capitán don Luis de Vela

Capitán Luis Alonso de Roa

Doña Luisa de Cozar

Don Lorenzo de Olazo

Capitán Lucas de Acevedo

Luis Coria de Mora

Maria de Jesús

Doña Maria de Aguirre

Doña Maria de Illescas

Doña Maria de Salazar
500 pesos

500 pesos

1,000 pesos

2,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

500 pesos

1,500 pesos

500 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,500 pesos

1,500 pesos

3,000 pesos

5,000 pesos

3,500 pesos

1,000 pesos

500 pesos

2,000 pesos

500 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

5,000 pesos

500 pesos

6,000 pesos
Doña MAria de Figueroa

Martin de Ribera

Doña Maria de Saldaña

Licenciado Nicolás Antonio

Sargento Nicolás González

Capitán Pascual Caseros

Sargento don Pedro de Jara

Pedro de la Fuente

Pedro de Leitona

Don Pedro Manuel de Bahamonte

Doña Potenciana Ezquerra

Capitán Pedro de Rojas

Capitán don Pedro Gómez

Sargento don Pedro de Mendiola

Capitán Pedro de Alcaraz

Pedro Yañez

Pedro de la Mata

Pedro del Mazo

Capitán don Pedro Sarmiento

Capitán Pedro Zambrano

Capitán Santiago de Gastezu

Cristóbal de León

Don Diego de Azqueta
Jerónimo de Aresti3,000 pesos

4,000 pesos
Alférez Francisco de Olmos

Canónigo Juan de Miranda
Clemente de Valdés3,000 pesos

7,500 pesos

4,000 pesos
Almirante Gabriel de la Rúa

Capitán Juan de Castañeda

Mayordomo de la Mesa de la Misericordia
Don Nicolás de Bonilla3,000 pesos

3,000 pesos

2,000 pesos
Capitán Tomás de Vertiz

Don Luis de Bastida

Alonso Tarancón
Francisco Martinez de Guadiana3,000 pesosCapitán Lope Osorio
1636
Bernardo de Balboa500 pesosDamián Calvo
1637
Alonso López de Cobarrubias2,000 pesosFrancisco López de Montoya
Diego Garcia Montenegro4,000 pesosManuel Piñero
Cristóbal de Zuleta4,000 pesos

4,000 pesos
Francisco de Aguirre

Doña Maria de Saldaña
Tomás Treviño de Sobremonte4,000 pesosn.a.
Capitán Bernardo de Bernardo de Cuéllar15,000 pesosn.a.
Francisco Martinez de Guadiana4,000 pesosCapitán Pedro de Alcaraz
Capitán Antonio de Regil6,000 pesosn.a.
Licenciado Francisco Roldán1,000 pesosAlonso de Leyba
1638
Jerónimo de Areizti1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

500 pesos

500 pesos

1,500 pesos

2,000 pesos

1,000 pesos
Don Atanasio de Legazpi

Juan Bautista Estanoli

Don Esteban de Somoza

Domingo de Vitoria

Don Francisco de Ezquerra

General Don Juan de Ezquerra

Diego Diaz el Viejo
Almirante Don Juan de Brahamante1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos
Licenciado Nicolás Antonio

Don Pedro Diaz de Mendoza
Capitán Juan de Echevarria1,000 pesosMiguel Garcia Mesón
Contador Andrés de Zárate1,000 pesos

1,500 pesos

2,000 pesos

1,000 pesos
Andrés de Zárate

Sargento Don Pedro de Jara

Don Alonso López de Cózar

Doña Luisa de Cocai
Bernardo de Cuéllar1,000 pesosMaria de Herrera
Pedro Sánchez Lobato500 pesos

1,000 pesos
Deán Miguel Garcetas

Sargento Pedro Bañuelos
Bartolomé Cardoso2,000 pesos

1,000 pesos
Luis Arias de Morados

Doctor Mora
Antonio de Regil500 pesos

500 pesos
Alférez Juan de Miraval

Juan Bautista de Espinosa
Juan Páez2,000 pesosDoña Catalina de Guzmán
Juan Yllan500 pesos

1,500 pesos
Benito Tavares

Almirante Pedro de Zárate
Francisco Martinez Guadiana1,000 pesosLicenciado Manuel Suárez
Juan Suárez de Sande500 pesosDon Fernando Suárez
Lorenzo de Aguirre1,000 pesosCapitán Tomás de Vertiz
Simón de Haro1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos
Marcos Pestaño de Gordejuela

Lucas de Porras

Hernando del Castillo

Capitán don Juan de Salinas
Don Pedro López de Covarrubias1,500 pesos

1,000 peso
Doña Constanza Gómez

Manuel Piñeiro
Capitán Andrés de Briones1,000 pesosCapitán Andrés de Briones
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán Alonso de Aranda
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán Alonso López de Vizcaya
n.a.1,000 pesosDon Diegode Vitoria
n.a.1,000 pesosFrancisco de Pastrana
n.a.1,000 pesosFrancisco Montañez
n.a.1,000 pesosFelipe Hernández Machado
n.a.1,000 pesosJerónimo de Fuentes Cortés
n.a.1,500 pesosCapitán Don Juan de Arezo
n.a.2,000 pesosCapitán Juan Bautista de Medina
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán Juan Bautista de Zubiaga
n.a.3,500 pesosCapitán Martin de Aduna
Alférez Cristóbal Romero1,000 pesosFrancisco de la Haya
Francisco Rodriguez de Ribadeneyra500 pesosFrancisco Rodriguez
n.a.500 pesosAlonso de Trujillo
n.a.500 pesosDamián Calvo
n.a.500 pesosDoña Francisca de Mendoza
n.a.1000 pesosAlmirante don Fernando Galindo
n.a.1,000 pesosAlmirante Francisco Diaz de Montoya
n.a.1,000 pesosAlmirante Francisco López de César
n.a.500 pesosGaspar de Almonacid
n.a.500 pesosJuan de Herrera
n.a.1,000 pesosJuan Diaz de Mendoza
n.a.1,000 pesosJuanes de Calzacorta
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán Jusepe de la Cueva
n.a.500 pesosJuan de Uclés
n.a.2,000 pesosGeneral Don Juan Francisco Hurtado
n.a.500 pesosJusepe de Mataya
n.a.500 pesosDoña Luisa de León
n.a.500 pesosDoña Leocadia de Illescas
n.a.1,000 pesosDoña Leonor de Velasco
n.a.1,500 pesosCapitán don Mateo de Arceo
n.a.1,500 pesosPedro Quintero
n.a.500 pesosDon Pedro Monroy
n.a.1,500 pesosCapitán don Pedro Gómez Cañete
n.a.500 pesosPedro Cadenas
n.a.500 pesosAlonso Baeza del Rio
n.a.1,000 pesosAscanio Guazzoni
n.a.1,000 pesosFrancisco de Navarrete
n.a.500 pesosAlférez Francisco Gutiérrez
n.a.500 pesosFrancisco de la Torre Sarmiento
n.a.500 pesosFrancisco de Castrejón
n.a.500 pesosDoña Francisca de Perea
n.a.500 pesosDon Juan de Ledo
n.a.500 pesosCapitán don Lorenzo Gómez Cañete
n.a.500 pesosDoña Maria de Aguirre
n.a.500 pesosPedro de Gainza
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán don Pedro Sarmiento
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán don Pedro de Monreal
n.a.500 pesosAlférez don Critóbal de Neyra
1639
Jerónimo de Areizti500 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

2,000 pesos

500 pesos
Domingo de Vitoria

Don Francisco de Ezquerra

General Don Juan Ezquerra

Almirante Don Pedro Zárate

Juan Garcia
Almirante Don Juan de Brahamante1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos
Don Pedro Diaz de Mendoza

Don Atanasio de Legazpi
Capitán Juan de Echevarria1,000 pesosMiguel Garcia Mesón
Contador Andrés de Zárate1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos
Andrés de Zárate

Sargento Don Pedro de Jara

Don Alonso López de Cózar

Doña Luisa de Cocai
Bernardo de Cuéllar500 pesos

1,500 pesos
Doña Catalina de Gaona

Doña Constanza Gómez
Pedro Sánchez Lobato1000 pesos

2,000 pesos
Deán Miguel Garcetas

Sargento Pedro Bañuelos
Antonio de Regil500 pesos

500 pesos

500 pesos
Juan Bautista de Espinosa

Diego Ruiz de Galarza

Alférez Juan de Miraval
Juan Páez1,000 pesosDoña Catalina de Guzmán
Correo Mayor Don Pedro Diaz de la Barrera500 pesosSebastián Guerra
Capitán Santi Federighi500 pesos

1,000 pesos
Capitán Pedro de Mendoza

Ascanio Guazzoni
Capitán Lope Osorio500 pesosCapitán Don Esteban de Somoza
Capitán Andrés de Briones1,000 pesosCapitán Andrés de Briones
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán Alonso de Aranda
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán Alonso López de Vizcaya
n.a.1,000 pesosDon Diego de Vitoria
n.a.1,000 pesosDiego León de Rivera
n.a.1,000 pesosFrancisco de Pastrana
n.a.500 pesosFrancisco de Vivero
n.a.500 pesosFrancisco de Cervigón
n.a.500 pesosFrancisco de Pastrana
n.a.1,000 pesosFelipe Hernández Machado
n.a.1,000 pesosJerónimo de Fuentes Cortés
n.a.2,000 pesosCapitán Don Juan de Arezo
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán Don Juan de Frias
n.a.2,000 pesosCapitán Juan Bautista de Medina
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán Juan Bautista de Zubiaga
n.a.2,000 pesosCapitán Martin de Aduna
n.a.500 pesosCapitán Pascual Raseros
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán Tomás de Vertiz
Juan Antonio de Caravallo1,000 pesos

1,000 pesos
General don Antonio de Leos

General don Fernando de Ayala
Alférez Cristóbal Romero500 pesos

500 pesos
Francisco de la Haya

Capitán Pedro Romero
Francisco Rodriguez de Ribadeneyra500 pesosFrancisco Rodriguez
Marcos Rodriguez Zapata500 pesosSargento Marcos Zapata Carvajal
n.a.500 pesosAlonso de Trujillo
n.a.1,000 pesosAntonio de Mesina
n.a.500 pesosBenito Tavares
n.a.500 pesosDamián Calvo
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán don Diego de Morales
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán Diego Núñez Crespo
n.a.500 pesosCastellano Diego Feliz
n.a.500 pesosDoña Francisca de Mendoza
n.a.500 pesosAlmirante don Fernando Galindo
n.a.500 pesosAlmirante Francisco Diaz de Montoya
n.a.500 pesosAlmirante Francisco López de César
n.a.500 pesosGaspar de Almonacid
n.a.1,500 pesosArcediano don Gregorio Ruiz de Escalona
n.a.500 pesosJuan de Herrera
n.a.1,000 pesosJuan Diaz de Mendoza
n.a.500 pesosJuan de Uclés
n.a.500 pesosJuan Bautista Sánchez
n.a.1,000 pesosJuan Fernández de Ledo
n.a.500 pesosJuan Diaz de Yela
n.a.500 pesosAlférez Juan de Montoya
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán Don Juan de Salinas
n.a.500 pesosJusepe de Mataya
n.a.1,000 pesosJuan Fernández de León
n.a.500 pesosJuan de Arrida
n.a.500 pesosJuan de Torres Sarmiento
n.a.500 pesosJuan de Silva
n.a.500 pesosJuan de Morales Nebro
n.a.500 pesosDoña Luisa de León
n.a.500 pesosDoña Leocadia de Illescas
n.a.1,000 pesosDoña Leonor de Velasco
n.a.500 pesosDon Luis Castillo
n.a.500 pesosDon Luis Ferández Flores
n.a.1,000 pesosDoña Maria de Saldaña
n.a.1,000 pesosMarcos Pestaño Gondejuela
n.a.1,000 pesosDoña Magdalena Gaona
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán don Mateo de Arceo
n.a.500 pesosDoña Maria de Parada
n.a.500 pesosDoña Potenciana Ezquerra
n.a.1,000 pesosPedro Quintero
n.a.1,000 pesosDon Pedro Monroy
n.a.1,000 pesosCapitán don Pedro Gómez Cañete
n.a.500 pesosPresbítero don Pedro de Artusa
n.a.500 pesosPedro Cadenas
n.a.500 pesosAlonso Baeza del Rio
n.a.100 pesosCapitán don Pedro de Monreal
Sources: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 3543-025, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 3543-027, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4431-026, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 2926-008, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4327-027, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4431-027, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4431-029, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6720-025, Consulado (1599); agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5393-032, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6477-019, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 3216-019, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 2821-006, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 2365-029, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 2436-001, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4312-034, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 1355-030, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 3027-002, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4371-021, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4601-021, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6027-012, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 3855-001, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4259-013, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4259-023, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4259-011, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 0130-025, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 1355-031, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 2949-022, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 3052-007, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5922-004, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6511-061, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6561-056, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6657-030, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 3538-039, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4230-007, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5710-034, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 1451-014, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 3640-017, Filipinas.

Note: “n.a.” = not available.

1Pierre and Huguette Chaunu, Seville et l’Atlantique (1504-1650), 8 vols. (Paris: sevpen, 1955–1960); Lutgardo García Fuentes, El Comercio Español con América, 1650–1700 (Sevilla: Diputación Provincial de Sevilla, 1980); Antonio García-Baquero González, Cádiz y el Atlántico (1717–1778), 2 vols. (Cádiz: csic, 1988). García Fuentes has in other work used as a main reference source the registers of the outward journey to Tierra Firme: Lutgardo García Fuentes, Los Peruleros y el Comercio de Sevilla con las Indias, 1580–1630 (Sevilla: Universidad de Sevilla, 1997).
2An analysis of the avería tax from a legal perspective can be found in Guillermo Céspedes del Castillo, “La Avería en el Comercio de Indias,” Anuario de Estudios Americanos 2 (1945): 515–698. An economic analysis of this tax that includes references to the registers housed in the agi is provided by Pierre and Huguette Chaunu, Séville et l’Atlantique (1504–1650). Tome Premier: Introduction Méthodologique (Paris: sevpen, 1955), 169–238.
3Agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 2111-020, Consulado, 3–4; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 2926-008, Consulado, 5; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 0535-014, Filipinas, 20–21; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4259-026, Filipinas, 5; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 0535-014, Filipinas, 28–30; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 0535-014, Filipinas, 32–39; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4976-006, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 3465-012, Consulado, 1–4; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 0535-014, Filipinas, 40–43; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4259-012, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 0535-014, Filipinas, 44–48; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 0535-014, Filipinas, 49–50; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 0535-014, Filipinas, 51–52; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 0535-014, Filipinas, 53–55; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 0535-014, Filipinas, 56–59; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6477-019, Consulado, 7; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6477-019, Consulado, 8–9; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 3338-002, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5511-001, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5078-011, Consulado, 4–5; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5078-011, Consulado, 6; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5078-011, Consulado, 14; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 1388-033, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 1388-034, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4779-088, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4829-041, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6179-032, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4004-028, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6449-046, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4829-042, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5710-034, Filipinas; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5922-069, Industria y Comercio; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6590-004, Industria y Comercio.
4Annie Molinié-Bertrand, “Bienes de Difuntos et Liens Familiaux en Espagne et en Amérique (XVIe–XVIIIe Siècles),” in Familles, Pouvoirs, Solidarités. Domaine Méditerranéen et Hispano-Américain (XVe–XXe Siècles), ed. Marie-Catherine Barbazza and Carlos Heusch (Montpellier: Université de Montpellier, 2002), 393–96; Antonio J. López Gutiérrez, “Los Expedientes de Bienes de Difuntos del Archivo General de Indias y Su Aportación a la Historia del Arte,” in Actas del III Congreso Internacional del Barroco Americano. Territorio, Arte, Espacio y Sociedad, 2001 (via http://www.upo.es/depa/webdhuma/areas/arte/actas/3cibi/documentos/008f.pdf).
5Ivonne Mijares, ed., Catálogo de Protocolos del Archivo General de Notarías de la Ciudad de México. Volumen I (México, D.F.: unam, 2005); Ivonne Mijares, ed., Catálogo de Protocolos del Archivo General de Notarías de la Ciudad de México. Volumen II (México, D.F.: unam, 2005); Ivonne Mijares, ed., Catálogo de Protocolos del Archivo General de Notarías de la Ciudad de México. Volumen III (México, D.F.: unam, 2006). These volumes have been published in CD format along with an introduction in book format.
6Jesús Aguado de los Reyes, Fortuna y Miseria en la Sevilla del Siglo XVII (Sevilla: Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, 1996).
7Ivonne Mijares, ed., Catálogo de Protocolos del Archivo General de Notarías de la Ciudad de México (México, D.F.: unam, 2005–2006).
8The following signatures give the locations of the front pages (or more) of lawsuits referred to in the text. For 1595: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 1786-054, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 1838-028, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4629-056, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4725-001, Consulado. For 1596: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4779-052, Consulado. For 1597: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4571-044, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4779-036, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4779-037, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4779-038, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4779-039, Consulado. For 1599: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 2854-017, Consulado. For 1600: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp. 2854-017, Consulado. For 1601: agn, “Acervo Histórico,” vol. 131, exp. 1 and exp. 2, Consulado; agn, “Acervo Histórico,” vol. 131, exp. 3 and exp. 4, Consulado. For 1604: agn, “Acervo Histórico,” vol. 47, exp. 1, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5789-005, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4671-012, Filipinas. For 1605: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5623-075, Consulado. For 1606: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4680-040, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4680-041, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4680-042, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5623-076, Consulado. For 1607: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 2013-023, Consulado. For 1608: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 3151-003, Consulado. For 1610: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6103-033, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6182-027, Consulado. For 1611: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 0761-006, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6149-011, Consulado. For 1615: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 2145-011, Consulado. For 1616: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 1876-020, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 1876-021, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 1876-022, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 2672-001, Consulado. For 1617: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6149-010, Consulado. For 1619: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5303-008, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5623-077, Consulado. For 1620: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 1898-008, Consulado. For 1621: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 5623-077, Consulado. For 1625: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4922-004, Consulado. For 1626: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 6640-096, Consulado. For 1629: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 1876-016, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 1876-016, Consulado. For 1637: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 2171-001, Consulado. For 1638: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 0803-019, Consulado. For 1641: agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 2095-003, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4992-013, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4992-016, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4992-021, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4992-027, Consulado; agn, Indiferente Virreinal, caja-exp.: 4992-029, Consulado.
9Pierre Chaunu, Les Philippines et le Pacifique des Iberiques (XVIe. XVIIe. XVIIIe siècles). Introduction Mèthodologique et Indices d’activité (Paris: sevpen (6th edition), 1960).
10Enrique Otte, ed., Cartas Privadas de Emigrantes a Indias, 1540–1616 (México, D.F.: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1996); Rocío Sánchez Rubio and Isabel Testón Núñez, eds., El Hilo Que Une. Las Relaciones Epistolares en el Viejo y el Nuevo Mundo (Siglos XVI–XVIII) (Mérida: Universidad de Extremadura, 1999).
11Yuste Lóprez analyses the Libros de Repartimiento of 1723, 1730, and 1753: Carmen Yuste López, Emporios Transpacíficos. Comerciantes Mexicanos en Manila, 1710–1815 (México, D.F: unam, 2007), 78–84 (and appendices).

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.