The content of this book is drawn from a master’s dissertation presented to the Sociology Department of the University of Brasília (UnB) in September 2014, and published in book form in Brazil in May 2016. For the publication of this book in English, a number of alterations, as well as updates, have been made, but the initial argument and conclusions, however, remain unchanged. Wherever possible, series of data which, in the original version, provided figures up to 2013, were updated to 2016.

Throughout the process which has allowed the publication of this book, first in Portuguese and now in English, for the critical dialog and encouragement they provided, I would like to thank professors Michelangelo Trigueiro and Maria de Lourdes Mollo, from the University of Brasília (UnB), Alfredo Saad-Filho (SOAS – University of London), Leda Paulani (University of São Paulo – USP), Marcos Antônio Macedo Cintra (Institute of Applied Economic Research – IPEA) and Luiz Gonzaga Belluzzo (University of Campinas – Unicamp). Obviously, none of them should be held responsible for any errors that may possibly be found in this publication. I also thank the UnB Postgraduate Program in Sociology for the material support given to this publication.