IndexAbbas, Mahmoudxix, 197Abdel Jawad, Salehxv, xvi, 18, 32n71, 254, 258, 259abolitionists106, 315Abou Shehadeh, Sami47Absorption of Discharged Soldiers Law172Abu Amsha, Nader54Abu Mazen.Abbas, MahmoudAbu Rabieh54Abu Rogaig, Mariam36, 54Abu Sitta, Salman29n26, 32n71The Accidental Empire (Gorenberg)xxiAchille Lauro hijacking179Adalah,43, 53, 122, 245, 314Addameer,53, 314Adelson, Sheldon57Adnan’s story67Afghanistan80, 238Africa69, 149African Americans.civil rights movement, Americanback-to-Africa movement and106, 107parallels to Jewish experience99–103, 105, 109parallels to Palestinian experience318as superpatriots81welfare programs and197Afsai, Shai295n4Agrexco316Ahdut HaAvoda party265n31Aida refugee camp55, 250, 251, 314AIPAC (American Israeli Public Affairs Committee)275airplanes, prejudice on79Ajami (film)48Akram, Susan159Al Aqsa Mosque96, 205Alfei Menashe settlement205Algeria153, 164, 178, 201, 262, 274, 288Al Haq,315Alimi, Eitan187aliyah,41, 104, 199, 235, 251Allon, Yigal224n45Aloni, Shulamit246Al Qaeda206Amer, Hani and Monera50American Colonization Society106American Indians76, 77, 90n53American Israeli Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC)275American Jewscontradictory views ofxviidemocracy and57, 58Freedom Summer and313Israeli nationality and151lobbyists154population of12travel to Israel by109, 251, 313Zionism and107, 119, 280, 283, 295n7Americans for a Vibrant Palestinian Economy316Amir, Yigal203Amnesty International283Anarchists Against the Wall53, 314Anderson, Benedict82, 84, 86, 92n91ANM (Arab National Movement)179Annapolis Conference (2007)213, 221anthropology281, 282anti-Arab racism78–82, 172anti-Semitism“clash of civilizations” and289in European history13–15, 97, 102, 117, 277newxixOperation Protective Edge and80renewed288self-defense framework and235Zionism and9, 97, 98, 108, 255, 261, 277Anwar’s story37, 40apartheidBennett’s use of term247, 267n70definition of247Dugard on246–248as framework245–252, 261, 262Kerry’s use of term58, 247racism and247, 249in South Africa7, 15, 58, 200, 245–252, 263, 274, 306Appelfeld, Aharon148Arab Association for Human Rights171, 314Arab Higher Committee130Arabic language86Arabization17Arab League162, 184, 207, 213, 220Arab National Movement (ANM)179Arab Peace Initiative (2002)212, 213, 221, 237Arab peace overtures270n120Arab Rebellion (1936–1939)131, 133, 134, 139, 179Arab Revolt against Ottoman Empire (1916–1918)127, 128ArabsChristian77, 78Jewish78, 123Muslim77prejudice against78–82roles in American history5sacred texts in common with Jews14stereotypes about5, 77Arab Spring201, 216, 237, 286Arafat, YasirCamp David Summit and212Fatah/PLO merging and162, 178Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and188, 208Letters of Mutual Recognition and211on Mandela’s remarks245as PLO head162, 178, 179, 182, 183Rabat Declaration and182, 207return to Palestine203, 207Saddam Hussein and188, 208second Intifada and205two-state solution and188, 220United States exclusion of188, 200Wye River meeting and211, 221Arendt, Hannah8, 55, 84, 98, 278, 289, 316Argentina108, 118Ariel settlement316Ariel University245Armenia127Arms Export Control Act314arms races234, 287Arutz Sheva29n28Ashkenazi Jews104, 147Asimov, Isaac95, 280assimilation99–101, 105, 110n11assimilation, fear of117, 140n6, 279, 283, 320n22Aswan Dam project156Ateek, Naim241Aung San Suu Kyi67Auschwitz concentration camp81, 235, 285Australia261, 262Avineri, Shlomo117, 140n6Ayalon, Ami195Ayn Hod36Azaria, Elor249back-to-Africa movement106–109, 254Bahrain201, 292Baker, James209Balbus, Isaac197Baldwin, James310Balfour, Lord130, 256Balfour Declaration86, 119, 120, 123, 126–128, 132, 139Balkan Republics84, 102Barak, EhudAmerican-Israeli relations and299n52on apartheid58, 247Camp David and211, 212, 221Sharon and24, 32n83“villa in the jungle” metaphor24, 32n83Bardem, Javier215Barenboim, Daniel284Barnea, Nahum197Basel Plan/Program118, 255Basic Laws of Israel56, 151, 159, 311Battle of Karameh,178BDS.Boycott, Sanctions, Divestment movement (BDS)Bedouins29n26, 36, 54, 122, 151, 172, 292Begin, Menachem135, 175, 184Beinart, Peter280, 313Beisan (Bet She’an)241Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin274Beit Sahour cows187Beit Shemesh, Israel45Belgium84, 85Ben Gurion, Davidon aggression and self-defense232, 236creating a national framework and146, 147ethnic cleansing and255, 256, 260The Land of Israel, Past and Present,18Palestinians as security risks and158partitioning and133, 135“unused land” and147, 157Bennett, Naftali79, 247, 267n70Ben-Shemen Agricultural School148Bentham, Jeremy315Ben Zvi, Yitzhak18, 256Berlin, Germany104Bethlehem, West BankAida refugee camp in55, 250, 251, 314Combatants for Peace meeting in303West Bank division and209YMCA in54The Biggest Prison on Earth (Pappe)xxibilateral challenges234, 236, 237Bili’in (village)53, 205, 238, 311, 314Bill of Rights, U.S.68, 295bi-national state solution56, 153, 278biological metaphors75.raceBirthright109, 124, 251Birzeit, West Bank53Birzeit University54Black American experiencexxii, 318Black capitalism102, 103black goats292Black Lives Matter295Black Muslims103Black Noise (Rose)111n24black rap and hip hop103, 111n24blacks.African Americansblack separatism103Black September (1970)180Blackstone, William68blue boxes120Bolsheviks120, 127Borochov, Ber18Boycott, Sanctions, Divestment movement (BDS)215–217, 219, 234, 236–238, 250, 286, 287, 315–317Brandeis, Louis120Brazil78Breaking the Silence,49, 74“break their bones” policy196, 203BRIC nations78British Empire16, 20, 84, 119, 126–129British Mandatory PalestineBalfour Declaration andBalfour DeclarationBritish withdrawal from135, 137division of land of135Jordan and24, 168n88period of rule16, 24Six Day War and164, 170Sykes-Picot Agreement and130Zionism and256, 257Bruce, Lenny284B’Tselemexpulsion of Palestinians from Jerusalem and44fatality statistics of72, 239, 299–300n62reporting on human rights violations53, 158settlement statistics of175settler talking points and42Zionism and283Buber, Martin8, 55, 98, 278Budrus, demonstrations in238, 314Bulgaria85bureaucratic domination37, 40Burg, Avraham59, 236, 283, 284, 294Bush, George H. W.80, 209Bush, George W.205–207, 216Butler, JudithxxButtu, Diana285Campbell-Bannerman Report16, 23, 31n47, 108, 126, 155, 198Camp David Accords (1978)183, 185, 208, 220Camp David Summit (2000)211–213, 221Canaanites16, 17Canada84, 85, 261, 262Canada Park122capitalism102, 103Carter, Jimmy183, 246Caspit, Ben249Caterpillar, sanctions against315Central Committee of the Palestinian resistance179Central Conference of American Rabbis80CERD (Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination)69Charlottesville, Virginia, neo-Nazis in108Chavez, Caesar5, 315checkpoints48, 49, 51, 74, 195, 244, 309China78, 156, 163, 208, 209Christiansanti-Semitism in Europe by13–15, 117, 255Holy Land of9Jewish relations with, in pre-modern era13, 14, 30n42, 117in Lebanon159, 180, 181national identities in Middle East85Palestinian9, 11, 51, 130, 238, 244, 260, 287population transfers85Zionistxx, 15, 108, 109, 274, 295n7Churchill, Winston132, 152CIA164Citizenship Law (1952)189n6civil rights movement, American81, 99–103, 313Civil War, American5Cizling, Aharon240, 265n31“clash of civilizations,”78, 275, 289, 290, 295climate changexx, 233, 291–294, 318climate refugees291, 292Clinton, Bill205, 211, 212, 221Clinton Parameters212, 213Coates, TaNehisi74, 76co-existence policy47Cohen, Mark14Cold WarAmerican self-interests in Palestine during20end of85, 104, 275human rights and68Israeli-American alliance in182non-aligned nations in155otherness and104Palestinians and161Soviet bloc152, 153, 155superpowers and165Western bloc152, 155world divided by199collaborators185collective actors or parties15, 30n44colonialism16, 73, 81, 245, 254, 274colonization, Zionism as232Combatants for Peace303, 304, 314Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD)69Communism104, 127, 245confrontation103–105, 110n11containment46–50Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination248Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide (1948)242Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid247, 248Copernicus65Council for Peace and Security176Cox, Archibald181Coyne, Jeremy273Cruz, Penelope215Cunningham, Alan136Custodian of Absentee Property157, 165, 196, 307Czechoslovakia176Czech Republic84, 104Dachau concentration camp240, 241DAM (hip-hop group)54Darwish Museum53Dawabshe, Ahmed21Dawabshe, Ali21Dawabshe, Hussein22Dawkins, Richard273Dayan, Moshe232, 236, 260Declaration of Independence, American90n53Declaration of Independence, Israeli151Declaration of Principles211decolonization era69, 97, 102, 139, 152–156, 165Defamation (film)235Deir Yassin massacre136democracy57, 274, 282Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP)179demolition of homes and villageson Daoud Nasser’s land46green-washing487in Jaffa47, 48Lifta (village)55Munir’s40in Sheikh Jerrah neighborhood50Wadi al Na’am (village)54DeNiro, Robert215Denmark85Derrida, Jacques284Desai, Chandni270n117Desert Daughter54desertification291, 292Deutsch, Karl82DFLP (Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine)179Dheisheh refugee camp54Dignity (Free Gaza ship)218Dimona reactor153, 163Disengagement Plan206, 207Djibouti201Dome of the Rock mosque205domestic challenges234, 237, 238Doron, Yifat246Druze172Dugard, John245, 247, 248Dylan, Bob284East Jerusalemannexation of, by Israel29n28, 44, 71, 174containment in46destruction of Maghrebi neighborhood174efforts to achieve Palestinian state in182election campaigns in216Israeli control of181, 196Jewish settlers in191n38, 198Palestinian residents in44, 170, 174Rabat Declaration and207Eban, Abba20, 175, 214Economic Efficiency Law of 2009172economic tools for change315–317educational tools for change312–314education and national identity83Efrat, West Bank41EgyptArab Jews in149Arab Spring in201army invasion of Israel137brief control of Palestine (1834)129control of Gaza10, 138, 155, 156in decolonization era154, 155Israeli invasion over Suez Canal156, 236peace deals offered to Israel270n120peace treaty with Israel183–185, 208, 220refugee camps in10, 11, 157, 159regional power struggles and200, 234Russian/Soviet alliance with156, 179, 181Six Day War and162–164support of Palestinian factions by179Syria’s rivalry with161United Arab Republic and156war of attrition with Israel179Yom Kippur War and181Einstein, Albert8, 55, 98, 240, 278, 284El Al airplane hijackings179Elias (Palestinian dentist)145Ellis, Marc283, 298n47Encounter313England85, 117.Great BritainEnlightenment rationalism117, 138, 293, 315Entry into Israel Law (1952)189n6environmental degradation233environmentalism55, 275environmental sustainability55, 68Epstein, Yitzhak252, 256Erdogan, Recep Tayyip227n119eruv,103, 104ethnic cleansing/sociocideblack goat prohibition and292genocide compared to243, 276Judaization and20of Lydda and Ramle203pine tree plantings and292settler colonialism framework and252–262Zionism and134, 137, 138, 143n79, 255–262, 274, 276–280ethnocentrism281, 282European JewsAfrican Americans compared to99, 102Balfour Declaration and127“new Jew” expectation and148, 149refugees from WWII147, 149shared ancestry with Palestinians18Six Day War and164universalism and282victimization and98Zionism as project built for260, 261Zionism origins and97, 107, 117, 118, 255, 273, 285European Unionboycotts from236, 287, 316Madrid Conference and208Palestinian Authority and210Palestinian elections and216“Eurozionism and its Discontents” (Pitersberg)81Eve’s stories115, 195, 290exit, as a response to prejudice and exclusion105–109, 110n11Exodus (book and film)110n15, 275expulsion of Palestiniansbureaucratic43during and after Nakba,10, 11, 136–139, 150, 257ethnic cleansing and257, 260indigeneity and19as Israeli strategy43Six Day War and170, 257statistics on28n25United States and275use of force for19, 31n61extremist groups and views21–23, 32n72Facebook45, 104, 169, 304facts and frameworks65–66Faculty for Israeli-Palestinian PeacexvFamily Circle of the Bereaved314family unification43, 244, 249Fanon, Franz179Farouk, King (of Egypt)155Fatah, 161162, 178, 179, 204, 216Fauda (Israeli TV series)6fear67, 117, 140n6, 279, 281fedayeen,178Feldman, Yotam294, 301n86female genital mutilation107fictive kinship89n42film industry53Finkelstein, Normanxxi, 98first Intifada.Intifada, firstFisher, Max299n58Five Broken Cameras (documentary film)54Flag and Emblem Law (1949)173Fourth Geneva Convention, Article 4970, 71Foxx, Jamie81frameworksapartheid245–252, 261, 262evaluative vs. descriptive232facts and65–66genocide240–245, 261, 262human rights66–73, 305Israeli self-defense232–240, 261, 305nationalism82–87race74–82settler colonialism252–263, 270n117FranceAlgerian revolution against153, 178decolonization and274, 288Dimona reactor and153Egypt invaded by156head scarves ban in92n92Holocaust and81laicism in85Lebanon and Syria’s independence from154Six Day War and164Sykes-Picot Agreement and127, 130Frankfurter, Felix120Freedom from Fear (Aung San Suu Kyi)67“Freedom Rides,” 53Freedom Summer313Free Gaza Movement218, 219Free Trade Agreement talks215Freud, Sigmund98, 284Friedman, Thomas291Gainsbourg, Serge284Galilee20, 36, 79, 132, 138Galileo65Garroutte, Eva76Garvey, Marcus106The Gatekeepers (film), Ayalon’s quote in195, 221n3gay rights movement277, 278Gazadepicted as a woman75destruction in206, 216, 241, 242Disengagement Plan and206, 207efforts to achieve Palestinian state in182, 187, 188Egyptian control of10, 138, 155, 156first Intifada and201, 202food shortages in243genocide and241Israeli blockade of124, 184, 218Israeli control of11, 181, 185, 196, 206, 207Israeli raids and invasions of155, 197Israeli security concerns and55Israeli settlements in198, 206Israeli siege of206, 207, 213, 218, 238Israeli snipers and196, 243Israeli use of violence against40, 44, 201, 201n38, 215, 216medical clinics in259military rule established in173, 174as open-air prison248Operation Cast Lead inOperation Cast LeadOperation Pillar of Defense in200, 213Operation Protective Edge inOperation Protective EdgePeel Commission Report and132Rabat Declaration and207refugee camps in10, 11, 157, 186rocket fire from72, 196, 286two-state solution and188U.N. peacekeepers removed from163Gaza Community Mental Health Center314Gellner, Ernest82, 83, 92n87Gelvin, James178, 186gender relations61n49, 73, 105The General’s Son (Miko Peled)xvGeneral Strike131, 139Genesis (15:18)95Geneva Conventions on the Rules of War67, 70–72, 173Geneva Initiative213genocide240–245, 261, 262, 276German language86Germany81, 85, 101, 102, 104, 119, 153, 173GI Bill of Rights77, 99Ginsburg, Asher278globalization284, 289–95, 318goats292Golan HeightsIsraeli control of181, 183, 196Jewish settlements in11, 175, 198Syrian incursions from162Syria’s claim on11Yom Kippur War and181, 183Goldstein, Baruch48, 203Goldstone Report89n27Go Palestine summer camp314Gordon, Nevexix, xxGorenberg, GershonxviGouldner, Alvin65grand apartheid248Great Britain.British EmpireBritish Mandatory PalestineEnglandPeel Commission ReportUnited KingdomCold War and152decolonization and154, 155, 274, 288Egypt invaded by156Israel’s special relationship with130, 131Palestine as Jewish homeland and108, 119, 120, 132, 273during pre-state period126–134, 139, 147sanctions against Israel and215Six Day War and164Truman and153War of Independence and139Great March of Return238, 243great powers.superpowersGreece85green building construction55Green LineArab Peace Initiative and237definition of10erased from textbooks78Israel’s boundaries and10, 11, 24, 56, 175, 278Israel’s growth to138road network and71separation barrier and46through Jerusalem290green-washing48, 292Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner? (film)110n15Gulf of Aqaba183Ha’am, Ahad278, 297n25Ha’aretz,27n20, 169, 235, 279, 283, 287, 299n52Haddad, Heskel30n42Haganah,123, 136Haifa, Israel145Hajjar, Lisa159Hallowell, A. Irving298n41Halper, Jeff294Hamad, Suheir74Hamasblockade and244execution of collaborators45Fatah rivalry with216food shortages and244Israeli operations against197, 198Israeli’s early support/tolerance of203, 204, 238, 239Palestinian 2006 elections and213, 216, 259Palestinian Authority andxixPalestinian statements in charter22, 80PLO and203, 204, 238revised charter (2017)23second Intifada and204, 206Hammad, Suheir54Hammerman, Ilana312Hamoked,314Hapsburg empire84, 102Haram-al-Sharif,96, 205Harlem Renaissance99Haysbert, Dennis81health care system, Palestinian54Hebrew language86Hebrew textbooks78Hebron, West BankIsraeli soldiers in36, 41kuffiyeh factory in53massacre of Muslims worshipers in203Orthodox Jews murdered in134settler neighborhoods in48, 175, 209student visits to48, 58West Bank division and209Zionist observations of279heritage tourism107Herzl, Theodoranti-Semitism and108definition of Jews and283, 287first Zionist Congress and118letter from Arab leader to129Old New Land,255quotes of23, 81, 95, 115, 256Zionism’s aim and119, 255, 260Herzliya Conference (2010)244Heschel, Abraham Joshua318Hidalgo (film)77hijab,77, 79Hillel, Rabbi284Hillels, campus57, 124Hindus85Hitler, Adolf85, 241, 243Hoffman, Alice35Hohenzollern empire84, 102Holland316Holmes, Sherlock217HolocaustEuropean Islamophobia and81genocide framework and242human rights framework and67number killed in277, 296n18self-defense framework and235, 236Zionist movement and9, 97, 134, 135, 148, 275, 278, 290Holocaust Remembrance Day283Holocaust survivorscriticisms of Gaza massacre by45fear for safety and285Israel as safe haven for7, 145, 147, 148, 255Israeli story of145Jewish Agency and123, 124taxes on reparations to27n20, 148Zionism and135“How Jewish is Israel?” (Karon)283, 284human rightsenvironmental sustainability and55, 68as framework for understanding6, 8, 66–73, 305for gay people277, 278of groups vs. individuals72international support for214–219inter-state vs. intra-state violence and69Israel’s lack of compliance with standards10, 44, 70–72, 89n27, 279, 287Jewish concern for275key documents67need for reform and274Oslo process and210, 211, 213, 220political68religion and68selective application of standards69social and economic68standards4, 6–8, 12, 66, 286, 305, 306violations of8, 70–72, 85, 98, 107, 254, 305women’s61n49, 73, 107, 146, 147human rights (humanitarian) law70, 72, 210.Geneva Conventions on the Rules of WarHuman Rights Watch283Hungary108, 156, 164Huntington, Samuel289Hussein, King (of Jordan)162, 177, 180, 182, 183, 207Hussein, Saddam80, 188, 200, 208, 220, 238Hussein bin Ali, King128Hussein-McMahon correspondence119, 126–128, 139hybridity77Iberia117Ibrahimi Mosque48, 203ICC.International Criminal Court (ICC)ICJ.International Court of Justice (ICJ)ideal types110n11Illuz, Eva287immigration and gender relations73Immigration and Nationality Act of 196577incremental genocide241India78, 85, 208, 209, 274, 288individualism72International Committee of the Red Cross71International Court of Justice (ICJ)Fourth Geneva Convention, Article 49 and71PA application to215, 216, 226n98, 314Palestine’s upgraded status and69, 236Palestinian rights and68on separation barrier204, 205, 287Zionism and283International Criminal Court (ICC)focus on African cases and individuals69Fourth Geneva Convention, Article 49 and88n20PA application to215, 216, 218, 226n98, 314Palestine’s upgraded status and236Palestinian rights and68, 69Rome Statute of218Zionism and283internationalization218, 219, 314International Solidarity Movement218intersectionality and settler colonialism270n117Intifada, first24, 74, 186–189, 196, 201–203, 208, 209, 219Intifada, secondbeginning of205, 212lynching of Israelis during205, 238, 3119/11 and206peace process and219repression of armed struggle in250results of206suicide bombings during204, 205, 250torture during244IranAmerican-Israeli relations and299n52Arab Jews in149“iron wall” and184Islamic state installed in184Israeli alliance with155, 184nuclear weapons and235, 286, 299n58regional power struggles andxviii, xx, 200, 234, 311revised Hamas charter and23sanctions re-imposed on286Sneh on235Iran-Iraq War184, 208Iraq.ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria)American invasion of80, 206, 212Arab Jews in149army invasion of Israel137current185in decolonization era154, 155desertification and292destruction inxxinvasion of Iran184invasion of Kuwait188, 199, 200, 208, 220power struggles with other Arab countries200refugees from237support of Palestinian factions by179unrest in201Irgun184“iron fist,” 186Iron Sheik54“iron wall,” 184Isaac’s story280ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria)xviii, 78, 80IslamArabization and17disputes between branches of85politicalpolitical Islamrecognition of Jewish and Christian antecedents14, 29n37Islamic Jihad23, 184, 203Islamic Resistance Movement22Islamic waqf,9, 22Islamophobia5, 77, 80, 81, 206Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women? (Okin)73Israeladmiration for109American alliance with154, 181, 182, 184, 198, 199, 206, 286American knowledge of7anti-discrimination laws in122anti-Palestinian prejudice in79, 82, 172anti-Semites and108Arab wars against178, 179, 181arms sales and security consultingxixarmy veterans of172Basic Laws of56, 151, 159, 311bilateral challenges of234, 236, 237blockade of Gaza124boundaries of10, 11, 24, 56, 175, 176, 209“break their bones” policy196, 203casualties of civilians of72, 240citizenship vs. nationality151, 165, 171, 172Cold War and182control of historic Palestine11, 20, 24, 164, 165, 170–176, 196Custodian of Absentee Property157, 165domestic challenges of234, 237, 238Egypt invaded by156, 236Four Legal System171Geneva Conventions and70global challenges for233, 234, 236Holocaust survivors and7, 145, 147, 148human rights doctrine and70, 211human rights violations by70–72, 89n27, 287ID cards issued by51immigration of Arab Jews147, 149, 150infrastructure created by217invasion by Arab armies137Iran’s alliance with155Jewish criticism of275Jewish identity and283Jewish immigrants to47, 104, 147, 148, 188, 199, 209Jewish population ofxviii, xxiii n12language struggles in86Lebanon invaded by185, 219, 237militarism237, 294military rule158, 159, 165, 170, 171, 175, 189, 196, 217, 219national framework creation146–152“new Jews” and148, 149Occupation byOccupationOccupied Territories and danger to236, 238one-state solution and87operations against Palestinians237out-migration from251, 268n86Palestinian citizens of11, 36, 43, 79, 121, 151, 158–159, 170–173, 237–238, 249Palestinian elections and216Palestinian homes demolished in253, 254Palestinian land appropriated by157, 158, 196, 204, 307peace process and198–200, 209, 213, 219peace treaty with Egypt183–185, 208, 220peace treaty with Jordan221pink-washing and women’s rights in61n49PLO and179poverty in27n20, 148, 172raids on West Bank and Gaza155regional challenges of234, 236, 237religious disputes among Jews in85Resolution 181 and135revised Hamas charter and23safety in284–289secularism in85securitization and security training294, 295Six Day War and162–165, 236social services, discrimination in172special relationship with Great Britain and US130, 131state creation10, 19, 117, 118, 127, 136, 137, 139Israeli state, early national periodstate land42State of Emergency declared by158, 159, 171Turkey’s alliance with155two-state solution and175, 176, 198victimization emphasis of98, 239, 288Yom Kippur War and181–183, 236young Jews leaving104Israel Day Parade57Israeli Apartheid Weeks314Israeli-Arab wars150Israeli Defense Forces (IDF)creation of123Disengagement Plan and206efforts to prevent dating between groups320n22expulsion of Palestinians by10, 307harassment and violence by38, 246Jewish immigrants and47killing of Palestinians by203, 238, 239Operation Protective Edge and44refusal to serve in52vandalization of jeep57veterans of172Israeli dissidents37, 39Israeli Egg and Poultry Board245Israeli High Court205Israeli Independence Day173Israeli National Security Council79Israelisfollowing Six Day War170–176national framework created by146–152opposed to Occupation37, 58, 169, 251, 286peace process and196–200racism and82, 149Israeli self-defense, as framework232–240, 261, 287Israeli settlementsin and around Hebron209danger to settlers in239expansion of198–199, 210, 213, 219, 222n12, 237, 257, 297n19, 307following Six Day War175, 176, 189as human rights violation70media coverage of5as National Priority Areas172population of12, 29n28, 175, 217as source of difficulties for Israelis287as strategy to control Palestinians40–43, 46vigilante violence and41, 45Israeli state, early national period145–168Israelis during146–152Palestinians during156–161summary of165superpowers and152–156tragic spiral161–164Israeli story145Israeli Supreme Court43, 56, 151, 172, 249, 311Israelites14–17, 256Israel Ministry of Education245Israel/Palestinebackground information9–12balance of power72, 98complexity of issues in6division of land in9ethnoracialization of conflict82finding the tipping point in317–319history of116, 307hopeful signs311, 312human rights issues inhuman rightsIsraeli control of11, 20, 24, 164, 170–176, 196, 213, 257lessons from the past and307–310media depiction of violence in5Palestinian population inxviii, xxiii n13, 11time line325–337tools for change in310–317Italy81, 84, 85Itamar settlement238JA.Jewish Agency (JA)Jabalya refugee camp186Jabotinsky, Vladimir184, 232, 236, 255, 260Jackson, Jesse79Jaffa, Israel47, 123, 279Jaffa Muslim-Christian Council23Jefferson, Thomas90n53Jenin, West Bank209Jericho, West Bank209Jerusalem.East JerusalemArab Quarter of Old City95, 96Bethlehem neighborhood re-zoned into39boundaries redrawn174checkpoint for entry into51emergency room in309negotiations and200, 209Palestinian residents of174, 175seam line within290settler neighborhoods in175U.S Embassy’s relocation to108, 221, 311Jerusalem-Bethlehem corridor135Jewish Agency (JA)108, 118, 123–124, 136, 139, 154, 307Jewish Diaspora284, 294Jewish identity98, 103, 134, 283, 284Jewish National Fund (JNF)107, 118, 120–123, 126, 131, 139, 151, 307Jewish nation-state bill56Jewish state vs. Jewish homeland8, 55Jews.Orthodox Jewsultra-Orthodox JewsZionismZionistsadmiration for81African260, 261AmericanAmerican JewsArab78, 123, 147, 149, 150, 260, 261Christians and, in pre-modern era13, 14, 30n42, 117communities of, in Palestine9, 14, 30n43, 59, 63n75, 129Ethiopian123EuropeanEuropean JewsGerman101, 118, 119immigrants to Israel47Marxist108Muslims and, prior to Zionism13, 14, 30n42“new Jews,” 148149, 250otherness embraced by103, 104Palestinian9, 123, 129parallels to African American experience99–103, 105, 109Promised Land of9Russian199, 209shared ancestry with Palestinians17–19socialism and102, 103Soviet and post-Soviet123universalism and59, 282world population of12Jimmy Carter Center216JNF.Jewish National Fund (JNF)Johnson, Lyndon164JordanArab Jews in149army invasion of Israel137control of West Bank10, 137, 138, 155, 156, 185in decolonization era154, 155Madrid Conference and208, 209Palestinian Diaspora in86, 138peace deals offered by270n120peace treaty with Israel (1994)185, 221PLO and178–181refugee camps inxx, 10, 11, 157, 159refugee influx to237Six Day War and162, 164Transjordan option and25, 42unrest in201Jordan, June74Jordan River162Jordan Valley175, 212, 312JudaismConstantinian vs. prophetic298n47conversion of Palestinians to, imagined255, 256disputes between shades of85Herzl and283, 287universalistic ethic of281–284Judaization of the land13, 19, 20, 54, 79, 122, 172Judis, John297n25Judt, Tony99, 217Kafka, Franz284Kahan Commission181Kanazi, Remi54Karen’s story276–278Karine A (ship)205Karmi, Ghada32n71Karon, Tony247, 283, 284, 298n41Kasrils, Ronnie241, 247Kathleen’s story233Kearney, Michael226n98Kellman, Naamah310Kennedy, John F.195, 319Keret, Etgar197Kerry, John58, 213, 221, 247Khalidi, Rashid28n25, 32n71Khalidi, Walid29n26, 32n71Khartoum Declaration23, 177, 178, 207, 220Kibbutz Megido122Kimmerling, Baruch32n71King, Martin Luther100, 303The Kingdom (film)81kinship75, 89n42Kissinger Doctrine182, 189Knesset,82, 172, 173, 183, 237, 244, 249, 287Kramer, Martin244Kristalnacht,241kuffiyeh factory in Hebron53Kuhn, Thomas65–66, 173Ku Klux Klan106Kurds and Kurdish nationalismxx, 86, 308Kuwait188, 199, 200, 201, 208, 220Kweli, Talib81The Lab (Feldman film)294, 301n86Labor Party, Israeli175, 260laicism85Lajee Center55, 314Lajun (Palestinian village)43, 122The Land of Israel, Past and Present (Ben Gurion and Ben Zvi)18La’or, Yitzak81Laurens, Henri274Law and Governance Article 18A173The Law In These Parts (documentary film)191n35, 192n83, 243Law of Return150, 151, 171, 189n6, 199League of Nationsfailure to prevent war67mandatory system120, 127Palestine Mandate24, 120Lebanonagricultural sector damage131Arab Jews in149army invasion of Israel137Christian treatment of refugees in159, 180, 181in decolonization era154, 155Israeli invasion of185, 219, 237Israeli withdrawal from205Madrid Conference and208, 209Palestinian Diaspora in86, 138PLO and179–181, 185, 189political compromises in237refugee camps inxx, 10, 11, 157unrest in201legal and advocacy tools for change314legalization245, 266n57Letters of Mutual Recognition211Leunig, Michael3Levi, Primo240, 284Leviev316Levy, Gideon128, 274, 275, 284Liberia106, 107, 109Libya149, 201, 292Lifta (village)43, 55Likud Party79Little Town of Bethlehem (film)303A Liturgy for Ordinary Radicals317Lod, Israel21Lubavitcher Jews103Lusztig, Elliot316Lydda, ethnic cleansing of279Madrid Conference188, 200, 208, 209, 220Maghreb149Maghrebi neighborhood in East Jerusalem174Magnes, Judah55, 278Maher, Bill75Maimonides282, 284Mali201Malthus, Thomas315Mamdani, Mahmood69, 92n92Mamilla Cemetery, Jerusalem80Mandela, Nelson66, 245, 247Mandelbaum Gate290Mansfield, Michael310market systems, global292, 293Marshall, George C.137Marx, Karl98, 103, 284Massachusetts Bay Colony104Massad, Joseph102Maureen’s story289, 295Mauritania201, 209Mavi Marmara (ship)184, 218, 219, 227n119McCarthyism104McMahon, Henry128medical practices, unorthodox105Mekorot316Merchant of Venice (Shakespeare)100Migdal, Joel32n71Mira’s story285Misgav, Uri242Modi’in Illit settlement205monotheism282Morocco201, 209, 289, 320n13Morris, Benny29n26, 32n71, 143n79, 241, 276, 278Motorola, sanctions against315“mowing the lawn,” 200218Moynihan, Daniel Patrick8, 300n68Mubarak, Hosni185multiculturalism73, 105, 261, 320n13Multi-National Peacekeeping force180Munir’s story39, 40Museum of Tolerance80Museum on the Seam290music industry54Muslim Brotherhood203MuslimsArab77Islamic waqf of9Jews and, prior to Zionism13, 14, 30n42Palestinian9, 11, 130, 238, 244, 260population transfers85world population of12Mussolini, Benito85My Promised Land (Shavit)279Nabi Saleh, West BankIsraeli soldier in249protests and demonstrations in238, 288, 314spring water access in49, 53tear gas canister garlands in311Zionist observations of279Nablus, West Bank14, 44, 59, 63n75, 209Nader, Ralph5Nakba (the Catastrophe).War of Independenceagreement on facts about21, 32n71, 234beginning of136, 142n71end of10fear and279Israeli school curriculum and55, 313Jaffa and47, 279Palestinians displaced in137, 139, 150expulsion of Palestiniansplanting over villages destroyed in121soft Zionism and278statistics on28n25Zionist interpretation of110n15, 278–280Zochrot and55Nakhleh, Khalil289Nasser, Daoud46Nasser, Gamal Abdel155, 156, 162–164, 178, 183Nasserism130National Priority Areas (NPA)172nation and nationalism66, 82–87emerging nations and92n87, 102history of84human rights violations and85language and84, 86, 92n91Marxist Jews and108mediating institutions83, 92n86in Middle East85modern nation statesxx, 83–86nation states as imagined communities84, 86Palestinians and84, 129, 279, 308prehistory to nationalism92n91racial classification compared to84religion and85settler colonialism and260skepticism of278Zionism and290, 308Nation of Islam103Native Americans76, 77, 90n53, 270n117, 298n41Nazis104, 108, 134, 240–242, 244, 245, 306Negev, IsraelBedouins in54, 292climate change and292Egypt’s peace deal offered to Israel and270n120human rights groups and5Judaization of20, 54, 79, 122, 172National Priority Areas in172oil possibilities in154Palestinian community in36Peel Commission Report and132refugees from31n59Negotiations Support Unit of PA67neocolonialism69, 73, 245Nestle’s, boycott against315Netanyahu, BenjaminAbu Mazen and197American-Israeli relations and299n52anti-Semites and108Bar Ilan University speech and213corruption scandalsxixone-state solution and56pacification of Palestinians and44Palestinian refugees and161peace process and210, 211, 213post-post-Zionism and28n21violence and203new anti-SemitismxixNew Historians, xxi18, 32n71, 148“new Jews,” 148149, 250New York Times,5, 45, 297n19New Zealand261, 262NGOs.non-governmental organizations (NGOs)Nili’in (village)53, 238, 3149/11 terrorist attacks78, 80, 81, 105, 206, 212, 237972 Magazine,451967 (Segev)xxiNixon, Richard181non-governmental organizations (NGOs)debates and hesitations about61n44Israeli37, 53, 55Palestinian53, 61n44Nordau, Max118Noriega, Manuel238, 239North Africa149Northern Ireland15Norway316NPA (National Priority Areas)172nuclear weapons234, 235, 286, 287, 299n58Obama, Barack105Occupation169–193as apartheidapartheidbilateral challenges and234discrimination against Palestinians under69, 171–173domestic challenges and234as elephant in the room7ethnic cleansing and257–258global indifference and expansion ofxviiiIsraeli establishment of170–176, 189Israelis opposed to37, 58, 169, 251, 286Israeli spending on104in Israeli textbooksxvoppression of Palestinians and15, 36, 186Palestinian agriculture and186, 192n86Palestinian resistance to12, 52–55, 178–181, 185–189, 201–203, 235, 238, 250, 307, 314Palestinians under Israeli control170, 171planning and implementation of163, 173, 174psychological warfare used in244revised version of events surroundingxxirock-throwing and5soft Zionism and278summary of189superpowers and176–178, 189totalitarian precedent for245tragic spiral and181–188as trap8violence used by39, 40Occupied Palestinian Territories.GazaWest Bankapartheid in246containment within46–50dangers to Israel and236, 238geographic divides and248Israeli control of24, 170, 173, 196, 245, 307Israel’s encouragement of settlements within71, 175, 210, 217medical permits to leave244military rule of171, 173, 196, 249peace process and200population in11securitization of294settler only roads in176, 248OCHA (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs)55, 107Ofer Military Court246oil interests78, 153, 154oil shock182Ojibwa people298n41Okin, Susan Muller72Old New Land (Herzl)255Old Testament14Olim Berlin104Olim Prague104Olmert, Ehud58, 247Olympics in Munich (1972)179Oman201, 209Omar (film)54One Democratic State Campaign263, 314one-state solution.two-state solutionalternatives to93n98civil rights struggle and57, 214, 217increased interest in87Netanyahu government and56Transjordan option and25OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries)91n63, 182Open Hillels57, 314Operation Brothers Keeper.Operation Protective EdgeOperation Cast Leadcriticism of Israel and237Free Gaza flotilla and218genocide comparisons241“mowing the lawn” and200pacification and44peace process and213, 219trip to Palestine/Israel during95Zionist defense of283Operation Dani203Operation Defensive Shield197, 219, 237Operation Pillar of Defense200, 213, 219, 237Operation Protective Edgeanti-Semitism and80BDS and sanctions and215cease-fire in197criticism of Israel and237fatalities and45Free Gaza flotilla and219Gaza as a woman and75genocide comparisons241motive for216“mowing the lawn,” 200218peace process and196, 197, 200, 213, 215, 219ratio of deaths between Palestinians and Israelis239, 265n28United States and276, 314Zionist defense of283Order of the Kotel (Western Wall)174Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)91n63, 182orientalism77, 275Orthodox Jews103, 134Oslo AccordsCamp David Summit and183as disaster for Palestinians213failure of211Palestinian acceptance of24peace process and138, 202, 203, 209–211, 220second Intifada and205settlement expansion after198suicide bombings during negotiations204Taba negotiations and67, 211two-state solution and86, 208water shortages and209, 210, 213, 220West Bank divisions and12, 209, 210, 220otherness, embracing of103–105, 110n11, 111n24Ottoman EmpireArab revolt against127, 128dismemberment of lands of126, 127Egyptian troops and129end of102Herzl and119land laws175, 185nationalism and84, 308Palestine Office and123Palestinian economic struggle and131ruling of land of Israel/Palestine16, 20, 117, 124–126Tanzimat reforms125, 126, 139out-migration from Israel251, 268n86Oz, Amos280pacification44, 58, 132, 170, 183–186, 196, 203, 213Pakistan85Palestine.Israel/PalestineOccupied Palestinian TerritoriesPalestiniansagricultural sector damage131as choice for Jewish homeland108, 117–119Christian communities in9, 51competing claims on9, 17, 86, 133de-Arabization of134, 136, 157Jewish communities in9, 14, 30n43, 59, 63n75, 129news coverage of5as observer state24, 69, 215, 236partitioning of9, 10, 135peace process and213, 219Peel Commission Report and132pine tree plantings in121, 292population ofxviiresidents of11, 12search for just peace in4, 7size of9villages destroyed in10, 29n26, 121, 137, 138Zionist immigration to9, 117–120, 123, 131Palestine, Peace not Apartheid (Carter)246Palestine Arab Delegation115Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)commando tactics by179, 180diverse factions of179elections awaited by259first Intifada and202formation of162, 220Hamas and203, 204, 238Jordan and178–181Lebanon and179, 180, 185merging with Fatah,162, 178Muslim Brotherhood and203, 204as national authority182, 192n76, 207, 220as observer entity182Oslo Accords and203, 211Palestinian unity and23Rabat Declaration and182, 207second Intifada and206Ten Point Program and192n76two-state solution and86United States exclusion of188, 200, 208village leagues and185weakening in Ramallah206Palestine National Council/Congress (PNC)188, 259Palestine Office123Palestine Zionist Executive123Palestinian AuthorityAdnan’s story and67applications to ICC and ICJ215, 216, 226n98, 314Camp David Accords and208, 220establishment of208, 210, 220IDs issued by51observer state status and215Oslo agreements and183, 210, 213political illegitimacy ofxixpossible implosion of317Rabat Declaration and207, 208, 220revised Hamas charter and23Rome Statute of ICC and218UN and238, 259Palestinian Diaspora86, 138, 314, 316Palestinian Fair Trade Association53Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ)204Palestinian Legislative Council216, 259Palestinian refugeesappropriation of land from157, 158discrimination against171Fatah founded by161Jewish refugees compared to150in Jordan237numbers ofxviii, xxiii n14, 28n25PLO and180protection gap159–161in refugee camps10, 11, 31n59, 156, 159, 160, 185Resolution 242 and176, 177right of return11, 150, 160, 171, 182, 209, 212, 306rights denied for217at time of Israeli state formation137Palestinians.PalestineArab Rebellion (1936-1939)131, 133, 134, 139child-naming practices29n37Christian9, 11, 51, 130, 238, 244, 260, 287civilian casualties72containment of46–50creativity and resilience of51–55disarming of133discrimination against79, 122, 171–173, 186, 237, 244, 245distribution in Israel/Palestine11educational attainment ofxviii, xxiv n15, 53elections held by216excluded from labor131, 186, 199, 234, 250, 256expulsion ofexpulsion of Palestiniansfatalities, compared to Israeli deaths239, 265n28General Strike by131, 139Hamas charter statements22, 80human rights violations by71, 89n27internal displacement of10, 121, 131, 157International Court of Justice and69in Israel following Nakba,157–159, 161as Israeli citizens11, 36, 43, 79, 121, 151, 158–159, 170–173, 237–238, 249Israeli motorists and205, 238, 311, 312Israeli state creation and156–161, 165Jewish9, 123, 129land captured from123, 157, 158, 196, 204, 307lobbying efforts to British130as long term residents of Israel/Palestine17, 125under military rule158–159, 165, 170–171, 217, 249, 259Muslim9, 11, 130, 238, 244, 260nationalism and national identity of84, 86, 129, 279, 308national liberation struggle214, 216Occupation andunder Occupationone-state solution and87pacification efforts by Israelis44, 58, 132, 183, 186, 196, 203, 213partitioning of land and135peace process and201–207, 213, 214, 219, 220population ofxviii, xxiii n13prejudice against79, 82in pre-state period129–133, 139proverb of303refugeesPalestinian refugeesrock-throwing by children5, 196safety of285, 287self-determination pursuit by20shared ancestry with Jews17–19Six Day War and164, 170statelessness of84, 86, 207story of, difficulties in sharing5Zionism as disaster for278Zionists and lack of concern for rights of108Palestinian story145Palmach militia265n31PalTel53pan-Arabism130, 155, 162, 165, 178Pappe, Ilanxxi, 28n25, 32n71, 241, 257Paradise Now (film)54particularism280–282, 285Partition Plan (1947)135, 136, 139, 153, 184Patinkin, Mandy215Paul’s story35, 56peace process195–227beyond214–219changing boundaries and138chronology of220, 221Israelis and196–200, 209, 213Palestinians and201–207, 213, 214summary of219superpowers and200, 201tragic spiral207–214United States and188, 198, 200, 205–209, 211, 212Peel Commission Report86, 132, 133, 257Peled, MattixvPeled, MikoxvPeled, YoavxvPeled-Elhanan, NuritxvPeled-Elhanan, Smadarxvpension funds and BDS316Pentagon164Persian Gulf127Peter’s story82petro-politics and petro-power165, 178, 275.oil interestspetty apartheid248PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine)179, 204Philistines16Picot, Francois Georges126PIJ (Palestinian Islamic Jihad)204pine trees planted in Palestine121, 292pink-washing61n49Pitersberg, Gabriel81Plan Dalet (Plan D)136PNC (Palestine National Congress)188Poitier, Sidney110n15Poland85, 108political IslamAmerican race relations and78blacks as superpatriots and81otherness and104, 105pan-Arab unity and130peace process and219politicide259polygamy73polytheism281Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP)179, 204population transfers70, 71, 85, 88n20, 254, 256, 257post-post-Zionism28n21Powell, Colin81Prague, Czech Republic104present absentees157pre-state period in history of Zionism117–143great powers in124–129Palestinians in129–133summary of139tragic spiral134–139Zionists in117–124price tag attacks45Prince, Stephen231protection gap159, 160Proust, Marcel284psychological warfare244Ptolemy65Qalandiya checkpoint195, 309Qalqilya, West Bank209Qatar209Qibya, West Bank155Quakers315Quran, Fadi53Qur’an14R2P (Responsibility to Protect)69Rabat Declaration182–184, 207, 208, 220Rabin, Yitzhak203, 211, 224n45Rabkin, Yakov89n30race.racismapartheid and247, 248blacks as superpatriots81as framework for understanding66, 74–82gender and77history and78invidious nature of distinctions77, 82naming of other and76nationhood compared to84power and77scientific definition of75, 81as social construction76, 82, 248race riots, American197racism.raceanti-Arab78–82, 172Arafat’s comment about struggle against245back-to-Africa movement and106JNF and allegations of122national identity in U.S. and Europe and291“new Jews” and148Palestinians as demographic threat as287settler colonialism and260, 261Sneh’s statement235Zionism and256Ramallah, West Bank36, 145, 205, 206, 209, 238, 259Ras a-Tire (village)205Rashomon effect231Ravitch, Diane280realpolitik,7, 305reasonable inference116Reconstruction, failure of106Red Scare104Reel Bad Arabs (documentary)5reform101–103, 105, 110n11Reformation117refugee campsexpelled Palestinians in10, 11, 138, 157, 159, 160first Intifada and202Holocaust survivors in148massacres in180, 181numbers in11, 31n59PLO in180, 185rationing of water and electricity to248in surrounding countries10, 11, 31n59, 157, 159in West Bank and Gaza10, 11, 31n59, 157Refugee Convention (1951)160, 161Refugee Protocol (1967)160, 161refuseniks52Regev, Miri249regional power strugglesxviii, xx, 200, 201, 234, 236, 237religionethnocentrism and281, 282human rights and68nationalism and85resistance as a tool for change314Resolution 1819, 70, 86, 135, 153, 177, 308Resolution 19470Resolution 24270, 176–178, 183Resolution 338211Responsibility to Protect (R2P)69Ricardo, David315Rice, Condoleezza81Richard’s story3Rihanna215Riwaq53Road Map213Rodinson, MaximexxiRogan, Eugene32n71Romania237Romanov empire84Rome Statute of ICC218Ronit’s story52Roots (TV mini-series)107Rose, Tricia111n24Royal Commission (1937)115Ruffalo, Mark215Russell Tribunal247, 310Russia.Soviet Unionalliance with Egypt156, 179, 181Cold War and152, 153global economy and78Herzl and119Jewish immigrants from199, 209Jewish immigrants returning to104Occupation and resistance and178peace process and208recognition of Israel154Six Day War and163, 164Sykes-Picot Agreement and127, 128WWI and119, 120Al Ruwwad Children’s Dance Theater55al Sabawi, Khaled55Sabeel241Sabra,148Sabra refugee camp massacre180, 181, 185, 288Sadat, Anwar183, 184, 270n120safety, promise of284–289Said, Edward214, 217Said-Foqahaa, Nader169, 170, 189n3Saleh, Mohsen31n47Samaritans14, 30n43, 59, 63n75Samuel, Herbert119“Saturday Night Massacre,” 181Saudi Arabiaarmy of137disinterest in Palestinian plightxixoil interests and154regional power struggles andxviii, xx, 234, 311unrest in201Sea of Galilee270n120secessionist movements84secularism85securitization294, 295Segev, Tomxxi, 18, 32n71, 107, 148, 284self-defense244, 287.Israeli self-defense, as frameworkseparation barrier, Israeliaround homes50attempts to breach251containment and46ICJ on205, 287listening to people affected by309national security as rationale for204, 233Palestinian labor exclusion and250protests and53, 238suicide bombings and204separation of church and state105, 153September 11 terrorist attacks.9/11 terrorist attacksservice work as a tool for change314settler colonialism, xxi252–263, 270n117, 306.ethnic cleansing/sociocideShafir, GershonxxiShaftsbury, Earl of295n4Shahian, Abdel Aziz33n84Shah of Iran184, 201, 208Shakespeare, William100Shamir, Yitzak252Shamir, Yoav235Shapira, Anita31n61, 134Shapira, Yonatan75, 303Sharon, Arielelection of212massacre in Qibya and155pacification of West Bank and185refugee camp massacres and181second Intifada and205settlement building and175siege of Gaza and206, 207war on Arab terror and81, 206Shatila refugee camp massacre180, 181, 185, 288Shavit, Ari134, 140n6, 235, 236, 279, 280Sheikh, Fazal291Sheikh Jerrah, East Jerusalem50, 58Shepherd, Matthew277Sherman, Matt74Shlaim, Avi32n71, 133Shula Aloni’s story246Siegman, Henry202, 287Sierra Leone106Simon Wiesenthal Center80Sinai Peninsula175, 177, 181, 183, 184, 270n120Six Day War (1967)as “defensive war,” 162163expulsions and170, 257Israeli control of historic Palestine and11, 19, 58, 126, 164, 165, 170–176New Historians andxxiPalestinian story from145situation leading to161, 162, 165as war of choice174slap heard ‘round the world246slavery5, 77, 99, 101, 106, 107, 274Slovak Republic84slow genocide241Smith, Adam315Smith, Charles D.179Sneh, Ephraim235, 299n52socialism102, 103, 118, 134, 147social media, positive effects of293sociocide, as termxvi, 254, 258, 259, 262, 310ethnic cleansing/sociocideSomoza, Anastasio239Soros, George108South Africa, apartheid system in15, 58, 200, 245–252, 263, 274, 306Soviet Union.RussiaCold War and152, 153, 155, 199collapse of80, 188, 199invasion of Hungary156, 164Jews from123Occupation and resistance and176Yom Kippur War and181spaciocide259Spain84, 85, 208, 316sperm smuggling312Spielberg, Steven105Spinoza, Baruch98, 284starvation243, 256state-sponsored violence293State Stamp Law (1949)173Stephens, Bret21Straights of Tiran162, 183Straw, Jack128Streisand, Barbara105The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Kuhn)173Sudan201Suez Canal127, 156, 162, 183, 236Suez Crisis, xvi149, 156suicide bombings72, 204, 205, 250summer circus camp54sumud,51Sunni states311superpatriots, blacks as81superpowersin ancient Israel/Palestine15, 16as collective actor in conflict13, 15, 16in decolonization era152–156, 165Occupation and resistance and176–78, 189peace process and200, 201, 219in pre-state period124–129, 139recent domination in Palestine16, 20two-state solution and198suppression44Sykes, Mark126Sykes-Picot agreement119, 126–128, 130, 139Syria.ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria)agricultural sector damage131Arab Jews in149army invasion of Israel137civil war in237current185in decolonization era154–156desertification and292destruction inxxEgypt’s rivalry with161Fatah support by161, 163Madrid Conference and208, 209Palestine imagined as province of130peace deal offered to Israel270n120refugee camps in10, 11, 157, 159refugees from237Six Day War and162–164support of Palestinian factions by179United Arab Republic and156unrest in201Yom Kippur War and181, 183Tabar, Linda270n117Taba Talks (2001)67, 211, 212, 221Tacitus195Tahrir Square293Tamimi, Ahed50, 249, 256Tamimi, Bassem273, 288Tamimi, Bilal and Manal49Tamimi, Mostafa49Tanzimat land reforms125, 126, 139Taybeh Beer Brewery53Teach for America79tear gas canisters311Tel Aviv, Israel55, 148, 314Ten Point Program192n76terrorism252, 286Tessler, Mark26Thant, U163Thrall, Nathan270n120three-family story253Three No’s of Khartoum23, 177Thucydides169TIAA-CREF316torture243, 244Transjordan option25, 33n85, 137tribalism282, 285Truman, Harry153, 154Truman Doctrine153Trump, Donaldanti-Semites and108dismantling of affirmative action programs99disregard of international law byxviii, xx, 221Israeli over-reaching andxixrace relations and78trade war with China and292U.S. Embassy to Jerusalem by221, 286, 311white supremacist demonstrators and22Tulkarem, West Bank209, 312TunisiaArab Spring in201Madrid Conference and209Palestinian Diaspora in86, 138PLO and181, 185, 187–189, 202, 203TurkeyArab Jews in149Gaza flotillas124, 184, 218, 219, 227n98“iron wall” and184Israeli alliance with155, 184population transfers and85regional power struggles andxx, 201, 234revised Hamas charter and23Turks.Ottoman EmpireTutu, Desmond3, 12, 245, 24724 (TV show)81two-state solutionalternatives to93n98apartheid and247failure of57, 58first Intifada and187, 188great powers and198Green Line and11, 24human rights standards and12Israeli settlements and175, 176Khartoum Declaration and220land division and56national liberation struggle and214, 217origins and resurfacing of86Rabat Declaration and207, 208Resolution 181 and308unpopularity of317UAR (United Arab Republic)156, 162UDHR (Universal Declaration of Human Rights)67–68Uganda118Ukraine85, 124Ulpan plan123Ulrich’s story240, 241ultra-Orthodox Jews103, 108, 134Um al Fahm, Israel253Um Kammal50U.N. Conciliation Commission on Palestine (UNCCP)160, 161UNESCO218, 236U.N. General Assemblyon Fourth Geneva Convention, Article 4971recognition of Palestine as observer state24, 69, 218, 236, 287recognition of PLO as observer entity182Resolution 1819, 70, 86, 135, 153, 177, 308Resolution 19470U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)160, 161U.N. Human Rights Commission/Council80, 236United Arab Emirates86United Arab Republic (UAR)156, 162United Kingdom84, 85.Great BritainUnited Nations.International Court of Justiceboycott movement and236Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD)69at Madrid Conference208Occupation and176–178Palestinian Authority and238, 259partitioning of historic Palestine9, 10, 135, 160, 184protocols for protecting refugees160Six Day War and163Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)67upgrading of Palestine’s status69, 215, 216, 218, 236Zionism and283United StatesAmerican Indians in76, 77anti-Arab, anti-Muslim prejudice in78–81anti-Semites and108Arab world and275, 276Arafat and PLO rejected by188Bill of Rights68, 295climate change and291, 292Cold War and152colonization and decolonization of262, 288democracy vs. Jewishness and57Egypt rejected by156end of slavery in274expulsion of Palestinians and275funding of enemies of enemies238, 239GI Bill of Rights77, 99importance in conflict317, 318invasion of Iraq206, 212Israel as liability to237Israeli-American alliance154, 181, 182, 184, 198, 199, 206, 286Israeli police instructors in295Israelis living in104Israel’s special relationship with130, 131Jewish community in57, 58multiculturalism and261Occupation and resistance and176, 178occupation of Germany173oil interests78, 153, 154Operation Protective Edge and314operations in Israel/Palestine16, 20Pakistani immigrants to77Palestinian Authority and210, 218Palestinian elections and216peace process and188, 198, 200, 205–209, 211, 212, 305race relations in76, 77, 78, 197revised Hamas charter and23Russian Jews and199, 209Six Day War and163, 164Yom Kippur War and181Zionists in280, 283Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)67universalism/universal humanismxxi, 59, 281, 282, 284, 285university campuses, prejudice on79U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)55, 107U.N. Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA)xxiii n14, 28n25, 160, 161U.N. Security Councilon Fourth Geneva Convention, Article 4971Resolution 24270, 176–178, 183, 211Resolution 338211Uris, Leon275U.S. Department of the Interior154Use of Hebrew Date Law (1998)173U.S. Presbyterian Church270n117U.S. State Department45, 164, 175Venezuela78Veolia316Verwoerd, Hendrik245Vietnam, French in288Vietnamese Liberation Front163Vietnam War164, 176vigilantism41, 45, 311village leagues185violenceahistorical presentation of5settler41, 43, 48, 239state-sponsored293used to control Palestinians37, 39, 40, 239voter suppression101, 102, 110n18Wadi al Na’am, Israel54Wadi Rasha (village)205Wailing (Western) Wall in Old City134, 149, 174The Waiting Room (Said-Foqahaa)169, 170Al Walejeh174Wall Street Journal,238Waltz with Bashir (film)288Wannsee Conference243The Wanted 18 (film)187waqf, Islamic9, 22War of Independence10, 110n15, 137–139, 154, 236.Nakba (the Catastrophe)Watergate scandal181water shortages209, 210, 213, 220Waxmann, Rivka and Haim145Weber, Max65, 110n11Weissglass, Dov207, 243Weizman, Eyal291Weizmann, Chaim119, 255, 256“We Killed Jesus, We’re Proud of it” (YouTube video)21welfare172, 197West Bankannexation possibility245, 260, 317containment in46division into areas12, 209, 210, 213, 220efforts to achieve Palestinian state in182, 187, 188efforts to pacify185first Intifada and201, 202flying checkpoints in244“Freedom Rides” in53Israeli bureaucratic domination in40, 43, 44Israeli control of11, 181–183, 185, 196, 207, 210Israeli military courts in159Israeli raid on155Jewish settlements in29n28, 41, 50, 175, 198, 217, 257, 260Jordanian control of10, 137, 138, 155, 156, 177Palestinian Authority and216Palestinian population in11Rabat Declaration and207refugee camps in10, 11, 157Samaritans in14, 30n43, 59, 63n75separation barrier appropriation of land in46, 204two-state solution and188violence against Israelis in238West Beirut, Lebanon180Western Sahara201White Paper (1921)132White Paper (1939)133, 134, 147white supremacist groupsxx, 22Who Profits?37, 55, 314Wilson, Woodrow119witchcraft accusations of Pilgrims104Wolfe, Alan282Wolfe, Patrick252women’s rights61n49, 73, 107, 146, 147World Trade Organization (WTO)78, 233, 234, 293World War I119, 126, 127World War IIGreat Britain and134, 139human rights framework and67reduced to Holocaust81refugees from147Zionism and9, 135World Zionist Organization (WZO)118, 139, 307wrestling team held hostage179WTO (World Trade Organization)78, 233, 234, 293Wye River memorandum211, 221WZO (World Zionist Organization)118, 139, 307Yad La’achim,320n22Yakoub’s story51Yasmine’s story95Yehoshua, A.B.283Yemen78, 149, 150, 201, 292Yesha (Settlement) Council41Yishuv,123, 134, 135, 257Yitzachi, Aryeh145Yom Kippur War (1973)91n63, 181–183, 189, 236, 304Young, Cynthia81Yuri’s story74Yuval’s story303Zangwill, Israel255, 274, 295n4Zeidan, Mohammad171Ziadeh, Rafif54Zionism95–112, 273–301.pre-state period in history of ZionismZionistsanti-Semitism and9, 97, 98, 108, 255, 261, 277back-to-Africa movement compared to107–109claim to ownership of Israel/Palestine17, 86, 87, 133, 196as colonization232, 276–280cultural vs. political278ethnic cleansing/sociocide and134, 137, 138, 143n79, 255–262, 274, 276–280European liberalism and89n30fear of assimilation and117, 140n6, 279, 283genocide framework and240, 242global empires and84globalization and289–295history of9, 135, 307, 308Holocaust and9, 97, 134, 135, 148, 275, 278, 290human rights violations and8inversion of104“iron wall” strategy and184Israeli-Palestinian conflict and13–17, 97, 98Jewish critics of108, 274Jewish homeland vs. Jewish state and8, 55Jewish-Muslim relations prior to13, 14, 30n42as Jewish nationalism308moral untenability of274–276nationalist movement of84, 86and new anti-Semitismxix“new Jews” and148, 149origins of117, 273, 285Palestinian nationalism and129, 279parallels to back-to-Africa movement107–109pioneering mentality7, 27n21psychology of134, 135racism and261, 274rejection of280, 281safety and284–289as self-ghettoization280–284settler colonialism and254shared ancestry with Palestinians and18universal vs. particular and282, 285Zionist Commission for Palestine123Zionist Congress, eighth (1907)256Zionist Congress, fifth (1901)120Zionist Congress, first (1897)118, 255Zionist Organization107, 118, 120, 123, 130Zionists.ZionismChristianxx, 15, 108, 109, 274, 295n7expulsion of Palestinians byexpulsion of Palestiniansone-state solution and56Partition Plan and135, 139Peel Commission Report and132in pre-state period117–124, 132, 139“soft,” 278in United States280, 283use of force and19, 31n61Zochrot (Remembrance)37, 55, 312Zonszein, Mairav320n22

Understanding Israel/Palestine

Race, Nation, and Human Rights in the Conflict (Second Edition)

Series:

Table of Contents
Index Card
References
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