Index1848 February Revolution601858 Law on Printing Presses1521864 Press Law3537, 44, 7071, 1521908 Press Boom5, 431908 Revolution1, 3, 37, 42, 46, 59, 94, 114, 144, 147148, 152154, 165, 188190, 194196, 204, 215216, 2192211909 press law56, 73, 7982, 8596, 103104, 108, 113115, 119, 125, 145, 150, 183, 22024th of July43, 64, 67. 1908 Revolution31 March Incident1, 78, 7072, 79, 83, 91, 96, 103, 181, 204207, 213, 219220, 223Abdülaziz27, 7273Abdülhamit i22Abdülhamit ii1, 13, 38, 4142, 61, 66, 72, 104, 116117, 134, 151152, 164, 167, 188, 195196, 204205, 220Abdülmecit27advertising4, 148, 162, 173178Aegean Sea58Agah Efendi32, 53, 169Ahmet Cevdet68, 9798, 102, 106, 108Ahmet Emin [Yalman]129, 155, 197198, 201Ahmet İhsan44, 47, 97, 106, 117118, 148151, 154, 180, 211Ahmet İhsan Matbaası154Ahmet Midhat75Ahmet Muhtar Paşa213Ahmet Rasim9394, 156, 196, 215Ahmet Rıza39, 99100, 209211Ahmet Samim121Akşam6, 176177Albanian56, 205Alemdar68, 122, 157Aleppo5258Ali Cevat76, 181Ali Haydar Midhat77Ali Kemal78, 93, 9798, 101102, 129132, 137139, 175, 222223Ali Suavi37, 62allied censorship6, 116, 124130, 137143, 220allied press125Amalthia25Anadolu Ajansı11, 137, 141142, 147, 220Anatolian press116, 144147, 220Anglo-Palestine Trading Company182Ankara6, 8, 1012, 55, 73, 114116, 127, 130, 134135, 137147, 158, 170, 176178, 180, 182, 217, 220Ankara government73, 116, 140, 143, 147, 170, 178180Anzavur132Arab nationalism53, 61Arab nationalist newspapers62Arabic23, 36, 5658, 6162, 187Armenian1516, 23, 25, 30, 5658, 61, 157, 186army (Ottoman)21, 75, 91Asım Us128131, 136, 149, 154audience of the press185190average circulations26, 160Aydin61Azad178background of publishing permit applicants5354Bahattin Şakir64Balkan League2, 213banning of publications60, 9091, 120, 142144Birinci Meşrutiyet (First Constitutional Period)38blackmail90, 183, 222. censoring techniquesBlacque, Alexandre1920Boşboğaz67, 75Bosnia-Herzegovina1Boston News-Letter18, 26boycotts214217bribery121, 180182, 222censoring techniquesBritish embassy97, 125, 182Bucharest30Bulgaria12, 213Bulgarian25, 56Bursa142business model for Ottoman press68Büyük Millet Meclisi (Grand National Assembly)3, 1112, 55, 114, 131, 136, 140, 143, 146147Canin106108capital6, 84, 150151, 154155, 175, 183, 221Carolus, Johann17causes for press boom5970Cem108, 121Cemal Paşa2, 180censoring techniques121censorship6, 10, 38, 6062, 70, 73, 80, 87, 92, 116129, 134, 137140, 143147, 172, 183184, 219221. allied -, censorship of -, military -, preventive -, punitive -census5658Central Powers2Ceride-i Havadis2528, 30, 3234, 42, 70Ceride-i Ticaret36, 188Çerkes Ethem132Ceza Kanunu (Penal Code)35Churchill, William25Cidal183Cingöz149150circulations6, 17, 27, 34, 43, 54, 113, 144146, 157161, 166167, 174176, 185, 198202, 216, 220222coffee shops24, 200201. kıraathaneCommittee of Union and Progress1, 63, 121, 129cupcompetition68, 148, 166169, 183, 191, 195constitution1, 4, 37, 4243, 62, 7275, 77, 88, 91, 94, 96, 103, 116120, 122, 125, 149, 206constitutional revolution6, 73, 116, 167. 1908 Revolution)Le Constitutionnel23control over the press3941, 60, 66, 111, 122, 217controlling information121co-readership200. coffee shops and kıraathanecorrespondents28, 158. journalistscosts of publishing149155counter-revolution1, 211, 213coup d’état38, 220criticism of the state3334, 42, 66, 77, 8486, 121Cumhuriyet10, 127, 155, 158cup12, 56, 39, 6364, 68, 7778, 9294, 9798, 102106, 111, 115, 121122, 129132, 143, 152, 172, 180, 206, 211, 219, 223Dahiliye Nezareti (Ministry of the Interior)118120, 175Damascus61Dar al-Tibaʿa al-ʿAmira (State Printing House)1516declaration of intent82, 111defamation7576. libeldemand64, 68, 154, 164167, 195. rağbetDerviş Vahdeti64, 97, 101102, 121, 181, 209diversification in readership197Diyarbekir52, 142Diyojen61, 188Dumlupınar (Battle)138Dutch embassy77, 123, 205Düyun-i Umumiye (Public Debt Administration)161, 180Ebüziyya Tevfik62, 151lʾÉcho de lʾOrient25Edebiyat-ı Cedide (Modern Literature)215Edep Ya Hu!61Edirne30, 56, 142editor-in-chief (başmuharrir)156Edwards, M.25effects of press boom6670Egypt14, 16, 19, 22, 157elections6364England22, 25, 182, 189English23, 56Enver Paşa12, 129, 220Erzurum Kongresi (Congress of Erzurum)131Evkaf-ı Hümayun175executive director (müdür-i mesul)8082, 114fabricated news75, 90Falih Rıfkı Atay58, 146, 215Fedakaran-ı Millet Cemiyeti (Devotees of the People Society)64feminism215217Ferda143, 176Fertile Crescent58feuilleton33Le Figaro23Filos ton Neon15, 25financial independence32fines35, 85, 8990, 93, 113. government penaltiesFirst Balkan War2, 213214First Constitutional Period38first Ottoman newspaper13, 19, 37. Takvim-i VekayiFirst World War12, 6, 58, 113, 116, 122124, 155156, 160163, 169, 172, 175, 181183, 189, 220222foreign advertisers176178forgotten press36France2122, 2728, 35, 46, 60, 9193, 151, 162, 178French2023, 25, 30, 97, 171, 182, 186, 196197freedom of speech73freedom of the press67, 7377, 84, 87, 9193, 96, 115, 118120, 123124, 211, 219French Revolution19, 32geographical distribution of press publications4756, 7071, 187188German56, 197German embassy76, 117government control of contents8788government penalties7677, 8990. finesgovernment support for the press3940, 67, 93, 115, 144149, 180184, 188, 220222Great War58. First World WarGreek15, 20, 23, 25, 30, 5658, 61, 141, 157, 186gross district income55growth of Ottoman press2936, 147Gülhane Hatt-ı Şerifi24Gutenberg1415Hakimiyet-i Milliye68, 140146, 177178, 220Hakkı Tarık Us collection9, 44Halaskar Zabıtan (Saviour Officers)2Hamidian press38, 4143, 5960, 6471, 148, 163164, 168, 173Hamidian press barons68, 221Hamidian press regime43, 5960, 65, 7071Harbiye (Military Science, faculty of)31Hareket Ordusu1, 96, 101103, 204Action ArmyHarp Mitingleri (War Rallies)213215Hasan Fehmi120, 194, 206Hasan Tahsin142havadis kağıtları22headlines131, 136137, 191195, 221heating expenses163operational costsHebrew56Hilal153hocas209Hukuk-ı Umumiye64Hür Çocuk166Hürriyet37, 62Hüseyin Cahit [Yalçın]40, 59, 63, 68, 121, 150, 156, 180181, 209211, 217Hüseyin Hilmi Paşa79, 92İbrahim Ferik157, 195İbrahim Müteferrika15İbrahim Paşa15İbrahim Şinasi3133, 3637, 53, 62, 169(Yeni) İkdam3, 68, 39, 67, 93, 97102, 106108, 116, 123124, 129133, 137140, 143, 156157, 167, 172, 182, 195, 222İkinci Meşrutiyet (Second Constitutional Period)43ilave (addition)28illegal publications74illegal censorship120122images89, 89, 104, 132, 185, 193. visual innovationslʾImpartial de Smyrne25Independence97Indianapolis Gazette19individual ownership200201inflation146, 155, 183, 189190ink shortages145İnönü (First Battle)132, 136İnönü (Second Battle)134, 136İnsaniyet64intelligentsia2932, 53, 204al-Iqaz119İrade (decree)8, 158İslam ve Ulum65İsmail Efendi119Istanbul1, 611, 1516, 20, 2325, 2930, 3438, 4447, 5258, 6164, 75, 78, 8284, 93, 96, 101102, 108, 116117, 122129, 132136, 140147, 152158, 161162, 167169, 172, 177, 182, 187189, 196199, 204, 210, 213222Italian56, 178Italy2, 162, 178, 213, 215al-Ittihad al-ʿUthmani53İttihad-ı Muhammedi Fırkası (Mohammedan Union Party)64, 101, 207İttihat ve Terakki64Izhar al-Haqq119Izmir1516, 20, 2425, 29, 36, 5256, 61, 64, 74, 128, 131, 140, 147, 177, 186187, 215, 223İzzet Paşa124Jeune Turc108, 182La Jeune Turquie37Journal des Débats Politiques et Litteraires23journalistic language187journalists1113, 2831, 3741, 7072, 8487, 92, 116123, 129, 146, 152, 156, 164, 166, 179181. correspondentsjournals34, 69, 169Judaic Colonisation Association182July revolution43, 117. 24th of JulyKadınlara Mahsus Gazete67Kainat166Kalem10, 76, 94, 217218Kamil Paşa2, 76, 79, 9293, 106, 219Karagöz61, 69, 143Kararname-i Ali37, 72, 204Kartal61Kastamonu61, 142katips53Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa14, 2122Kazım Karabekir132, 135136Kemal Bey73kıraathane (reading cafés)34, 188, 200201Konya52, 142Küçük Mecmua128, 146Kurdish56, 58Kuva-ı Milliye2Ladino5, 16, 25, 56Lala65language barriers186language (dominant) of the Ottoman press56libel72, 8586, 89, 104, 115Libya2legislative process of 1909 press law7880Levant Herald156, 173linguistic distribution5659, 186187, 198literacy rates199200, 216. readershipliterary movements31, 215Lowther, Gerard108Lütfi Fikri82, 108111Mahmut Şevket Paşa12, 96Mahmut ii13, 1924, 27Maliye Nezareti (Ministry of Finance)120malpractice in journalism90, 183Malumat41, 67Manastir61martial law2, 6, 9496, 103104, 108111, 115, 125, 183, 220mass media185Matbaa-ı Amire152, 160Matbaalar Nizamnamesi (Printing Law)35Matbuat İdaresi (Press Regulation Office)4, 55, 75, 79, 83, 88, 92, 109, 123, 145, 158Matbuat Kanunu (Press Law)35Matbuat Müdür-i Umumisi (General Director of the Press)144, 157Matbuat Müdüriyeti (Press Directorate)35, 73, 124128, 145, 155Matbuat Müdürlüğü,Matbuat MüdüriyetiMatbuat ve İstihbarat Müdüriyeti (Press Regulation and Intelligence Office)12, 145146Matbuat-ı Dahiliye İdaresi (Domestic Press Regulation Office)83Mecca52Mechveret62Meclis-i Ayan (Senate)1, 80, 124, 160Meclis-i Maarif (Education Council)32Meclis-i Mebusan (Chamber of Deputies)1, 12, 63, 7988, 94, 99, 108, 160, 205, 210, 219Meclis-i Mebusan Matbuat Encümeni (Press Law Committee)7990, 94Meclis-i Vükela (Cabinet)79, 113mecmua (journal)34Mecmua-ı Fünun188Mehmet Akif [Ersoy]69Mehmet (Baba) Tahir40, 6568, 163Mehmet V Reşat1mektepli (formally educated officers)208209Memduh Paşa73Menzil (station)18Merih109111Meşveret39, 62Mevlanazade Rıfat97middle class53Midhat Paşa77Mihran40, 65, 68military censorship118119, 122124military rank titles135136Mizancı Murat78, 121mise en page221Mizan46, 67, 78Le Moniteur Ottoman2023monolingual publishing58Morning Herald25Mudanya peace talks140Mudros peace treaty2Muhbir3738, 67Muhbir (Musavver)62Muhit (Musavver)65Muhittin [Birgen]144Mukaddeme2224Mülkiye (Political Science, faculty of)31multi-column layouts193194. visual innovationsMüşir (Marshall)136Mustafa iv21Mustafa Kemal Paşa [Atatürk]23, 130136, 141142, 147mutiny1, 72, 96102, 205, 208211, 215names of publications62Namık Kemal31, 37, 53, 62Napoleon16Napoleon iii60Nationalist Forces2, 8, 129, 131136, 139, 143. Kuva-ı MilliyeNationalist Movement58, 130132, 139140, 147, 176177, 220nationalistic publications61Nazım Paşa99100, 210211Necat-ı Millet47Neologos173Nevrah109111New York27, 162, 175176, 189190, 199The New York Times27, 162, 199newsletters (handwritten)1719non-turcophones58. non-Turkish Ottoman pressnon-Turkish Ottoman press53official organ8, 2028, 152operational costs6, 155157, 160163, 183opinion press13, 22, 28, 3233, 35, 4142, 7071, 187opportunism as a press boom cause6465Osmanlı Ahrar Fırkası63Ottoman embassies21Ottoman Turkish press53Ottomanism58Ottoman-Russian war38palace subsidies6768pan-Islamic ideas38Papağan103104paper shortages144145, 162163, 172, 189Paris32, 39, 6062, 92, 119, 162parliamentary rule38, 62party journalism70penny press2728, 70, 189190Persian23, 56, 187Peter I19Peyam-ı Sabah68, 129139, 142144, 157, 175177, 222photo reportages40pirate press36political debates7778political opinions22, 70, 187political pamphleteers22political party organs6264political polemics70, 78political publications61political sponsorship2728popularization6, 185191, 197198Posta Nazırı (Administrator of the Post)32Posta ve Telgraf Nezareti (Postal and Telegraph Ministry)117118postal networks1719, 187post-Hamidian press67, 70prayer to God221press boom4, 4247, 5356, 5961, 6471, 74, 151154, 158, 165167, 183, 190191, 198, 216221press crash6869press freedom7779press regime41, 59, 68, 79press-culture55press-in-exile3739, 42, 188, 204Presse dʾOrient27preventive censorship6, 13, 38, 92, 116126, 131, 147, 217preventive measures92pricing160161, 163, 167173Prince Sabahattin77print boom46printing licenses84. publishing permitsprinting materials157158printing technology1417private newspapers20, 25, 33profit margins113, 157, 167169, 183, 222propaganda10, 38, 42, 63, 116, 125, 140147, 162164, 175, 183, 215217, 220publishing permits5, 4144, 6465, 7475, 8284, 117, 219221punitive censorship64, 116, 122Rafet Paşa143rağbet (demand)164, 195readership6, 13, 2530, 56, 68, 148, 161, 165171, 174, 183185, 188191, 196202, 221Refik Halit121regime press6870regional news187renaming of suspended publications104111Renin106Resimli Kitap47, 65, 153Resneli Ahmet Niyazi1Rıfat Paşa108right of reply90rights of journalists8487Rıza Paşa99, 150151Romanian56ruhsat4144. publishing permitsRussia16, 19Rüsumat Emaneti (Customs Office)119120Ruzname-i Ceride-i Havadis34Sabah68, 67, 93, 116, 124, 127, 138139, 154157, 167, 173175, 182, 222223Sabah Matbaası154Said Paşa73Şair Evlenmesi33Sakarya (battle)138Salah Cimcoz76Samsun52Sansür Müfettişliği (Censorship Supervisor)122Sansür Talimatı (Censorship Directive)142Sansür Talimatnamesi (Censorship Guideline)122123, 126127satire61, 188satirical magazines10, 3839, 61, 65, 76, 108, 121, 149, 190191, 214satirical publications23, 6061, 121, 188Sebilürreşat69Second Balkan War2Seda-ı Millet121, 179, 183Selim iii21, 24, 31sensationalism70, 90, 198Serbesti97, 120, 206Serbo-Croatian56serialised publications187Servet-i Fünun44, 67, 121, 148, 154, 211Sèvres Treaty23, 137Seyid-i Kürdi101shared reading201. co-readershipsharia98, 101103, 206211Sosyalist Fırkası (Socialist Party)64Le Spectateur Oriental20Spor Alemi166Strasburg17sub-genres188189subscriptions23, 27, 30, 93, 160, 187189, 196197, 201subsidization28, 164Şura-ı Devlet (Council of the State)79, 84, 8788Şura-ı Ümmet39, 64, 98, 101, 121, 211212suspensions35, 61, 72, 82, 89, 103116, 122elitism191, 196tabirat-ı gayrı layıka (improper expressions)76, 85Takvimhane-i Amire26Takvim-i Vekayi78, 13, 16, 1930, 80, 88, 94, 151152, 155161, 169, 173, 186187Talat Paşa2, 125(Yeni) Tanin68, 46, 6364, 69, 93, 97, 101, 104108, 121, 124, 150, 171172, 180183, 211214, 222Tanin-i Bedanin212Tanzimat (reforms)21, 53Tanzimat (title of newspaper)6, 24, 79, 108110, 113Tanzimat Dairesi (Reforms Office)79Tanzimat Edebiyatı (Tanzimat literature)31Tasvir-i Efkar3334, 3738, 62, 169, 174, 187tatar18tax exemptions40, 115, 146, 220tebliğ-i resmi (official notices)128tehdiş-i ezhan (obfuscating minds)103telegraph lines30teminat akçesi (caution money)82, 84, 111114, 147. censoring techniquesTenbihat109111Terakki (Musavver)41, 45Tercüman-ı Ahval3237, 70, 187Tercüman-ı Hakikat8, 143, 157Tercüme Odası (Translations Office)22, 31, 53territorial integrity1, 3Tevfik Fikret46, 64Tevfik Paşa124Theodor Kasap61Thessaloniki52, 56, 61, 64, 74, 101, 117118, 215Third Army Corps103, 118Trablusgarp2Trabzon3, 52, 56, 6162, 142, 155, 215treason97, 142Triploitanian war215Tuhfat al-ʿArab119Turkish Independence War58, 131147Turkish language publications24, 30Turkish Republic23, 7, 43, 66, 69, 117, 157, 163, 177, 183Turkish-Greek war133141, 177178Turkish-language private press72Turkism58Tweed, William175ulak18United States13, 1719, 2728, 162, 189190Vakit6, 127133, 136140, 143, 155, 163, 173, 176177Varna30Vatan (fatherland)62Vatan yahut Silistre62Vekayi-i Giridiye14, 22Vekayi-i Mısriye14, 16, 22Venice18Venizelos137violence against the press121, 209213visual innovations191197Volkan68, 64, 72, 91, 9798, 101, 121, 181, 204213, 222vulgarization196. sensationalismwages of press staff155157, 161, 163, 169Wilhelm ii76Yeni Gazete144, 175, 183Yeni Gün143144Yakup Kadri [Karaosmanoğlu]123, 146Yirmisekizzade Mehmet Said15Young Ottomans37, 42, 62, 204Young Turks1, 63, 73, 204Yunus Nadi143, 175Zekeriya Sertel59, 155Zeki Bey121zem ve kadh8586. libelZionist ideals182Zühre109111Zuhuri61