Free access
General Index

This index lists names and terms cited in the narrative, quotes, footnotes, Appendix of Orations, and glossaries of the present volume; it flags pervasive terms as “passim.” The prompt “oration-texts” indicates side-by-side text-translations of oration sections in the volume. The prompt “analysis of full oration by” refers to chapter-segments containing the text-translation-analysis of a full, illustrative oration. Additional listings of all “citations and 1–2 line quotes of his orations in this volume” are provided for Muḥammad and ʿAlī, who are copiously cited in the volume; for other orators’ further citations, see index provided in Appendix of Orations.

ʿAbbās ibn ʿAlī217, 226Abbasid(s)7, 11, 12, 14, 15, 28, 28n15, 31, 40, 42, 45, 50, 79, 86, 98, 117, 137n191, 144, 149, 170, 182, 184, 190, 191, 191n103, 208, 214, 277, 280, 283, 284, 293, 310, 323n107, 343, 407, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 415, 416n43, 417, 419, 420, 425, 426, 427, 429, 431, 439, 440, 440n18, 460, 460n58, 495, 513, 522, 533, 534, 536, 554, 556, 557, 558ʿAbdallāh ibn al-ʿAbbās oration-texts305, 305–306 miscellaneous re. orations and career68, 73, 82, 84, 127, 144, 150, 178, 179, 180, 190, 210, 215, 284, 294, 295, 313, 319, 337, 486, 489, 552ʿAbdallāh ibn al-Ahtam82, 215, 486, 552ʿAbdallāh ibn ʿAlī135ʿAbdallāh ibn ʿĀmir (or ʿAmr) al-Ḥaḍramī166n4, 180, 549, 552ʿAbdallāh ibn Badīl178, 552ʿAbdallāh ibn ʿIṣām al-Ashʿarī337ʿAbdallāh ibn Jaʿfar al-Ṭayyār74n39, 178, 180, 190, 295, 337, 488, 552ʿAbdallāh ibn Masʿadah al-Fazārī337ʿAbdallāh ibn Masʿūd see Ibn MasʿūdʿAbdallāh ibn Muṭīʿ al-ʿAdawī68, 69, 122, 185, 200, 200n152, 215, 315, 521, 547, 552, 557, 558ʿAbdallāh ibn ʿUmar337ʿAbdallāh ibn Wahb al-Rāsibī180, 552ʿAbdallāh ibn Yaḥyā al-Ibāḍī al-Kindī oration-text377–378 miscellaneous re. orations and career68, 82, 97, 98, 189, 355, 357, 488, 552ʿAbdallāh ibn al-Zubayr (Ibn al-Zubayr) analysis of full oration by87–90 oration-text88–89 miscellaneous re. orations and career74n39, 77n62, 87–90, 120, 121, 123, 132, 135n184, 136, 140, 144, 177, 182, 188, 189, 190, 199, 200, 200n151, 213, 215, 244, 286, 293, 295, 337, 351, 367, 440n18, 487, 488, 489, 513, 527, 552 Zubayrid302, 440n18ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd al-Kātib42, 152, 409, 412, 412n22, 414, 418, 421ʿAbd al-Jabbār al-Muʿtazilī, Qāḍī48, 334n3, 375n10ʿAbd al-Malik ibn al-Muhallab200ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān oration-text352 miscellaneous re. orations and caliphate42, 77, 83, 83n95, 87, 116n97, 130, 131, 135, 137, 138, 140, 164, 182, 193, 199, 244, 258n109, 259n116, 267, 281, 327, 341, 351, 357, 362, 366, 367, 407, 411, 440n18, 488, 513, 552ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim109n63, 170, 171, 237, 392, 399, 490, 552ʿAbd al-Qays tribe199, 558ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III426ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʿAwf77n64, 124, 177, 359, 490, 552ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Dākhil302, 327, 490, 552ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Shurayḥ76n54, 490, 552ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʿUthmān al-Thaqafī337ʿAbd Rabbih al-Ṣaghīr189, 490, 552Abraham (Ar. Ibrāhīm), Prophet/Patriarch4, 170, 262, 379, 455 Abrahamic72, 238, 558abstract concepts, abstractions92, 114, 116, 124, 159, 349Abū ʿĀmir ibn Sharwiyyah414Abū Ayyūb al-Anṣārī178, 553Abū Bakr ibn ʿAbdallāh32, 411, 490, 553Abū Bakr ibn Abī Quḥāfah oration-texts316, 337 miscellaneous re. orations and caliphate11, 31, 51, 67, 74n40, 77, 81, 82, 83, 83n95, 84, 86, 87n116, 109, 112, 113, 118, 120, 121, 129n158, 133n177, 134, 135, 136, 140, 142, 143, 145, 146, 148, 174, 175, 176, 187, 206, 241, 241n55, 267, 281, 293, 294, 295, 324, 336, 336n8, 338, 339, 355, 358, 359, 361, 384, 385, 395, 396, 398, 401, 410, 439, 440, 440n18, 445, 446, 477, 480, 481, 490, 513, 523, 543, 552, 553, 557Abū Dāʾūd ibn Ḥarīz al-Iyādī209Abū Dharr al-Ghifārī80, 145, 177, 492, 553Abū Hamhamah381, 381n23Abū Ḥamzah al-Shārī oration-text362 miscellaneous re. orations and career76, 76n52, 109n59, 146, 163, 189, 234, 254, 264, 321, 356, 357, 358, 361, 439, 492, 553Abū Hāshim375Abū Lahab172, 492, 553Abū l-ʿAlāʾ Sālim42Abū l-Dardāʾ al-Anṣārī oration-text241 miscellaneous re. orations and career68, 80, 177, 264, 492, 553Abū l-Haytham Mālik ibn al-Tīhān119, 324n110, 492, 553Abū l-Sarāyā79, 283, 494, 553Abū Mikhnaf Lūṭ ibn Yaḥyā44n72, 50, 216, 217, 219n235Abū Mūsā l-Ashʿarī oration-text69 miscellaneous re. orations and career71, 74n39, 150, 179, 295, 318n85, 485, 553, 554Abū Muslim al-Khurāsānī191, 492Abū Saʿīd al-Khudrī218Abū Shāh44Abū Sufyān ibn al-Ḥarb, Ṣakhr39n49, 74n44, 77n60, 121, 142, 169, 173, 177, 181, 205, 222, 303, 319, 321, 327, 360, 360n69, 361, 397, 494, 553Abū Ṭālib oration-text379 miscellaneous re. life and orations72, 74, 77n60, 95, 108, 170, 237, 301, 348, 411, 494Abu Tammām8Abū ʿUbaydah ibn al-Jarrāḥ38n49, 176, 177, 244, 312, 317, 319, 359, 494, 525, 553Abū Zaynab ibn ʿAwf179, 553acacia shrub114, 246accession speech121, 145, 166, 175, 182, 190, 281, 333, 334, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 348, 350, 353, 355, 362, 365, 368, 464, 465, 466, 477, 481, 491, 497, 511, 527, 531, 533, 537, 539, 541, 543, 545, 547, 549, 551accountability172, 178, 239Achilles25acoustic/al23, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 100, 101, 103, 104, 155, 156, 158, 163ʿĀd tribe241adab427, 562adab al-kātib see kātib: scribe’s cultureAdam (Ar. Ādam), Prophet, son of77, 97, 104, 106, 107, 109, 246, 253adhān, call to prayer202, 202n157 muezzin276ʿAdī ibn Ḥātim179, 525, 553administration, administrative1, 12, 41, 42, 42n65, 60, 82, 104, 165, 278, 282, 365, 368, 468aesthetic(s)1, 2, 14, 18, 25, 30, 40, 91, 92, 151, 152, 155, 163, 164, 205, 210, 331, 332, 394, 406, 408, 421, 422, 428, 483age of ignorance see pre-Islamicagonistic/struggle-based verbal production5, 92, 108, 349, 349n36, 396Aḥnaf ibn Qays45, 85, 244n60, 264, 337, 494, 537, 553Ahwaz185, 533, 558ʿĀʾishah bint Abī Bakr oration-text388–390 miscellaneous re. life and orations82, 83, 83n93, 84, 107, 115n94, 148, 150, 151, 180, 295, 383, 384, 388, 388n23, 394, 395, 396, 397, 398, 400, 401, 494, 553ʿĀʾishah bint ʿUthmān384, 398, 401, 496, 553Akkadian36Aktham ibn Ṣayfī76n57, 115n90, 171, 171n18, 265, 440n18, 496, 553Al Heweny, Abu Ishaq446Al-Azhar University/scholars, clerics, and preachers432n1, 436, 437, 437n8, 438, 439, 441, 441n22, 442, 442n23, 443, 444, 445, 447, 479Alexandrian Canon of Ten60ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib analysis of full oration by151–163 oration-texts70, 153–155, 235, 236, 242–244, 248, 251, 253, 255–256, (268–272), 279–280, 299, 300–301, 301, 304–305, 313–314, 314–315, 318, 320–321, 340, 341, 355, 372–373, 373–374, 374 citations and 1–2 line quotes of his orations in this volume24, 34, 74n40, 75, 76n52, 77n66, 82, 83, 84, 87n116, 96, 108, 109n60, 110, 113, 115n90–95, 116n98–111, 118, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124n141, 133, 136, 138, 139n199, 140, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147n229, 150, 151, 152, 173, 178, 193, 195, 196, 201, 211, 214, 229n1, 232, 233, 234, 236, 237, 239n49, 240, 241, 244n59, 247, 249, 250, 251, 254, 258n108–112, 259n118–119, 260n120–125, 261n130–131, 262, 259n113–114, 295, 297, 299, 300, 306, 316, 317n84, 319, 320, 322, 324n109, 325n117–119, 326, 359, 372, 496–509 battles of44n72, 178, 224, 283, 293, 295, 304, 391n26 compilations of his orations44, 48, 50, 51, 59, 152, 231n8, 267, 372, 469, 496n2 curses or rousing against him69, 85–86, 124, 145, 176, 180, 181, 182, 189, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 285, 295, 307, 309, 320, 361, 384, 388, 396, 417n45, 426, 460, 495, 511, 525, 539, 547, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561 epistles of38, 249, 354, 372, 408 lineage from68, 80, 163, 186, 187, 190, 221, 348, 360, 398, 426, 557, 560, 561 mention/praise/memorization of his orations, themes in14, 17, 26, 28, 31, 32, 35, 36, 44, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 67, 68, 71, 72, 78, 135, 152, 168, 178, 179, 198, 231, 246, 267, 277, 280, 294, 295, 298, 318, 321, 354, 355, 374, 375, 376, 396, 409, 410, 411, 412, 414, 422, 432, 439, 440, 448, 449, 475, 476, 484 orations by others supporting or praising him68, 79, 84, 107, 175, 178, 179, 181, 191, 199, 215, 284, 305, 306, 313, 344, 386, 396, 487, 493, 511, 517, 519, 527, 537, 539, 549 succession of/to109, 174, 180, 213, 218, 283, 319, 334–336, 338, 344, 359, 360, 374, 384, 385, 521, 531 supporter/companion/governor/commander/emissary of68, 69, 75, 77, 84, 124, 140, 178, 179, 183, 195, 226, 284, 294, 295, 298, 304, 305, 306, 307, 315, 319, 322, 323n107, 324n110/119, 525, 551, 552, 553, 554, 555, 558, 559, 560, 561ʿAlid(s)85, 111, 146, 188, 190, 365, 440n18, 460, 533, 552, 511, 555 miscellaneous re.4, 11, 39, 177, 203, 357, 379, 448, 450, 453, 469, 480ʿAlī ibn al-Ḥusayn (al-Akbar)140n201, 218, 226ʿAlī ibn al-Ḥusayn (Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn)80, 218n231ʿAlī ibn al-Nuʿmān41ʿAlid(s)111, 145, 188, 190, 365, 440n18, 460, 537Allāhu akbar (God is Great/est), takbīr (glorification phrase)277, 289, 290, 291, 455, 471, 480, 563Allies (Anṣār)76, 136, 143, 172, 177, 179, 183, 320n96, 354, 359, 360, 470, 491, 555alms levy/tax, almsgiving (zakāt)235, 236, 261, 282, 354, 458Amen (āmīn)211, 462America, American, United States, U.S.14, 333n4, 448, 480, 482, 454, 461, 482 American Civil War, Union army312, 331 Native Americans61Āmir (Fatimid imam-caliph)425ʿĀmir ibn Rabīʿah ibn al-Ḥārith370ʿĀmir tribe, ʿĀmirite121, 169, 359, 495, 515ʿĀmir ibn Wāthilah al-Kinānī8, 213, 508, 554ʿĀmir ibn al-Ẓarb al-ʿAdwānī138ʿAmmār ibn Jaʿfar415ʿAmmār ibn Yāsir oration-texts107, 307, 398n43 miscellaneous re. orations and career124, 178, 179, 322, 510, 554ʿAmr ibn al-ʿĀṣ39n51, 44, 45n75, 55, 73n34, 78, 129n158, 142, 150, 177, 179, 180, 212, 266n143, 285, 294, 295, 302, 308, 309, 313, 318n85, 321, 324n109, 326, 487, 510, 527, 554, 557ʿAmr ibn Barrāq al-Hamdānī136, 139, 140ʿAmr ibn Ḥārith al-Makhzūmī405n53ʿAmr ibn Kulthūm74n40, 170, 510, 554ʿAmr ibn Saʿīd ibn al-ʿĀṣ al-Ashdaq183, 195, 211, 337, 510, 554ʿAmr ibn ʿUmays100Amwās plague177anaphora347, 447Anas ibn Mālik218Anatolians308Anbar196, 201, 214, 299, 453, 503Andalusia/n33, 48, 111, 185, 293, 303, 315, 319, 327, 331, 414, 426, 427, 428n91, 539angel(s)86, 147, 218, 223, 248, 306, 371, 470anger92, 196, 215, 251, 298, 317, 387, 395, 404, 405n53 wrath288, 290, 364, 366animal(s)42, 114, 118, 120, 121, 122, 125, 127, 148, 219, 226, 256, 282, 326, 416 beast(s)115, 122 bird(s)107, 115, 117, 126, 148, 202n158, 209, 381, 416Ankara446, 470Anṣār Imam Mahdī (Allies of the Mahdī)/ Anṣar Allāh452, 453ʿAntarah33n31, 140, 322anthology, anthologies, anthologist(s)47, 48, 50, 55, 58, 73, 142, 144, 254, 266, 267, 316, 381n24, 384, 396, 407, 427, 429, 457, 458, 459 compilations35, 44, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 58, 59, 152, 281, 372, 340, 441, 448, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 463, 475Antichrist (Dajjāl)368, 426, 452antiquity, antique24, 37, 53antithesis (ṭibāq, muṭābaqah), antithetical5, 22, 96, 97, 101, 104, 113, 126, 128, 151, 155, 156, 157, 158, 163, 249, 331, 332, 563Aoun, Michel477aphorism, aphoristic259, 260, 262, 290apostasy wars/revolts see revolts: apostasy wars/revoltsapostles61appoint/ment, appointed, appointee(s)77, 78, 82, 134, 137, 150, 166n4, 174, 176, 178, 179, 200, 215, 284, 306, 334, 336, 337, 339, 343, 344, 362, 367, 368, 388, 390, 416, 420, 427, 431, 436, 437, 448, 456, 457, 464, 468, 473, 477, 483, 531, 553, 555, 560apprentice/ship26, 28ʿAqīl ibn Abī Ṭālib190, 503, 554Arab(s) general mentions of9, 12, 16, 30, 42, 49, 55, 146, 175, 194, 205, 331, 400, 426, 434, 447, 477, 558 Renaissance (nahḍah)476 Spring436, 439n14, 455, 477Arabia/n chiefs170 language, society, world, culture, outlook, ethos, life10, 36, 53, 142, 146, 147, 193, 204, 205, 207, 229, 274, 366, 407 pan-Arabian147, 169, 201 Peninsula1, 3, 7, 11, 12, 36, 37, 40, 41, 42, 53, 62, 72, 135, 142, 146, 174, 197, 203, 254, 293, 311, 369, 381, 407, 434, 522, 536, 546 tribe(s)293, 308Arabic passimʿArafāt31, 174, 197, 201, 212, 369, 528Aramaic36, 61, 93, 308Arbitration Post-Ṣiffīn (taḥkīm)136, 150, 179, 180, 295, 315, 487, 495, 501, 517, 553, 554 general169, 171, 192, 193, 206, 381n23, 495, 515, 523, 547archaic15, 16, 58, 59, 148, 162, 366, 396Arendt, Hannah10, 165, 167Aristotle7, 13n26, 60, 61, 430n100, 482army, armies44, 107, 111, 122, 131, 142, 150, 168, 171, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 185, 187, 196, 203, 213, 216, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 227, 270, 294, 296, 297, 303, 304, 307, 308, 310, 313, 314, 315, 319, 322, 323n107, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 393, 396, 405, 407, 451, 454, 493, 519, 533, 535, 551, 555, 558, 559arms, armor, armed86, 87, 185, 187, 189, 123, 137, 196, 225, 292, 293, 304, 312, 313, 318, 331, 342, 404, 525, 537arrow(s)124, 143, 163, 226, 240, 246, 314, 350, 363, 366Asad tribe171, 172, 177, 308, 326, 511, 541, 554, 559Asʿad ibn Zurārah al-Anṣārī49n86, 202ascetic(s) (zāhid, zuhhād), asceticism, renunciation, rejection of worldliness (zuhd)12, 14, 49, 170, 181, 233, 247, 249, 257, 264, 265, 266, 342, 409n10, 552, 553, 555, 562Ashʿath ibn Qays67, 82, 87n116, 133, 179, 214, 304, 315, 503, 510, 551, 554, 555, 561Ashbāḥ sermon36, 373n7, 507Ashdaq see ʿAmr ibn SaʿīdAshtar see Mālik ibn al-Ḥārith al-AshtarʿĀshūrāʾ131, 196, 216, 221, 309, 330, 394n33, 453ʿĀṣim ibn ʿAmr302, 319, 510, 554Aṣmaʿī419assonance see rhymeAtatürk468n72, 469, 472, 473Athens53, 369atonement187ʿAttāb ibn Warqāʾ al-Riyāḥī76n52, 140, 183, 323n107, 510, 515, 554 oration-text321–322ʿAttābī429audience engagement19, 92, 105–114, 158, 164, 330, 394, 396, 430n100, 455 large/public/live/virtual (and various other types of)10, 13, 21, 27, 31, 32, 33, 45, 92, 145, 201–204, 265, 266, 277, 306, 343, 380, 385, 397, 398, 415, 416, 417, 420, 425, 431, 432n1, 435n4, 439, 439n14, 443, 455 miscellaneous features of13, 16, 19, 24, 25, 56, 64, 68, 69, 79, 80, 82, 83, 118, 125, 126, 130, 145, 147, 159, 238, 240, 279, 283, 376, 385, 450 orator-audience dynamics /reception /response2, 6, 7, 11, 18, 19, 65, 71, 76, 85, 89, 90, 91, 96, 97, 98, 108, 117, 119, 129, 134, 135, 138, 139, 142, 143, 145, 148, 149, 151, 155, 156, 162, 163, 165–228, 229, 232, 233, 235, 236, 241, 244, 247, 248, 251, 257, 258, 259, 262, 272, 273, 274, 281, 285, 290, 294, 295, 300, 311, 323, 332, 338, 355, 356, 357, 358, 365, 375, 394, 396, 398, 399, 433, 443, 444, 449, 450, 451, 452, 454, 455, 461, 462, 465, 472, 474, 476, 478, 479, 480, 481, 484 of peers10, 165, 167, 175, 190, 200, 201, 204, 205, 206, 338 vocative/direct address to64, 73, 75, 76, 77, 78, 150, 253, 382, 394, 453, 454auditory, audition94, 100, 155, 195authentic/ity, inauthentic/ity, genuine, historicity2, 9, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 30, 31, 32, 25, 36, 37, 51–62, 63, 72, 223, 273, 328n139, 334, 374, 379, 380, 385authority, authorities, authoritative1, 2, 9–11, 12, 19, 57, 65, 78, 91, 92, 129, 130, 132, 133, 135, 144, 165–228, 235, 273, 275, 285–286, 295, 310, 330, 337, 338, 340, 348, 349, 354, 357, 358, 359, 365, 368, 383, 391, 397–400, 403, 404, 405, 414, 425, 427, 433, 438, 439, 443, 444, 445, 472, 475, 476, 479, 481, 484, 521see also power; God authority/power of; symbol of authorityʿAwf ibn Rabīʿah171, 510, 554Aws tribe558Ayatollah448, 450, 451, 463, 469, 475, 483Ayine472Ayyūb ibn al-Qirriyyah86n108, 554Azd tribe76, 495, 553, 558, 559Azerbaijan179, 510, 550, 561ʿAzrah ibn Qays227Ba’ath party447bad see evilbadīʿ (rhetoric, figures of speech)430, 431, 562Badīʿ al-Zamān al-Hamadhānī110n28, 409n10, 421, 427, 428Badrani, Abdul Munim453–455Baghdad12, 46, 408, 417, 421n65, 422, 522, 534Baghdadi, Abu Bakr477Bajīlah tribe552, 555, 560, 561Bakr tribe300, 555balāghah (rhetoric or eloquence)13n26, 14, 413, 429, 430, 562balance23, 99, 100, 467balsam114, 148, 356bandits/brigands see wolf: wolf-banditsBarelwi456, 457, 459, 461, 463, 480Barzani, Masoud454Basmalah446, 447, 463, 473, 476see also God name ofBasra/n(s)12, 28, 68, 73, 78, 84, 98, 143, 145, 148, 149, 150, 152, 164, 166n4, 179, 183, 184, 190, 198, 200, 202, 216, 277, 284, 295, 302, 304, 305, 309, 316n77, 345, 348, 350, 352, 355, 388, 425, 428, 452, 486, 487, 494, 496, 498, 512, 514, 516, 524, 530, 531, 532, 534, 538, 540, 544, 546, 548, 552, 553, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560battle(s), battlefield(s)1, 11, 12, 32, 44n72, 50, 84, 85n103, 89, 102, 107, 119, 133, 140, 145, 150, 162, 169, 173, 176, 178, 182, 184, 185, 187, 193, 226, 244, 290, 367, 370, 380, 386, 388, 390, 397, 399, 404, 491, 558, 561see also ethics: battle ethics; strategy: battle strategyBattle Days of the Arabs (Ayyām al-ʿArab)9, 412n22, 562battle oration/themes2, 13, 19, 81, 82, 83, 84, 87, 113, 121, 123, 130, 131, 135, 140, 145, 151, 169, 173, 176, 178, 180, 185, 187, 189, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 201, 203, 204, 211, 213, 224, 244, 263, 264, 266, 292–332, 333, 361, 368, 373n7, 395, 396, 397, 401, 407, 414, 473, 519, 525, 531, 535, 541, 562; strategy, 82, 292, 295, 312–315, 330, 332see also Western battle speechesBattle of Badr142, 173, 222, 293, 306, 315n17, 320n96, 391, 392, 528, 529, 559, 560 Basūs293 The Camel50, 67, 69, 71, 75, 77, 83, 84, 107, 142, 150, 151, 152, 178, 179, 180, 253, 279, 293, 295, 304, 309, 384, 388, 396, 398, 400, 495, 497, 499, 511, 517, 519, 523, 539, 553, 555, 559, 561 Dhū Qār169, 293, 300, 498, 514, 515, 555 Ḥarrah77n64, 185, 293, 303, 533, 557 Karbala76, 84, 120, 124, 131, 140n201, 143, 163, 166, 186, 187, 188, 194, 196, 201, 203, 210, 216–227, 293, 294, 295, 310, 311, 318, 323, 324n111, 330, 350, 361, 384, 398, 401, 403, 404, 405, 453, 463, 509, 518, 541, 549, 550, 554, 555, 560, 561 Khaybar293, 320n96, 354, 528, 529 Muʾtah222 Nahāwand293, 540, 559 Nahrawān44, 178, 293, 294, 323, 500, 552, 555, 556, 557, 559, 560, 561 Qādisiyyah177, 293, 302, 303, 307, 319, 324n114, 326, 397, 510, 534 Ṣiffīn44, 50, 67, 70, 71, 74, 85, 124, 127, 128, 133, 136, 140, 178, 179, 180, 193, 195, 201, 224, 293, 294, 295, 297, 298, 300, 301, 303, 305, 306, 307, 309, 313, 314, 315, 316n77, 317n84, 318, 319, 320, 322, 323n107, 324n109–110, 325, 326, 384, 396, 399, 400, 401, 486, 492, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502, 507, 510, 511, 513, 515, 517, 520, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 528, 532, 534, 544, 545, 546, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 560, 561 The Trench173, 205, 222, 293, 495 Uḥud103, 173, 222, 293, 320, 360n69, 370, 390n26, 397, 528, 529 Yamāmah176, 293, 522, 559 Yarmūk176, 277, 201, 266n143, 293, 303, 308, 312, 315, 317, 319, 321, 323n107, 326, 327, 397, 399n45, 494, 510, 522, 523, 524, 525, 554, 559 miscellaneous331 (Antietam), 469 (Dardanelles), 469 (Gallipolli), 302, 491 (Muṣārah), 137 (Niṣār)see also Conquest of MeccaBedouin(s)34, 73, 143, 189, 210, 212, 249, 258n112, 277, 362, 363, 386, 411, 512, 537, 554, 555 oration-text284–285belief, believers see God: belief inBerber327, 328n139, 443, 559Bible, Hebrew Bible8, 24, 27, 29, 42, 60, 95biblical14, 16, 24, 60, 91, 230, 267, 412n25Bīḍah87, 518Bin Laden, Osama454bishop7, 38, 44, 170, 238, 400, 558Bishr ibn Marwān362Bishr ibn Muʿtamir423blade(s)308, 309, 313, 314, 353, 386blessings, and invocation of28, 37, 68, 73, 74, 83, 84, 85–86, 87, 108, 130, 218, 223, 240, 241, 249, 276, 284, 285, 290, 371, 390, 414, 442, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, 455, 459, 460, 462, 463, 470, 471n78, 473, 475, 476, 478, 480ṣalawāt67, 68, 83, 85, 105, 277, 450, 480blood/y, bloodshed69, 117, 120, 172, 180, 185, 219, 221, 222, 298, 304, 317, 318, 346, 348, 352, 357, 363, 364, 365, 367, 392, 393, 399, 401, 557blood vengeance/revenge137, 182, 188, 220, 306, 307, 310, 369, 370, 397blood-wit219, 285, 369see also kinship (blood ties)body language10, 210–215, 222, 226book, people of the143booty12, 102, 175, 302, 303, 320, 329, 330, 354, 386, 393, 404bow, leaning on192–195, 286, 325–326, 381, 382, 400see also sword: sword and bow, leaning onbrigand(s), bandit(s) (ṣuʿlūk, ṣaʿālīk)7n13, 139, 142brothers, brethren69, 76, 121, 134, 171, 261, 307, 313, 318, 362, 386n12, 454, 455, 460, 474 brothers and sisters450Buddha4burial oration see eulogyBūṣīrī443Byzantine(s)41, 52n91, 60, 407, 426, 495, 524, 525, 547Caesaria176, 560Cairo416, 420, 432n1, 437, 438, 442, 444, 447, 479calamity, calamities, calamitous71, 88, 109, 121, 123, 143, 166n2, 231, 269, 270, 299, 309, 386, 390caliph(s) (khalīfah), caliphate, caliphal general mentions of9, 11, 14, 17, 44, 77, 83, 84, 130, 132, 143, 168, 193, 194, 199, 205, 213, 221, 264, 265, 266, 267, 281, 285, 307, 333, 337, 343, 351, 353, 358, 368, 405, 411, 425, 490, 517, 555 Abbasid11, 86, 137n191, 149, 190–191, 214, 277, 285, 343, 409, 410, 411, 416n43, 417, 419, 426, 427, 429, 439, 440, 460, 522, 534, 536, 554, 556, 558 counter-caliph132, 286, 552, 557 Fatimid/Ḥāfiẓi415, 420, 425, 426 four historical Sunni11, 19, 31, 38, 39, 50, 51, 68, 83, 112, 113, 120, 142, 166, 168, 174–182, 206, 211, 214, 244n60, 266, 293, 294, 302, 306, 316, 306, 337, 338, 339, 344, 352, 354, 355, 357, 361, 384, 385, 388, 398, 401, 405, 410, 425, 439, 440, 445, 454, 459, 464, 465, 466, 469, 470, 471n78, 473, 477, 481, 490, 496, 542, 544, 553, 554, 557, 559, 560, 561 God’s Caliph (khalīfat Allāh)181 medieval415, 420, 427 modern477, 481 Spanish Umayyad426 Umayyad42, 44, 50, 51n88, 68, 85, 86, 87, 130, 137, 146, 181–190, 199, 204, 213, 216, 222, 232, 278, 281, 283, 284, 286, 327, 330, 336, 341, 342, 345, 348, 349, 351, 352, 357, 358, 359, 362, 366, 367, 407, 410, 411, 417n45, 439, 440, 487, 524, 538, 546, 548, 552, 556, 558, 559, 560, 561camel(s)24, 32, 49n86, 110, 114, 118, 120–122, 123, 126, 127, 142, 143, 145, 148, 149, 150, 159, 171, 175, 188, 195, 197, 198, 203, 211, 238, 256, 281, 295, 303, 304, 316, 326, 338, 346n31, 350, 354, 363, 364, 366, 369, 370, 386, 387, 388, 392, 395, 396, 399, 400, 411see also Battle of: The Camel; chant: camel-chantcamp173, 176, 199, 216, 217, 334, 524camptowns12canals343canon/ize, canonical1, 16, 20, 60, 91, 482, 483, 484captive, captivity12, 173, 318, 384, 391, 396, 397, 399n44, 402, 405carcass243, 246cassette sermons432cattle112cavalry196, 315censure73, 78, 79, 149, 181, 233, 236, 244, 245, 246, 248, 252, 254, 265, 268, 272, 274, 305, 306, 355, 401, 443Central Asia/n11, 12, 41, 293, 295, 407centralize, centralizing, centralization165, 168, 228, 425, 431, 466ceremonial13n25, 147, 286, 435, 444, 462, 472chain(s) of transmission see isnādchancery (and chancery officials/scribes) general mentions of12, 42, 407, 408, 414, 416, 420, 422, 423, 426, 427, 430, 431, 562 epistle/edicts/letters19, 406, 408, 417, 421, 424, 431 manual17, 31, 47, 49, 94, 97, 98, 100n27, 101, 157, 409–413 style (inshāʾ)421chant(s)450, 451, 452, 455, 461, 476, 479, 480 camel-chant32, 188character79, 231, 240, 292, 304, 305, 390, 458, 478charity70, 235, 236, 261, 282, 354, 385chiasmus98chicks, hatching of (metaphorical)116, 235, 454, 481 partridge chicks308, 326chief(s), chieftain(s)45, 109, 115, 168, 169, 170, 171, 176, 177, 178, 181, 185, 193, 206, 214, 218, 222, 223, 226, 227, 265, 267, 300, 302, 350, 360, 363, 394, 400, 459, 495, 515, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 558, 559, 560children23, 110, 113, 115, 151, 188, 204, 216, 241, 253, 258, 265, 302, 303, 304, 316, 327, 371, 392, 394, 398, 399, 435n4, 453, 457Chinese3, 45, 402n49, 407Christian(s), Christianity general mentions of37, 42, 43, 49, 137, 139, 198, 204, 225, 230, 266, 312, 343, 384, 400, 442, 476, 534, 555, 558 specific aspects of308 (Nestorian); 312 (Reformation); 8, 41 (scriptures)see also bishop; churchchurch(es)38, 198, 312Cicero24, 60citation of oratorical texts (in modern sermons)435, 442, 453 Hadith144–146, 354, 355, 357–358, 435, 441, 460, 461, 469, 472 poetry86, 91, 135–142, 285, 286, 365, 414, 446–447, 460 proverbs91, 142–144 Qurʾan14, 73, 91, 109, 129–135, 257, 259–263, 285, 286, 290, 323–325, 354, 357–358, 395, 414, 460, 469, 472 general mentions19, 22, 24, 92, 129–146, 164, 209, 221, 285, 332, 375, 442, 449, 464civil war162, 283, 293, 312, 331classical Arabic language passim literature and society2, 8, 10, 12, 14, 17, 19, 20, 47, 50, 55, 93, 171, 253, 333, 406, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 442, 444, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 469, 471, 472, 473, 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 483, 484clergy, clerics436, 438, 439, 445, 447, 448, 451, 466, 469, 475, 476, 483climax (literary)102, 117, 156clothes, clothing, garment(s), robe(s)116, 123, 126, 143, 149, 194, 195, 208, 238, 299, 313, 329, 330, 356, 363, 364, 366, 387, 395, 415, 416code(s), (de)coded434, 445, 479–484coercion/coercive, force19, 165, 167–168, 184, 185, 190, 194, 206, 216, 330, 331, 402, 403colonial/ism16, 401, 434, 475n85, 478, 483 postcolonial16, 401commander (or general) general mentions of9, 17, 38, 68, 76, 78, 79, 100, 112, 124, 128, 140, 146, 148, 163, 166, 168, 176, 177, 181, 183, 185, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191, 196, 199, 200, 206, 215, 224, 225, 226, 229, 244, 264, 267, 268, 283, 285, 286, 292, 294, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 302, 303, 304, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 317, 319, 321, 323n107, 324n110–111, 327, 330, 332, 337, 356, 362, 363, 377, 405, 411, 439, 469, 491, 503, 521, 531, 549, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 559, 560, 561 commander of the faithful44, 45, 77, 124, 184, 185, 191, 214, 267, 302, 305, 306, 318, 329, 345, 348, 361, 363, 364, 366, 367, 372commentary, commentaries, commentarial48, 372, 374, 385n10, 430n100, 433, 445, 452, 457, 458, 459, 463, 496n2communication theory6, 16Companion(s) of the Prophet44, 52, 80, 101, 137, 144, 173, 176, 177, 178, 188, 203, 226, 241, 250, 262, 322, 398, 412, 442, 473, 480, 552, 553, 554, 555, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561condolence (taʿziyah)171, 265, 497Confucius4congregation/al11, 103, 263, 277, 286, 435, 456, 460, 462, 471, 477, 478, 479conquest(s) (futūḥ) Andalusia185, 327–332, 329 Egypt553, 554, 559 Iraq50, 519, 553, 555, 556, 558, 560 Mecca44, 102, 196, 293, 320n96, 360n69, 369n2, 399n44, 559 North Africa293, 328n139 Persia554 Syria50, 244, 525, 539, 541, 553, 556, 559 general mentions of12, 41, 42, 46, 47, 50, 60, 176, 204, 206, 293, 295, 302, 321, 353, 497, 545, 547, 560consciousness of God see pietycontext(s), contextualize, contextualization4–7, 9, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 31, 33, 37, 47–50, 53, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68–72, 75, 78–79, 80, 82, 83–84, 88, 89, 90, 106, 108, 113, 119, 121, 129, 133, 139, 143, 146, 148, 151, 162, 165, 167, 175, 191, 193, 195, 222, 244, 247, 251, 252–254, 263, 264, 281, 286, 292–295, 332, 333, 357, 361, 368, 369, 381, 383–385, 471, 473, 476, 482conversion, convert to Islam10, 70, 92, 142, 174, 266, 353, 475, 552, 553, 556, 559Copt(s), Coptic41, 308, 447Cordoba302, 490corrupt/ion, anti-corruption52, 131, 186, 305, 306, 317, 337, 344, 345, 353, 368cosmic, cosmos114, 120, 125–128, 229, 237, 238courage/ous10, 84, 119, 292, 294, 314, 318–321, 323, 326, 328, 330, 378, 403, 404, 405n53court77, 80, 85, 109, 187, 199, 204, 206, 265, 266, 385, 390, 391, 403, 405, 409, 429, 487, 495, 497, 511, 545, 547, 549cousin41, 182, 216, 220, 244n60, 342, 343, 350, 380, 384, 386, 399, 537, 558see also Muḥammad: cousin ofcovenant162, 233, 336cranium(s)80, 119creation (God’s)125, 127, 128, 133, 134, 147, 166, 232, 237, 249, 250, 251, 252, 258, 259, 279, 280, 281, 355, 372, 373, 376, 379see also God: creatorcreativity90, 401Crete53crime(s), criminal(s)1, 82, 98, 174, 184, 223, 227, 236, 345, 346, 347, 351, 369, 370, 417n45Cross, Colonel Edward331Crusade(s)312, 407, 454curriculum17, 409, 413, 414, 433, 436, 437, 438–441, 448–449, 456–457, 464–466, 476curse(s), maledictions general mentions of85, 86, 145, 217, 285, 318, 417n45, 426, 451, 460, 474, 475, 480 Umayyad cursing of ʿAlī85, 86, 181, 211, 285, 426, 460, 495, 517, 555, 559Ḍaḥḥāk ibn Qays al-Fihrī78, 100, 180, 183, 199, 200, 212, 283, 299, 336, 503, 512, 554Dajjāl see AntichristDamascus12, 36, 132, 177, 196n136, 202, 241, 295, 307, 341, 342, 345, 348, 360, 362, 367, 390, 395, 403, 486, 488, 492, 494, 508, 518, 534, 536, 538, 540, 542, 544, 553Dars-e Nizami456, 457Darul Ulum456 (Ashrafiya, Mubarakpur); 458 (Bharuch); 456, 460n59 (Deobandh); 437 (Mohammadiya, Mumbai)date-palm143, 148n233Dāʾūd ibn ʿAlī135, 191, 440n18, 510, 554daughter(s)68, 86, 138, 163, 175, 183, 187, 217, 218, 219, 221, 226, 244, 265, 329, 330, 360, 379, 380, 384, 392, 397, 398, 399, 400, 402, 448, 459, 529, 553, 554, 560, 561 granddaughter163, 384, 398, 399, 403, 448, 560, 561David (Ar. Dāʾūd), Prophet/King74n41, 237, 385n10, 412n25daʿwah437dāʿī238, 437Dayr al-Jamājim185, 515, 555death, mortality (oratorical theme)1, 7, 81, 88, 89, 102, 108, 112, 114, 115, 116, 121, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 131, 132, 147, 151, 153, 154, 155, 158, 159, 160, 162, 169, 172, 187, 189, 210, 211, 213, 226, 227, 229, 232, 234n28, 236, 237–244, 245, 246, 248, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 263, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 278, 279, 280, 284, 287, 292, 296, 298, 300–302, 304, 309, 310, 311, 314, 324, 325, 328, 329, 330, 332, 347, 357, 358, 362, 367, 369, 370, 371, 392, 397, 401–405, 480deception, deceptive, deceive141, 246, 248, 268, 269, 272, 273, 280, 316, 387decree(s) God’s69, 70, 110, 127, 128, 133, 151, 240, 245, 250, 280, 351, 371, 376 rulers’ and jurists’165, 408, 412, 416, 456see also destinydefend, defense (oratorical theme)81, 151, 181, 189, 226, 247, 248, 283, 290, 297, 299, 304, 310, 312, 314, 342, 346, 388, 392, 396, 399, 403democratic, democracy, theorists of18, 433, 446, 482, 483Demosthenes60Deobandh/i456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 463, 474, 480deputy, deputizing11, 166, 173, 185, 188, 199, 277, 284, 350, 515desert92, 114, 116, 120, 126, 201, 216, 229, 308, 342desire(s), base/whimsical, caprice153, 155, 160, 161, 162, 240, 247, 253, 257, 258destiny125, 127, 241, 246see also decree: God’sDeuteronomy61devil117see also SatanDhū Ḥusum213, 301, 518, 551Dhū l-Kalāʿ al-Ḥimyarī108, 109n59, 124, 145, 180, 295, 306, 325, 512, 554dialect(s)147 Ḥijāzī and Tamīmī147 Syriac and Nabatean36dialectic/al375diaspora434, 461, 464, 466Diʿbil449disbursement(s)184, 265, 285, 337, 353disgrace141, 142, 300, 310, 311, 331see also shamedivination, diviner9, 54, 171, 172, 380, 547 dreams380divine12, 35, 40, 57, 72, 92, 128, 129, 133, 135, 163, 168, 171, 174, 191, 205, 231, 273, 286, 312, 329, 330, 374, 425dīwān8, 135, 175, 353, 562Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı (Turkish Presidency of Religious Affairs)464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470doctrine(s)92, 168, 278, 289, 304, 361, 376, 377, 435, 440, 448, 450, 464, 475document(s), documentary36, 38, 43, 45, 58, 59, 354, 407, 419dog(s)122, 322 dog-whistle rhetoric445donkey/mule144dungheap123, 124Durayd ibn al-Ṣimmah136, 138, 139, 140Durrah sermon36, 372, 509eagle114, 126East/ern70, 414 East and West85, 219, 221, 333economic12, 46, 201, 203, 204, 291, 400, 432, 434egalitarian167, 183, 205, 425Egypt/ian11, 12, 40, 41, 42n65, 46, 67, 75, 78, 149, 174, 179, 183, 204, 249, 293, 344, 349, 357, 407, 410, 432n1, 433, 434, 435n4n, 436–447, 456, 457, 462, 463, 471, 473, 475, 479, 480, 481, 483, 501, 553, 554, 556, 557, 559, 560Eid feast/festival, service/prayers13, 49, 85, 195, 198, 431, 424, 436, 455, 471, 480 Hajj Eid (ʿĪd al-Aḍḥā)275, 277, 282, 287n35, 415n39, 521, 523, 529 Ramadan Eid (ʿĪd al-Fiṭr)275, 277, 282, 420, 470, 521, 523 sermon (khuṭbat al-ʿĪd)2, 19, 81, 84, 105, 113, 135, 197, 203, 257, 275–291, 333, 406, 407, 414, 425, 427, 431, 432, 457, 464, 471, 507, 541, 562see also Ghadīr Khumm: Ghadīr EidEl Khoury, Mahbub442elder(s)169, 172, 187, 193, 194, 206, 225, 226, 390n26, 391 old man (Ar. shaykh)127, 194, 304, 316, 317elephants307eloquence, eloquent/ly1, 13, 14, 17, 26, 28, 29, 31, 51, 61, 91, 99, 116n113, 146–151, 152, 161, 162, 163, 164, 167, 171, 174, 207, 208, 215, 231, 238, 267, 268, 333, 359, 365, 384, 396, 405, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 420, 427, 428, 429, 430, 431, 438, 440, 447, 468, 554, 558, 562Emigrants (muhājirūn)76, 136, 177, 183, 354, 360, 388, 396, 459, 470, 555emissary, emissaries119, 179, 186, 187, 216, 224, 350, 426, 521, 525, 533, 551, 556, 557, 559, 561see also messengeremotions, emotional6, 30, 62, 226, 246, 403, 467 emotional response23, 92, 93, 111, 210emphasis, emphatic23, 27, 72, 80, 81, 91, 103, 112, 114, 129, 149, 150, 157, 162, 163, 170, 172, 174, 175, 181, 203, 209, 221, 234, 239, 258, 267, 306, 311, 330, 367, 396, 398, 399, 410, 435n3, 439 preposition(s), structure(s), constructions78, 89, 92, 95, 105, 108–110, 147, 156, 158, 161, 192, 331, 366, 394, 408, 421encyclopedia(s)410, 466, 474endurance300, 318–321, 323, 324, 328, 330enemy, enemies, enmity (oratorical theme)66, 69, 77n65, 82, 83, 84, 85, 122, 125, 132, 134, 135, 176, 184, 185, 186, 196, 211, 213, 236, 255, 285, 288, 290, 295, 298, 299, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 315, 317, 318, 320, 322, 324, 326, 318, 328, 330, 331, 347, 348, 367, 377, 392, 393, 399, 426, 451, 454, 473, 474, 475, 480English (use of language)13, 65, 95, 116n103, 118, 119, 230, 319 contemporary Muslim sermons in English461, 478envy106, 113, 236, 246, 260epic, epic poetry general mentions of4, 6, 25, 26, 29, 35, 60, 91, 92, 105 Balkan25, 91 Greek, Homeric, Iliad, Odyssey, Aeneid4, 6, 18, 25, 35, 53, 105 Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata4 laws of folk narrative24 Mesopotamian epic Gilgamesh4epigraphy, epigraphic evidence7, 36–39, 43, 44, 61epistle(s) (risālah, rasāʾil), epistolary2, 19, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44n70, 74, 98, 100, 105, 152, 181, 183, 186, 187, 222, 224, 249, 265, 266, 354, 358, 359, 372, 406–431, 448, 562 treatise(s) (risālah, rasāʾil)42, 50, 409, 414, 415, 448, 562equal(s), equality, peer(s)10, 165, 167, 175, 177, 190, 200, 201, 204, 205, 206, 333, 338, 405, 465Erdoğan, Recep Tayyip454, 466, 473, 479err/ed, erring, errant (oratorical theme)233, 318, 338, 378, 477 error4, 121, 153, 154, 159, 163, 259, 279, 364, 386establishment190, 446, 448, 449, 450, 479, 481 anti-establishment146, 205, 282, 386, 483ethics, ethical1, 4, 9, 19, 30, 227, 229, 231, 254, 259, 278, 294, 372, 430n100, 431, 433, 435, 438, 456, 468n72, 483, 529 battle ethics292, 295, 296, 316–318, 330, 332eulogy (burial oration)244, 384, 397, 401, 487, 495, 511, 525, 529, 533, 539Euphrates River225Europe/an3, 14, 29, 328, 434, 435n3, 482 European Union, E.U.454evidence, evidentiary11, 15, 24, 29, 36–39, 53, 54, 55, 59, 61, 83, 197n136, 273, 276, 395, 417, 419, 435n3see also epigraphy: epigraphic evidenceevil see good and evileyewitness403, 415exclamation(s)89, 108, 109expansion, expand/ed12, 41, 46, 60, 174, 175, 176, 228, 293 “Shiʿite expansion” (Ar. al-madd al-Shīʿī)445extemporaneity see spontaneityfabrication, fabricate15, 16, 22, 51–52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 63, 419Fadak109, 175, 384, 385, 469, 513Faḍl ibn ʿĪsā208, 554fair/ness339, 355faith7n14, 34, 37, 44, 45, 58, 85n104, 134, 162, 254, 269, 270, 298, 305, 312, 318, 324, 375, 377, 381, 389, 398, 400, 433, 437, 442, 454, 467, 468n73, 469, 470, 475, 476see also commander of the faithful; mother of the faithfulfalse/hood, falsely57, 116, 117, 186, 187, 214, 235, 236, 248, 260, 299, 306, 340see also hope false hope(s)fantasy see takhyīlFaqʿas tribe559Fārābī13n26, 166, 430Farazdaq449fast/ing188, 235, 236, 275, 282, 286n35, 361, 369n2, 442fate(s), fateful107, 115, 141, 246, 248, 300, 346father28, 80, 81, 84, 86, 88, 100, 109, 118, 141, 142, 144, 145, 148, 171, 175, 180, 181, 182, 210, 211, 221, 244, 248, 265, 283, 286, 295, 341, 350, 360, 361, 375, 378, 385, 386, 388, 389, 396, 398, 405n53, 451, 495, 513, 517, 527, 553, 554, 555, 558 father-in-law381n23, 553 foster-father361, 553 grandfather, great grandfather144, 170, 181, 222, 225, 237, 248, 378, 398, 399, 552, 555, 559Fāṭimah al-Zahrāʾ77, 81, 82, 86, 109, 118, 121, 142, 143, 163, 175, 187, 221, 360, 379, 383, 384, 394, 395, 396, 398, 401, 448, 449, 450, 453, 459, 469, 480, 512, 529, 554, 560, 561 oration-text385–388Fatimid(s)170, 276, 407, 412, 415, 416, 420, 423, 425, 426, 427, 445, 454see also caliph/ate: Fatimidfatwa475n85, 479fear/ed, fearsome92, 109, 153, 154, 155, 158, 160, 162, 165, 185, 225, 226, 230, 240, 243, 247, 253, 254, 257, 260, 269, 271, 289, 304, 325, 346, 360, 364, 366, 386, 387see also God-fearing, fear of Godfemale19, 109, 121, 163, 171, 175, 180, 204, 244, 381, 384, 385, 396, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 405, 425, 432n1, 435, 443, 447, 450fifth (khums)302, 354fight/ers, fighting (oratorical theme)82, 87, 102, 107, 109, 111, 119, 132, 140, 142, 145, 169, 170, 173, 176, 179, 180, 185, 187, 188, 189, 190, 204, 211, 213, 214, 261, 283, 290, 292–332, 350, 377, 384, 388, 396, 397, 399, 451, 454, 487, 493, 495, 499, 501, 511, 517, 521, 523, 525, 533, 535, 537, 541, 543, 547, 551fire45, 123, 124, 137, 260, 375, 386, 389, 390see also hellfirefiscal policy, financial12, 175, 225, 334, 353–354, 365, 368, 372, 543 Fiscal Rescript of ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz354flesh-witness403, 404, 405see also eyewitnessfolk tales60forbearance34, 234, 236, 260, 263, 319, 377, 458forebear(s)1, 57, 204, 211, 249, 391, 412 pious forebears73, 256see also Muḥammad: forebearsforensic speech369, 385forgiveness/pardon from God (oratorical theme)37, 64, 66, 68, 82, 83, 84, 89, 90, 105, 109, 160, 177, 231, 250, 263, 279, 285, 287, 297, 323, 337, 345, 353, 357, 367, 371, 377, 378, 394, 452, 455, 461, 471, 474, 478, 545formal language/speech9, 13, 55, 92, 146–149, 161, 164, 176, 206, 358, 382, 396, 400, 433, 471formula/e, formulaic2, 6, 19, 22, 25, 26, 52, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 80, 82–83, 84, 87, 89, 90, 93, 104–105, 126, 152, 191, 214, 221, 229, 223, 230, 237, 257–259, 263, 265, 273, 277, 278, 289, 290, 291, 376, 378, 379, 398, 412, 420, 435, 436, 441, 442, 443, 445, 446, 449, 450, 451, 452, 454, 455, 456, 459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 467, 470, 471, 473, 474, 476, 478, 479, 480, 484, 563fortitude84, 87, 302, 314, 319, 455fortress(es)327, 328, 371fragment/ary2, 15, 35–36, 44, 64, 72, 87, 90, 152, 322France, French19, 23, 99, 311, 354, 434, 469, 479, 483free/dom (oratorical theme)146, 224, 225, 232, 358, 370, 401, 402 freedmen225, 392, 399 free will12, 264, 342Friday prayer13, 202, 276, 282, 338, 370, 371, 416, 439n14, 451 sermon (khuṭbat al-jumʿah)19, 34, 49, 66, 67, 75, 81, 85, 86, 87, 103, 130, 135, 166n4, 168, 173, 182, 192, 193, 198, 199, 212, 233, 263, 275–291, 338, 367, 407, 413, 415, 416, 425, 426, 427, 432–485, 491, 495, 499, 501, 503, 505, 513, 515, 517, 521, 525, 529, 535, 539, 549, 562fruit(s)127, 149, 219, 222, 269, 316function(s) (of oration)1, 8, 14, 60, 62, 65, 91, 93, 127, 128, 129, 130n163, 134, 162, 183, 193, 203, 292, 296–323, 333, 334–358, 374, 380, 406, 408, 417, 423, 424–427, 431, 432, 437, 442, 456, 462, 464, 467, 475, 476, 483Fustat12, 183, 526, 532, 544Gabriel (Trustworthy Spirit)371Garden of Eden, the garden297, 298, 392, 394, 399 garden (general)246gender17, 75, 201, 203, 383, 385, 391n27, 400, 405, 435n4 neutral396, 397 theory16, 401general see commanderGenesis27Ghaḍbān ibn al-Qabaʿtharā367, 512Ghadīr Khumm174, 198, 201, 202, 203, 334, 420, 530 Eid of Ghadīr420Gharrāʾ sermon36, 373n7, 507Ghazali, Mohammed439ghoul/ish246, 268, 273Ghunaym, Wagdi446Gibraltar, Rock/Strait of327, 538gnomic86, 87, 90goat(s)122, 123God authority (and power, judgment, signs, rule) of87, 89, 114, 128, 184, 191, 214, 263, 268, 273, 288, 289, 290, 291, 308, 357, 373, 376, 377, 388, 392, 394, 395, 501 belief in143, 218, 221, 297, 371 book (and word, speech, revelation) of9, 107, 129, 131, 134, 145, 189, 236, 248, 255, 262, 268, 270, 271, 273, 305, 306, 320, 329, 335, 339, 344, 357, 387, 391, 395, 424, 470 closeness to104, 236, 298, 302, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 327, 371, 404, 470 command of8, 287, 319, 352, 353, 442, 443, 461, 471 creation of86, 128, 133, 166, 232, 237, 251, 252, 279 enemies of176, 290, 367, 393 favors of and gratitude to127, 232, 235, 247, 288, 290, 364, 366, 380 fear of God, God-fearing (taqwā)8, 69, 81, 87, 103, 105, 113, 130, 131, 161, 186, 188, 230, 254, 261, 279, 280, 287, 289, 313, 323, 325, 346, 394, 405, 460 godly, godless186, 189, 231, 237, 278, 299, 344, 404 guidance of57, 133, 134, 180, 191, 214, 236, 279, 320, 324, 345, 374, 380, 398 knowledge, wisdom of32, 34, 125, 298, 341 loved/not loved by, honored/ selected by131, 248, 314, 317, 321, 325, 335, 381, 387, 396, 451 mercy of87, 88, 132, 234, 242, 245, 248, 251, 261, 298, 305, 345, 362, 378, 380, 470 miscellaneous re.27, 31, 37, 65, 87, 88, 89, 113, 119, 124, 134, 147, 175, 177, 181, 183, 187, 191, 213, 224, 226, 246, 248, 254, 261, 283, 290, 301, 312, 327, 329, 339, 351, 354, 360, 364, 366, 393, 397, 452, 453, 459, 479 name of109, 379, 444, 446, 449, 470 oath by89, 104, 108, 110, 120, 143, 144, 145, 146, 182, 183, 184, 185, 188, 210, 212, 214, 218, 219, 220, 221, 225, 245, 255, 282, 300, 301, 303, 304, 307, 308, 309, 328, 330, 335, 339, 340, 344, 346, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 358, 360, 363, 364, 365, 366, 392, 393, 394 obedience to or disobedience of146, 151, 182, 186, 232, 233, 234–235, 239, 240, 256, 258, 272, 274, 281, 287, 289, 290, 301, 320, 321, 337, 338, 345, 356, 357, 477 oneness and unity of (tawḥīd)102, 172, 214, 237, 278, 279, 287, 291, 303, 372–378, 441, 450, 470, 509 path or cause of236, 261, 283, 288, 290, 297, 298, 299, 314, 316, 317, 320n96, 324, 325, 331, 377, 390, 392 praise of (taḥmīd), invocation, glorification18, 28, 35, 37, 64, 65–74, 83, 88, 89, 90, 105, 127, 191, 207, 212, 218, 220, 223, 226, 231, 236, 268, 276, 279, 287, 291, 302, 334, 344, 345, 354, 361, 371, 378, 379, 380, 391, 392, 394, 398, 422, 441, 449, 451, 455, 459, 460, 462, 463, 471, 476, 480 prohibitions or permissions of187, 255, 302, 317, 320, 369, 324, 371, 378 refuge in66, 67, 84, 220, 225, 233, 279, 323, 325, 390, 470 religion and faith of107, 211, 309, 380, 470 remembrance of236, 263, 281, 288, 289, 298, 461 revelation of248, 424 reward or punishment (and warnings, pleasure, promise) of32, 69, 101, 102, 110, 113, 136, 185, 186, 218, 230, 232, 234, 235, 236, 242, 250, 254, 264, 272, 274, 279, 280, 287, 288, 289, 290, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 304, 305, 309, 311, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 331, 357, 371, 377, 391, 392, 402, 438, 455, 459, 470, 480, 481 saving and protection by142, 215, 255, 288, 304, 319, 322, 356, 371, 386 servant(s)/service of88, 106, 108, 123, 131, 220, 232, 233, 245, 252, 261, 279, 280, 282, 298, 387, 460, 470 will of, God-willing42, 87, 89, 90, 107, 127, 166, 176, 191, 244, 284, 285, 298, 309, 312, 322, 325, 329, 348, 360, 450, 462 worship of45, 219, 231see also “Allāhu akbar” God is great!; angels; Basmalah; blessings (invocation); decree; destiny; divine; pagan gods; piety; king: the omnipotent king; prayer; prophets; Muḥammad: God’s messenger; Qurʾan; saints; shahādah; sustenance; (to bear) witness: that there is no god but God; witness: asking God to bear witnessgold and/or silver123, 124, 241, 251, 298, 303, 329, 330, 400, 415Gomaa, Mohamed438, 442, 443good/ness138, 178, 184, 231, 237, 269, 272, 274, 288, 297, 301, 336, 339, 379, 391, 450, 478 good deeds81, 106, 107, 110, 113, 120, 130, 132, 153, 154, 155, 158, 159, 161, 162, 173, 229, 231, 235–233, 232, 235–237, 249, 250, 251, 254, 257, 267, 270, 274, 278, 279, 280, 284, 288, 289, 290, 298, 331, 345, 367, 371, 441 good and evil71, 90, 106, 110, 113, 130, 138, 147, 163, 172, 191, 212, 245, 248, 249, 250, 254, 255, 256, 262, 270, 272, 305, 361, 377, 395, 454Gospels42, 61gossip236government/al general mentions of1, 2, 15, 41, 131, 165, 179, 182, 184, 206, 215, 228, 282, 283, 293, 341, 343, 359, 365, 407, 416, 425, 426, 431, 433, 434, 436, 437, 443, 445, 446–447, 456, 464, 467, 468, 473, 476, 477, 478, 479, 483, 511, 562 anti-government78, 449–455 governance167, 178, 182, 204, 205, 206, 207, 337, 339, 342, 344, 345, 355, 408, 424, 425 governor(s)9, 11, 14, 17, 28, 31, 32, 68, 69, 73, 75, 76, 78, 79, 84, 86, 107, 117, 120, 123, 130, 136, 137, 138, 145, 164, 166, 168, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 190, 194, 195, 198, 199, 200, 206, 208, 211, 212, 213, 215, 216, 232, 233, 235, 249, 264, 265, 277, 278, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 294, 295, 299, 305, 306, 326, 327, 333, 337, 343–353, 354, 357, 358, 359–368, 405, 408, 410, 411, 416n44, 417, 420, 425, 426, 440, 446, 454, 481, 495, 501, 511, 513, 521, 527, 533, 535, 545, 551, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561grammar/ian, grammatical23, 26, 27n11, 29, 45, 58, 72, 100, 106, 108, 110, 134, 146–147, 230, 257, 260, 280, 409, 422n69, 457Granada520grave(s)98, 106, 123, 131, 184, 240, 241, 244, 270, 271, 273, 347Greece, Greek(s)3, 7, 14, 16, 25, 29, 36, 40, 41, 53, 59–62, 93, 167, 171, 192, 207, 310, 311, 329, 330, 369n1, 385, 407, 419, 430, 431, 482see also epics: Greekguide, guidance, guidelines57, 66, 68, 94, 115, 133, 153, 154, 159, 163, 174, 255, 256, 259, 261, 266, 278, 295, 316, 324, 338, 341, 344, 361, 378, 381, 398, 432, 436, 437, 438, 475see also God: guidanceGujarat(i)458, 461, 462, 483Gulf countries454Ḥabīb ibn Muẓāhir140, 219, 226hadith general mentions of9, 12, 15, 16, 26, 28, 30, 32, 40, 43, 45, 47, 48, 49, 52, 56, 57, 59, 60, 62, 129, 142, 144–146, 164, 203, 222, 223, 230, 231, 256n106, 262, 266, 276, 292, 323, 331, 354, 355, 356, 357–358, 394n33, 408, 412n22, 419, 435, 438, 439, 441, 442, 444, 445, 448, 450, 457, 460, 462, 464, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 472, 476, 478, 479, 529, 531, 552, 555, 562 cited hadith texts35, 124, 144–146, 218, 256n106, 365, 356, 358, 439n11, 445, 454, 478n94, 528, 530 “heresy hadith”445, 446, 454, 457, 459, 470, 473, 477, 480see also paradise: “chiefs of the youth of paradise”; Muḥammad; SunnahHaḍramawtic36Ḥafṣah bint ʿUmar384, 394, 397, 398, 401, 512, 554Ḥājib ibn Zurārah512, 554, 560Hajj, pilgrimage, pilgrim(s)11, 72, 80, 113, 173, 227, 237, 275, 282, 283, 444, 467, 478n95, 493, 515, 545 Muḥammad’s last pilgrimage sermon31, 67, 87, 104, 111, 174, 194, 201, 203, 212, 369, 529Ḥajjāj ibn Yūsuf al-Thaqafī analysis of full oration by362–368 oration-texts107, 234, 281, 352–353, 358, 363–364 miscellaneous re. orations and politics31, 39, 55, 78n70, 79, 81, 86, 108, 110, 116, 117, 122, 123, 130, 136, 137, 138, 140, 146, 148, 164, 168, 183, 184, 185, 190, 194, 195, 198, 199, 200, 206, 213, 233, 235n30, 237n38, 240, 241, 244, 258n112, 259n115, 280, 294, 295, 303, 321, 326, 333, 347, 348, 357, 362–368, 408, 410, 411, 440n18, 476, 489, 509, 512–515, 521, 547, 554, 555, 557, 561, 574Ḥajjār ibn Abjar222Ḥākim (Fatimid imam-caliph)415, 420ḥall al-naẓm (turning verse into prose)413Hamami, Sayyid Hasan452, 453ḥamd see God: praise of; taḥmīdHamdān tribe136, 556, 558, 561Ḥamzah ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib186, 218, 221, 360, 390n26, 459, 480Ḥamzah ibn Sinān al-Asadī180, 555Hāniʾ ibn Qubayṣah al-Shaybānī oration by300 miscellaneous re. oration and career169, 514, 555Ḥanẓalah ibn al-Rabīʿ al-Tamīmī39n51, 179, 555Harim ibn Quṭbah ibn Sinān al-Fazārī121, 169, 514, 555Ḥārith ibn Kaʿb44, 514, 555Ḥārith tribe44, 102, 384, 555, 558harmony450Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī oration-text283 miscellaneous re. orations and career68, 76n57, 80, 84, 86, 87n116, 132, 133, 138, 141, 142, 145, 174, 178, 180, 181, 183, 186, 210, 211, 213, 218, 222, 223, 244n60, 294, 295, 315, 319, 323n107, 336, 359, 360, 394n33, 410, 411, 440, 450, 453, 459, 462, 471n78, 480, 487, 516, 527, 554, 555, 557Ḥasan al-Baṣrī oration-texts106–107, 380 miscellaneous re. orations and career51, 77, 97, 104, 109, 113, 124n141, 189, 190, 201, 233, 246, 247n72, 253, 254, 259, 261, 264, 266, 379, 459, 516, 525, 555, 560Hashem, Ahmad Omar442, 443Hāshim ibn ʿAbd Manāf7, 113, 170, 171, 196, 237, 260n120, 261n127, 380, 381, 518, 523, 555Hāshim/ite clan76, 87, 133, 141, 144, 170, 178, 186, 190, 199, 215, 220, 487, 552, 553Hāshim ibn ʿUtbah al-Mirqāl178, 179, 555Hassan, Muhammad445, 446Hawāzin tribe136, 140ḥawzah ʿilmiyyah448Haytham ibn ʿAdī135Ḥayyān ibn Ẓabyān al-Sulamī189, 212, 213, 518, 555, 556Hebrew42n62, 93, 95, 230see also Bible, Hebrew BibleHector25hell/fire, the fire37, 69, 104, 108, 109, 116, 132, 134, 145, 153, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 225, 231, 234, 245, 250, 257, 270, 322, 340, 356, 358, 371, 387, 445, 454, 553Hellenic93hereafter, afterlife35, 81, 101, 104, 106, 110, 113, 114, 115, 130, 147, 151–163, 172, 182, 225, 229, 231, 232, 237, 239, 242, 244–251, 252, 253, 254, 256, 257, 258, 261, 266, 267, 270, 272, 274, 278, 280, 284, 285, 287, 289, 290, 298, 299, 300, 303n31, 320, 321, 324, 327, 336, 355, 367, 371, 387, 404, 427 otherworldly128, 176, 264, 311heresy see hadith: heresy hadithheritage4, 22, 129, 142, 310, 432, 433, 435, 437, 439, 440, 441, 446, 447, 452, 453, 454, 473, 476, 479, 482Herodotus53Hezbollah454, 477Hijri months Dhū l-ḥijjah196 Muharram216, 449, 458, 462, 463 Ramadan236, 275, 282, 287n35, 269n2, 415, 442, 358, 463, 467, 470, 529 Shaʿban458Hilāl ibn al-Muḥassin al-Ṣābī421Hilli, Sayyid Salih448Ḥimṣ130Ḥimyarite139n196, 384Hind bint ʿUtbah360, 397Hindu(s)30Ḥīrah78, 170, 283, 299, 503, 532, 557history passim historian41, 43n68, 50, 52, 54, 85, 316, 414 historical report(s) (khabar, akhbār)12, 26, 28, 43, 45, 62, 408, 562 historiography16, 42, 45, 56Hollywood331homily, homiletic (waʿẓ /mawʿiẓah)13, 14, 49, 140, 176, 266, 321, 416, 424, 487, 498n2, 499, 501, 503, 505, 507, 509, 517, 521, 523, 535, 537, 539, 541, 543, 545, 547, 556, 558, 562, 563honesty243, 339honor/able, dishonor/able death169, 213, 279, 300, 301 miscellaneous mentions re.116, 151, 171, 177, 236, 260, 296, 299, 301, 302, 304, 309, 314, 371, 381, 391, 396, 399hope92, 135, 254, 320, 324, 346 (false)153, 154, 158, 160, 233, 241, 257, 268 long/short247 worldly233, 236, 247, 268horse(s) horseback195–197, 201, 227, 292, 323, 325–326, 330 general mentions re.112, 115, 116, 117, 122, 131, 144, 159, 163, 195, 196, 197, 217, 220, 224, 225, 292, 312, 315 horsemen111, 315, 362 horserace116, 159, 161, 162Ḥubāb ibn al-Mundhir al-Anṣārī76n59, 120, 143, 148, 518, 555Ḥudaybiyyah173Ḥudhayfah ibn al-Yamān178, 518, 555, 558Ḥujr ibn ʿAdī179, 555Ḥujr ibn al-Ḥārith171human(s), human beings3, 4, 7, 9, 23, 24, 30, 63, 77, 80, 81, 91, 93, 106, 107, 121, 123, 125, 128, 137, 146, 147, 229, 231, 237, 240, 244, 246, 248, 253, 254, 259, 264, 273, 274, 292, 311, 355, 403Ḥurqūṣ ibn Zuhayr al-Saʿdī180, 555Ḥurr ibn Yazīd al-Yarbūʿī87, 140, 187, 196, 225, 227, 518, 519, 555al-Ḥurrah al-Malikah425Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī analysis of full oration by216–228 oration-texts217–220, 252, 301–302, 309 miscellaneous re. life, martyrdom, and orations50, 51, 68, 74n40, 79, 80, 82, 86, 87, 104, 111, 115n95, 122n130, 131, 166, 178, 184, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 194, 196, 202, 203, 213, 215, 216–227, 285, 294, 310, 323, 325, 337, 348, 350, 384, 391, 393, 394n33, 397, 398, 399, 404, 405, 417n45, 448, 449, 450, 453, 459, 462, 463, 471n78, 480, 518, 519, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561see also Mosques in: Cairo (Ḥusayn); martyr: Ḥusayn as martyrḤuṣayn al-Numayrī39n51husband109, 175, 180, 384, 385, 386, 398, 401, 533, 557Hyderabad460n59, 463hyena122, 144n216hypocrite(s), hypocrisy (nifāq)79, 106, 124, 176, 181, 190, 211, 214, 233, 236, 262, 305, 348, 360, 363, 365, 367, 387, 389, 390, 395Ibn ʿAbbād al-Rundī420Ibn Abī Burdah ibn Abī Mūsā l-Ashʿarī233, 367Ibn Abī Muʿīṭ see ʿUqbah ibn Abī MuʿīṭIbn al-Ashʿath al-Kindī86n108, 122, 185, 198, 303, 503, 509, 520, 554, 555Ibn al-Ḥanafiyyah, Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥanafiyyah82, 109n62, 187, 188, 244n60, 310, 375, 526, 531, 557Ibn al-Kawwāʾ150Ibn al-Zubayr see ʿAbdallāh ibn al-ZubayrIbn Masʿūd oration-text262–263 miscellaneous re. life555Ibn Muljam (or Muljim)212Ibn Muṭīʿ see ʿAbdallāh ibn MuṭīʿIbn Nubātah al-Khaṭīb8, 413, 414, 420, 422, 428, 469Ibn al-Zubayr see ʿAbdallāh ibn al-ZubayrIbrāhīm ibn al-Ashtar oration-text315 miscellaneous re. orations and career122, 520, 555Ibrāhīm ibn Jabalah423identity10, 57, 139, 165, 169–191, 221, 294, 311, 383–385, 433, 434, 455, 456ideology, ideologies, ideological5n4, 39, 62, 78, 91, 97, 128, 225, 445, 446, 468n72, 473, 477, 483idol(s)109, 172, 306, 386ʿIkrishah bint al-Aṭash178, 295, 384, 396, 399, 520, 556imagery, image(s)7, 8, 19, 22, 26, 27, 33, 35, 54, 63, 91, 92, 102, 114–128, 133, 159, 162, 163, 164, 209, 211, 229, 237, 238, 240, 241, 246, 250, 256, 280, 292, 308, 326, 338, 352, 365, 366, 395, 396, 408, 409, 421, 422, 435, 441, 453, 454, 471, 481imaginary see takhyīlimam(s)17, 31, 57, 107, 168, 187, 188, 189, 221, 225, 276, 307, 310, 335, 341n19, 351, 415, 420, 424, 425, 426, 427, 432, 450, 451, 452, 453, 463, 474, 475, 476, 484, 554, 555, 556, 561 imamate49, 214, 420n56imam-hatip school464, 465, 470, 473imperial, empire2, 12, 13, 41, 10, 169, 182, 184, 293, 303, 408, 416, 417, 424, 425, 454, 465, 466, 471n78, 472improvisation, improvise198, 208, 397, 415, 446see also spontaneityImruʾ al-Qays7n13, 33n31, 123, 138, 139, 140, 171, 365, 511India/n3, 23, 29, 61, 207, 286n35, 401, 429n94, 433, 434, 435n4, 456–463, 464, 471, 473, 474, 480, 481Indonesia/n434influence (of and by oration)2, 8, 19, 36, 51, 91, 147, 165, 167, 169, 175, 198, 406–431, 432–485innovation, innovator24, 69, 72, 90, 202, 339, 345, 347, 445, 454inscription(s)36–37, 39, 40inspire(d), inspiring, inspiration61, 163, 185, 207, 231, 423, 432, 469integrity236, 339Iqbal, Mohammad460Iran, Iranian174, 205, 293, 295, 359, 434, 454, 473, 474–476, 480, 481, 483, 557, 559 Persia/n(s)11, 12, 41, 42, 60, 61, 85, 169, 170, 171n18, 176, 206, 207, 213, 307, 353, 355, 359, 407, 409, 454, 457, 471, 474, 475, 476, 483, 509, 511, 531, 533, 537, 554, 557, 561Iraq/i(s)11, 12, 28, 31, 41, 50, 73, 76, 77, 78, 79, 87, 88, 89, 107, 110, 111, 112, 117, 120, 121, 122, 124, 127, 130, 132, 136, 137, 146, 148, 151, 164, 169, 174, 176, 177, 180, 181, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 194, 196, 204, 213, 216, 222, 233, 277, 286, 293, 295, 301, 303, 304, 306, 307, 308, 309, 311, 326, 327, 337, 345, 348, 349, 351, 352, 355, 358, 359, 361, 362, 363, 365, 366, 367, 384, 408, 420, 423, 425, 433, 447–455, 456, 463, 474, 475, 479, 481, 483, 487, 493, 495, 499, 503, 511, 512, 514, 515, 517, 518, 520, 521, 522, 526, 537, 541, 548, 549, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561see also Baghdad; Basra; KufaİSAM (İslam Araştırmaları Merkezi)466, 468, 469ISIS, Daesh448, 449, 450, 452, 453–455, 477, 481, 483Islam/ic, Muslim(s) passimIslamophobia312Ismāʿīl ibn (Prophet) Ibrāhīm170, 379isnād (chain of transmission)27, 28, 57, 58, 562Israel, Israelite(s)3, 40, 41, 445, 447, 476, 480, 481Istanbul413, 465, 466, 470, 472ʿIyāḍ ibn Mūsā415Jābir ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Anṣārī218Jaʿfar ibn Abī Ṭālib (al-Ṭayyār)218, 222Jaʿfar al-Ḥājib426Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq51, 57, 341n19, 556Jaʿfar ibn Sulaymān284, 285Jamaat-e-Islami Hind457Jamīl135, 139, 140, 286Janab tribe192, 381, 520jarḥ wa-taʿdīl (impugning and validation)57Jarīr ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Bajalī179, 302, 520, 523, 547, 556, 561Jawhar al-Ṣiqillī415Jesus4, 61jewel(s), jeweled101, 241, 415Jews, Jewish37, 38, 41, 42, 93, 173, 204, 225, 343, 374, 375, 384, 386, 389, 445, 473, 474, 480, 481, 515, 534, 535jihad33, 92n3, 120, 123, 173, 189, 235, 236, 283, 290, 298, 299, 312, 316, 319, 320, 324, 325, 326, 337, 396, 477see also battle oration (khuṭbat al-jihād)Jīlānī (or Gīlānī), ʿAbd al-Qādir471jinn, majnūn9, 416jizyah tax343journey/ed, travelers, traveling37, 61, 95, 96, 115, 116, 123, 127, 143, 145, 151, 153, 159, 160, 232, 240, 250, 254, 257, 271, 281, 356, 381, 389n35, 395, 422, 555judge, judgment, judging53, 121, 125, 137, 138, 146, 150, 169, 170, 171, 180, 193, 194, 263, 266n144, 305, 341, 372, 380, 387, 388, 412, 414, 415, 416, 419, 474, 553, 558judgment day220, 225, 258, 272, 323, 325, 358, 399see also God: knowledge, wisdom, judgment ofJudhām tribe185Juhaynah tribe143Jumayḥ ibn Sharīd al-Taghlibī143jurist, jurisprudence, jurisprudential2, 12, 16, 49, 103, 135, 150, 266n144, 276, 277, 286, 291, 320n97, 342, 378, 414, 419, 440, 444, 445, 448, 456, 457, 464, 468, 475just/ice, injust/ice, fair/ness34, 82, 83, 113, 120, 137, 146, 178, 184, 186, 212, 217, 270, 299, 307, 336, 337, 339, 342, 343, 344, 354, 358, 374, 375, 376, 377, 390, 392, 399, 405, 442, 443, 461, 471, 478, 481just war311, 312juxtaposition129, 134, 149–151, 159, 162, 163, 252, 262Kaʿb ibn Luwayy170, 237, 411, 520, 556Kaʿbah7, 74, 80, 95, 121, 170, 173, 196, 237, 377, 519, 521, 529 custodianship of370, 555Kafr el-Sheikh446Kairouan197n136, 426, 477, 478Karbala448, 449, 450, 453, 509, 518see also Battle of: Karbala; Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī; Zaynab bint ʿAlīKarbalai, Abdul Mahdi450Kathīr ibn Shihāb al-Ḥārithī119, 350, 520, 556kātib, kuttāb, scribe(s), scribal19n28, 38, 39, 41, 42, 129, 149, 152, 164, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 418, 420, 423, 429, 430, 431, 562 scribe’s culture (adab al-kātib)409, 412, 562Khadījah bint Khuwaylid41, 72, 74, 181, 379, 495Khaled, Amr443, 444Khālid ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Qaṣrī oration-text351 miscellaneous re. orations and career29, 82, 86, 183, 199, 208, 278, 411, 440n18, 520Khālid ibn Muʿammar al-Shaybānī294, 522Khālid ibn Saʿd38n49, 39n50, 187, 310, 556Khālid ibn Ṣafwān189, 208, 266, 556Khālid ibn al-Walīd144n215, 176, 315, 522, 556Khamenei, Ayatollah475Khan El Khalili438Khansāʾ397, 402, 403Khanthar ibn ʿUbaydah140, 522, 556Khārijites Azraqī78, 87, 184, 200, 268, 297, 302, 324n110, 367, 533, 551, 552, 557, 561 general mentions of12, 17, 68, 76, 77, 97, 127, 131, 133, 134, 146, 150, 163, 179, 180, 185, 186, 189, 190, 200, 206, 212, 213, 214, 229, 237, 253n97, 254, 264, 267, 268, 282, 293, 295, 297, 298, 299, 301, 304, 309, 313, 317, 321, 323, 324n112, 327, 355, 356, 361, 362, 367, 377, 411, 426, 439, 454, 487, 489, 493, 501, 515, 523, 525, 527, 533, 537, 552, 553, 555, 556, 558, 559, 560, 561 Ḥarūriyyah362 Ṣufriyyah189, 203, 303, 549Khazraj tribe77, 390n26, 391, 555, 559Khindif ibn al-Ḥārith al-Thaqafī171Khoei, Ayatollah448Khomeini, Ayatollah475, 483Khurasan45, 112, 185, 191, 297, 310, 323n107, 326, 474, 494, 534, 557, 558, 560khuṭbah (the term)13–14, 24, 30, 44n74, 50, 177n2, 266, 291, 381, 406, 422, 437, 562khaṭīb, khuṭabāʾ (orator, preacher)8, 13, 416, 430n100, 437, 440, 448, 464, 562khaṭābah, khiṭābah (practice of oration)1, 13, 14, 47n83, 429, 430, 464, 562khuṭbah batrāʾ or shawhāʾ (maimed or disfigured oration)73, 130see also accession speech; battle oration (khuṭbat al-jihād); Friday sermon (khuṭbat al-jumʿah); Eid sermon (khuṭbat al-ʿīd); eulogy (burial oration); legislative/legal oration; marriage oration (khuṭbat al-nikāḥ/al-zawāj); pious counsel sermon (khuṭbat al-waʿẓ); political speech (khuṭbah siyāsiyyah); rain-prayer oration (khuṭbat al-istisqāʾ); succession speech; women’s orations; vaunt oration (mufākharah, fakhr, munāfarah)Khuzāʿah tribe126, 170, 171, 294, 280, 519, 522, 552kill/ed, killing: passimsee also murderKinānah tribe554Kindah tribe554, 555kin/ship, blood ties19, 180, 196, 227, 236, 325, 341, 383, 384, 397–400, 402, 404, 405 lineage, genealogy10, 77, 82, 140, 144, 170, 180, 181, 186, 187, 188, 190, 211, 218, 221, 222, 223, 227, 374, 397, 398, 399, 400, 402kināyah (type of figurative expression)116, 118, 122, 562king(s)7n13, 36, 45n76, 74n41, 99, 170, 171, 315, 327, 384, 412n25, 416, 474, 497, 515, 535, 557 omnipotent king (God)78, 89, 101, 110, 250, 371, 470King, Martin Luther333Kisrā (Chosroes), Persian monarch170, 171n18, 359, 454, 513, 533knowledge3, 10, 30, 31, 34, 41, 53, 70, 99, 104, 114, 122, 231, 287, 341, 349n36, 372, 374, 375, 376, 378, 413Kufa/n(s)12, 28, 48, 69, 78, 79, 80, 81, 84, 86, 100, 107, 119, 120, 124, 137, 143, 152, 158, 163, 179, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 190, 193, 194, 195, 196, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 221, 222, 223, 234, 225, 227, 253, 277, 279, 280, 283, 285, 293, 294, 295, 297, 299, 303, 309, 310, 315, 319, 323n107, 325, 326, 327, 333, 343, 344, 347, 350, 360, 361, 362, 364, 365, 367, 384, 398, 405, 425, 451, 454, 486, 488, 490, 494, 495, 498, 500, 502, 504, 506, 508, 509, 510, 512, 514, 515, 516, 517, 519, 520, 521, 524, 526, 527, 530, 532, 534, 536, 538, 540, 544, 546, 548, 550, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561Kumayt74, 233, 449Lakhmid99, 557language register classical passim colloquial/vernacular147, 148, 436, 444, 446, 449, 451, 453, 476, 478, 481 general mentions of8, 146–151, 161, 163, 164, 396, 419, 435, 436, 444, 446 other specific categories of436 (bilingual); 146 (diglossia); 58 (Middle Arabic); 444, 446, 476 (modern standard); 36 (Old Arabic); 147, 161 (poetic koine)see also dialect(s); orallark416Latin13n25, 24, 36, 53, 62, 112, 149, 241, 563law/ful, unlawful, legal, illegal, licit, illicit12, 13, 17, 45, 47, 49, 60, 113, 150, 173, 174, 175, 186, 194, 218, 221, 223, 243, 247, 255, 256, 276n5, 302, 306, 316, 337, 345, 346, 349, 365, 368, 369n2, 371, 377, 380, 403, 404, 412n23, 414, 419, 432, 444, 457, 462, 466, 472see also Shariʿahleader(s) passim leadership1, 10, 12, 77, 166, 167, 169, 170, 174, 175, 180, 183, 187, 188, 227, 228, 282, 294, 313, 315, 320, 333, 358–359, 365, 372, 380, 383, 384, 399, 403, 404, 425, 439see also chief/tain(s)learning passimLebanon434, 454, 473, 474, 476–477, 479, 481, 483lectern/podium436, 447, 449, 451, 453legal schools (Sunni) general mention of276n5, 414 particular schools433, 436, 456, 460, 461, 464, 471n78, 480 (Ḥanafī); 445, 468, 473 (Ḥanbalī); 433 (Mālikī); 49, 414, 433 (Shāfiʿī)legislative/legal oration1, 2, 11, 13, 19, 61, 81, 168, 174, 175, 203, 236, 290, 320n96, 369–372, 382, 543legitimation181, 182n76, 191, 397, 483Leitwort27letters see epistleLevant41lexicography, lexicographer27, 42, 409, 419n50, 430n100licit, illicit see lawful, unlawfullife passim lifespan(s)115, 116, 139, 161, 183, 234n28, 258, 270, 300 lifestyle40, 237, 280, 349n36, 419 lifeworld5, 7, 22, 91, 114, 124, 149, 209, 240, 326, 349, 395light71, 109, 115, 123, 125, 126, 128, 136, 236, 238, 271, 360liminality402Lincoln, Abraham312, 333lineage, genealogy see kinship: lineage, genealogylinen149lion(s)118, 308, 313, 326, 360, 459literacy, illiteracy3, 4, 15, 30, 37, 38n48, 40, 41, 43, 45, 46, 47, 53, 54, 60, 162, 349, 406, 407–408, 432literary criticism16, 17, 19, 47, 49, 407, 427, 429–430, 431liturgy, liturgical38, 264, 281, 380, 432, 436, 456, 461, 464, 474, 476, 481lizard122loan(s)87, 89, 126, 354, 379locust122, 123, 208, 308logical7, 13n26, 55, 61, 92, 126, 163, 409, 412n23, 417, 430, 435, 448, 457Lord, Albert4, 25, 29loyal/ty, disloyal/ty76, 242, 246, 309, 310, 395Lucknow456Luqmān267machine gun435, 477Madāʾin (Ctesiphon)111, 112, 203, 213, 321, 496, 512, 516, 532, 536, 538, 555, 557Madāʾin Ṣāliḥ (Ḥijr)37Madhḥij tribe127, 545, 556, 561madrasa435, 448, 456, 457, 460, 483magical40, 41Maharashtra457, 458Mahdī (Abbasid caliph)149Mahdī, al-Mahdī al-Muntaẓar, messiah188, 452, 480 Anṣār al-Mahdī (Allies of the Mahdī), Mahdi Army (Jaysh al-Mahdī)451, 452, 453 Mahdī Seminary452Mahdia477, 478majālis428, 562majālis al-ḥikmah (assemblies of wisdom)423al-majlis al-Ḥusaynī463Malaysia/n434male10n22, 17, 19, 89, 121, 171, 180, 187, 204, 216, 244, 295, 305, 381, 383, 384, 385, 392, 396, 397–400, 402, 405, 435, 447, 453, 554Mālik ibn Anas45, 80, 163, 176Mālik ibn Dīnār164Mālik ibn al-Ḥārith al-Ashtar77, 124, 128, 133, 178, 179, 188, 195, 294, 298, 301, 313, 315, 325, 440n18, 522, 525, 554, 555, 556, 561Mālik ibn Namaṭ556maledictions see cursesMaʾmūn (Abbasid caliph)11, 277, 410, 411, 429, 439, 440n18, 522, 556Maʾmūn al-Ḥārithī oration-text127 miscellaneous mentions re. preaching79, 126, 170, 237, 238, 264, 440n18, 522, 556Mansoura445, 446Manṣūr (Abbasid caliph)135, 137n191, 191, 214, 215, 285, 343, 411, 416n43, 440n18, 524, 556, 558Manṣūr (Fatimid imam-caliph)420, 426Manṣūr ibn ʿAmmār376manuscript(s)34, 39, 46, 372, 408maqām, maqāmāt (admonishment)14, 189, 208, 265–266, 267, 562Maqāmāt (prose genre)268, 406, 421, 427–429, 431, 562Marrakesh415, 520marriage oration (khuṭbat al-nikāḥ/al-zawāj)19, 33, 72, 82, 369, 378–380, 382, 458, 495, 517, 562martyr/dom44, 47, 88, 89, 213, 221, 222, 263, 280, 321, 378, 384, 391n27, 401, 402, 463, 469, 476, 555, 558 Ḥusayn as martyr80, 186, 188, 213, 301, 302, 555 prince of martyrs (sayyid al-shuhadāʾ)218, 221, 555Marwān ibn al-Ḥakam49n86, 198, 202, 337, 357, 359, 535Marwān ibn al-Muhallab190, 233, 524materialism see worldlinessmathal, pl. amthāl see proverbsMaududi, Abul Ala457mawlā (master)174, 334n3, 335maxim(s)171, 238, 260, 262, 410, 440, 562Māzin tribe268, 560Mecca/n9, 12, 41, 42, 44, 66, 72, 80, 87, 89, 95, 102, 111, 132, 135, 144, 145, 148, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 177, 182, 183, 188, 191, 196, 197, 199, 200, 201, 205, 212, 213, 215, 222, 235, 236, 237, 238, 283, 284, 285, 286, 290, 293, 315, 320, 351, 360, 369n2, 390, 397, 399, 421, 455, 468, 473, 474, 481, 486, 488, 492, 494, 495, 496, 512, 518, 520, 524, 526, 527, 529, 534, 544, 553, 554, 555, 556, 559, 560medieval passimMedina/n(s)12, 32, 38, 40, 41, 49n86, 66, 70, 72, 76, 77, 79, 87, 101, 113, 117, 120, 149, 163, 172, 173, 174, 182, 183, 185, 188, 189, 191, 195, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 204, 211, 254, 275, 277, 278, 280, 285, 286, 290, 291, 293, 294, 295, 303, 316, 336, 337, 338, 347, 355, 357, 359, 361, 362, 366, 390, 398, 416, 445, 459, 473, 474, 481, 486, 488, 489, 490, 492, 493, 494, 496, 510, 512, 518, 519, 520, 522, 524, 526, 528, 530, 532, 534, 538, 540, 542, 544, 546, 548, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561memory general mentions re.4, 29–30, 54, 55, 61, 129, 419, 457, 465, 467 memorize, memorization, memory training4, 15, 21, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 35, 39, 53, 54, 63, 135, 152, 164, 208, 409, 410, 411, 413, 414, 420, 429, 431, 448, 457, 465, 472, 475, 476, 478, 483, 484 memorizer(s) (ḥuffāẓ)28, 562 memory palace (method of loci)24 memory variants33–35, 51 mnemonic, memory device(s), memory systems4–5, 24, 29, 41, 93Mesopotamia/n29, 40metaphorical1, 71, 114, 115–124, 125, 366, 435, 562 metaphor (istiʿārah)116, 117, 118, 120, 121, 122, 159, 160, 162, 235n30, 240, 250, 297, 326, 331, 366, 395, 425, 444, 481, 562 extended metaphor (tamthīl)116, 117, 563meter/ed, metrical5, 6, 7, 8, 25, 26, 32, 35, 54, 93, 95, 99, 100, 105, 140, 276, 418see also rajazmetonymy (type of majāz mursal)4–7, 116, 119, 120, 311, 428, 562Mexican442Middle/Near East/ern3, 12, 17, 40, 62, 432, 433, 435n3, 436, 455see also East/ernMiddle Persian (Pahlavi)41, 42migration, immigration, emigration (hijrah)172, 201, 204, 286, 354, 559militarist, militant189, 445–446, 451, 455, 457, 473, 479, 481, 483military1, 9, 11, 12, 13, 17, 40, 42, 78, 81, 82, 84, 86–87, 89, 146, 168, 169, 171, 175, 176, 179, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 190, 192, 193, 194, 199, 205, 253, 258, 263, 264, 278, 282, 283, 292–332, 333, 337, 347, 349, 355, 361, 367, 368, 401, 424, 431, 432, 433, 445, 450, 453, 462, 476Minā80, 172, 201, 492, 526, 528minbar see pulpitMinistry/Minister of Religious Endowments (Wizārat al-Awqāf)432n1, 436, 437, 438, 442mnemonic see memorymodel sermons16, 26, 67, 164, 410, 414, 419, 420, 421, 422, 434, 439, 457, 458, 461, 462, 464, 466, 474monasteries38monotheist(s)170, 229, 238, 285, 374, 558moral/ity120, 169, 170, 171, 181, 205, 230, 254, 263, 272, 282, 296, 303, 311, 318–321, 332, 467, 469 immorality232, 248, 306, 345, 363, 365, 370, 403, 442morphological94, 97, 99, 100, 101, 155, 562Morsi, Mohamed436, 445Moses, Prophet4, 61, 192, 230, 237, 415mosque (masjid)11, 12, 13n26, 69, 79, 194, 197, 198, 201, 211, 214, 248, 305, 353, 362, 416, 417, 420, 424, 426, 435n4, 436, 437, 443, 444, 445, 446, 457, 460, 462, 464, 465, 466, 469, 471, 472, 473, 474, 477, 478, 484, 560mosques in Cairo415 (Anwar/Ḥākim); 416, 436, 440, 442, 444 (Azhar); 438, 442, 444 (Ḥusayn) Damascus341 (Grand Umayyad) India460, 474 (Deobandh, Rasheed Masjid); 460n60 (Hyderabad, Hibatul Jabbar); 463 (Kanpur, Shiʿa Jama Masjid Juhi Safed Colony); 457 (Mumbai, Minara Masjid); 459 (Mumbai, Phoolwali Masjid Tokra Gali Dongri); 460 (Surat Safai Masjid) Jerusalem474 (Aqsa); 37, 39 (Dome of the Rock) Kufa451 (Grand) Mecca286, 351, 468, 473 (Sacred/Great) Medina197n137, 198, 199, 201, 474 (Grand Mosque of the Prophet Muḥammad) Minā526 (Khayf) Mosul477 (Nuri) Sanaa443 (Ṣāliḥ) Turkey470 (Ankara, Kocatepe); Bursa 470 (Grand); 469 (Diyarbakir, Dicle University); 469 (Edirne, Selimiye); 472 (Istanbul, Bayezit); 465, 468, 471 (Istanbul, Çilehane Üsküdar); 466, 468 (Istanbul, Fatih); 468 (Istanbul, Süleymaniye); 465, 469 (Istanbul, Sultanahmet/Blue); 470 (Istanbul, Sümbül Efendi)mother/hood107, 110, 113, 115, 126, 150, 187, 221, 223, 238, 241, 248, 253, 258, 265, 327, 360, 388n23, 389, 396, 397, 398, 554 grandmother, great grandmother181, 248 mother of the faithful150motif(s)19, 26, 188, 245, 246, 254, 278, 297, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 344, 403, 411motivate, motivation17, 93, 244, 296, 297, 308, 327, 381Muʿādh ibn al-Jabal39, 103, 177, 244, 321, 323, 324n108, 353, 524, 556Muʿādh ibn Juwayn76n53, 189, 295, 524, 556muʿallaqah, muʿallaqāt33, 37n44, 54, 137, 139, 170, 171, 365, 554, 557, 562muʿāraḍah79Muʿāwiyah ibn Abī Sufyān oration-text336 miscellaneous re. orations and caliphate39n49–52, 45n75, 49n86, 51, 67, 73n35, 74, 77, 78, 80, 85, 86, 116, 119, 124, 137, 140, 141, 142, 145, 150, 164, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 190, 193, 196, 197, 199, 200, 202, 206, 210, 211, 214, 215, 216, 277, 281, 283, 286, 294, 295, 299, 304, 305, 306, 307, 313, 314, 315, 318, 319, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 345, 352, 358, 359, 360, 361, 384, 393, 396, 397, 399, 408, 411, 417, 440, 460, 487, 489, 493, 495, 499, 501, 503, 511, 517, 519, 524, 533, 537, 539, 547, 549, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561Muʿāwiyah ibn Yazīd182, 526, 535Mubarak, Hosni436, 437, 438, 446, 447Mubarak, Suzanne435, 447mufti460n60, 466, 467 Mufti Ismail (Turkish: Müftü)466, 467, 468, 469, 472Mughīrah ibn Shuʿbah39n51, 68, 74n41, 137, 183, 360, 526, 533, 557Muḥammad (Prophet) analysis of full oration by286–291 oration-texts66, 67, 231, 239–240, 244–245, 287–289, 316, 320, 334–335, 369–370, 371–372 citations and 1–2 line quotes of his orations in this volume9, 31, 34, 36, 74n40–41, 75n51, 80, 81, 82, 87, 102, 103, 104, 108, 111, 115n90, 133, 134, 148, 151, 172–174, 196, 197, 198, 202, 203, 212, 231n6, 236, 241n56, 256n106, 258n108, 260n127, 261n133, 262, 275, 276, 277, 278, 283, 286n35, 291, 320n96, 399n44, 455, 481, 493, 526–531 mention/praise/memorization of his orations8, 17, 31, 32, 51, 52, 56, 57, 135, 144, 163, 168, 192, 193, 201, 204, 230, 267, 290, 369, 410, 411, 412, 426n86, 432, 439, 440, 441, 445, 459 epistles of38n48, 39, 74n45, 130, 408, 422n72, 562 God’s messenger9, 28, 68, 80, 83, 86, 108, 131, 132, 133, 134, 143, 144, 145, 172, 174, 176, 181, 183, 191, 215, 218, 221, 227, 238, 279, 290, 291, 297, 305, 306, 320, 324, 334, 335, 356, 357–358, 360, 362, 386, 389, 390, 391, 392, 395, 399, 442, 459 life and career of11, 12, 41, 43n67, 44, 58, 71, 72, 74, 77n62, 172–174, 175, 178, 181, 192, 198, 197, 202, 211, 222, 229, 238, 286, 290, 293, 335, 336, 354, 359, 360n69, 374, 377, 379, 385, 386, 389n25, 390–391n26, 395, 397, 399n44, 455, 495, 503, 519, 549, 553, 556, 557, 558, 559 praise of37, 69, 75, 118, 124, 143, 180, 189, 221, 237, 279, 283, 344, 361, 379, 381, 388, 393, 394, 399, 443, 451 relatives of178, 183, 218, 305, 360, 552, 553, 554, 561 (cousin); 68, 80, 81, 132, 133, 180, 187, 189, 190, 216, 218, 221, 227, 384, 392, 393, 394, 398, 399, 400, 410, 442, 450, 452, 453, 473, 480, 554, 555 (descendants /family); 7, 113, 169, 170, 171, 237, 380, 411, 552, 555, 556 (forebears); 77n61, 107, 170, 172, 190, 202, 237, 360, 370, 379, 411, 455, 459, 460, 480, 553 (uncle); 52, 295, 480, 553, 554 (wives) miscellaneous re.4, 70, 131, 427, 452, 556see also blessings: invocation of / ṣalawāt; Companion(s) of the Prophet; God: messenger of; hadith; Hajj: Muḥammad’s last pilgrimage sermon; SunnahMuḥammad ibn al-Ashʿath220n238Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd al-Jabbār414Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr oration-text344–345 miscellaneous re. career and orations179, 249, 501, 526, 557Muḥammad ibn Abī Jahm al-ʿAdawī al-Qurashī78n71Muḥammad al-Bāqir57Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥanafiyyah see Ibn al-ḤanafiyyahMuḥammad ibn Sulaymān280Muḥārib tribe556Muharram see Hijri months: MuharramMuʿizz (Fatimid imam-caliph)415, 420mukhaḍram/ah139, 147, 387, 562Mukhtār al-Thaqafī oration-text69 miscellaneous re. career and orations68, 76n55, 78, 185, 187, 188, 190, 215, 293, 310, 315, 489, 491, 521, 527, 530, 547, 552, 554, 556, 557, 558, 560Mumbai372, 457, 458, 459, 461murder, assassination50, 86, 171, 177, 180, 182, 247, 306, 340, 360, 369, 370, 401, 477, 557Murrah tribe557Mūsā ibn Nuṣayr327Muṣʿab ibn al-Zubayr87, 88, 89, 132, 137, 200, 244, 286, 440n18, 489, 530, 533, 557Musayyab ibn Najabah al-Fazārī82music /theory1, 16, 22, 23, 27, 93n5Muslim(s) passimMuslim Brotherhood439, 445, 446, 483Muslim ibn ʿAqīl119, 194, 216, 220, 222, 224, 350, 556Muslim ibn ʿAwsajah217Muslim ibn ʿUbays185, 302, 532, 557Muslim ibn ʿUqbah77, 185, 303, 532, 557mustard water360Mustawrid ibn ʿUllifah al-Taymī76, 180, 189, 532, 537, 557Muʿtaḍid86, 417Mutalammis137, 139, 140Muṭarrif ibn Mughīrah ibn Shuʿbah68, 532, 557Mutawakkil409Muʿtazilite(s)36, 48, 112, 130, 193, 208, 237, 264, 334, 374, 375, 376, 417, 423, 445, 560Nabatean36Nābighah al-Dhubyānī137, 139, 140, 557Naḍīr tribe445, 481Naḍr ibn Kinānah170Nahd tribe174, 559Nāʾilah bint al-Farāfiṣah244, 384, 394, 397, 398, 401, 532, 557Najaf448, 449, 450, 451, 452Najrān7, 38, 43, 170, 238, 384, 400, 534, 555, 557, 558Namārah text36Napoleon311narrative(s), narrate, narration, narrator4, 6, 9, 16, 21, 24, 25, 26–29, 35, 38, 39, 42, 43, 45, 47, 51, 59, 62, 63, 75, 91, 92n3, 105, 132, 145, 146, 169, 211, 217, 233, 285, 296, 311, 313, 321, 334, 341, 348, 354, 362, 364, 375, 403, 404, 409, 412, 415, 420, 434, 479, 552, 562Naṣr ibn Ḥajjāj141Nasrallah, Hasan476, 479, 483Nasser, Gamal Abdel437, 447nature, natural102, 109, 114–128, 148, 149, 164, 171, 237, 238, 239, 292, 380, 408, 421, 441, 453, 481neck-irons116neural, neuronal, neuroscientists22, 23, 29New Testament61Niditch, Susan4, 6, 27, 29, 40, 41Nigeria434, 473, 478–479Noah (Ar. Nūḥ), prophet217n230noble(s), nobility10, 79, 88, 137, 144, 169, 170, 171, 194, 199, 216, 225, 226, 227, 262, 263, 279, 309, 336, 343, 350, 361, 363, 375, 379, 400, 402, 426, 470, 474, 554, 555, 556, 557normative112, 113, 410, 484North Africa/n12, 41, 199, 204, 293, 295, 327, 328, 407, 489Nukhaylah196, 201Nuʿmān ibn Bashīr179, 183, 285, 503, 532, 535, 557Nuʿmān ibn Mundhir99, 170, 532, 557oath(s)9, 54, 55, 108, 109, 110, 125, 126, 128, 171, 192, 282, 366, 380, 396see also pledge/oath of allegianceObama, Barack92n2, 333obedience, disobedience167n6, 179, 282, 307, 337, 338, 343, 347, 351, 356, 398, 483, 521see also God: obedience or disobedience ofOdysseus25official13, 146, 147, 168, 174, 175, 195, 199, 206, 265, 408, 409, 416, 421, 436, 437, 438, 446, 448, 450, 460, 468, 475see also chancery officialOkasha, Muhammad445Old Testament60Ong, Walter4, 5, 6, 22, 29, 30, 94, 104, 115, 432n1oracle(s), oracular369, 380–382, 383, 537, 549see also soothsayer(s)oral/ity composition/delivery22–26, 29, 65, 129, 207, 208, 257, 417, 423 genre(s)7–9, 30, 53, 129, 265, 408 oral-poetry theory25, 26 oral-written interface19, 406–431, 416–424 orality, oral period, oral culture1, 2–9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 20, 21, 23, 24, 29–31, 35, 36, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 65, 91–164, 192, 228, 240, 265, 267, 332, 383, 394, 407, 408, 421, 552 post-oral409, 413, 416, 416–424 primary22, 60, 91, 114 residue24, 349n36, 406, 418, 419, 435 secondary432 testimony41, 419 theory/studies2, 16, 18, 61, 62, 104, 105, 114, 349 transmission1, 3, 8, 15, 18, 21, 22–24, 25, 26–29, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 40, 43, 45, 48, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 72, 73, 75, 129, 147, 152, 291, 375, 562oration(s), orator, oratory passimorphan(s)282, 328, 331, 338oryx deer115, 171Ottoman38n48, 413, 460, 464, 465, 469, 471, 472, 473Oxus River297pacifist450, 481pagan2, 9, 38, 41, 72, 89, 98, 139, 169, 202, 390, 534, 560 deities/gods41, 72, 109, 311, 454see also polytheistPahlavi language see Middle Persian regime475Pakistan456, 457, 458paper3, 15, 46, 60, 407, 408, 425, 431 paper-making45, 407papyrus, papyri3, 40, 44, 45, 58, 407paradise miscellaneous mentions of94, 108, 123, 185, 235, 248, 255, 256, 299, 321, 326, 331, 340, 346, 362, 389 chiefs of the youth of paradise218, 222, 223, 224, 226, 227, 394, 459 mistress of the women of paradise459 paradise and hellfire153, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 231, 245, 250, 257 the ten promised paradise470, 480parallelism (izdiwāj)5, 7, 8, 22, 24, 32, 34, 44, 54, 79, 92, 93, 94–99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 110, 113, 128, 151, 153, 155, 156, 157, 158, 162, 163, 249, 331, 347, 352, 365, 380, 394, 395, 404n52, 406, 408, 409, 418, 421, 422, 423, 428, 431, 435, 447, 562, 563parataxis, paratactic5, 128parchment3, 40, 497, 423paronomasia (jinās)151, 562Parry, Milman4, 25, 29path(s) of good/evil255, 256, 362, 364 metaphorical path (various)98, 121, 184, 211, 235, 264, 284, 300, 346, 373 mountain paths81, 139 straight/right/true path153, 154, 159, 160, 184, 250, 307, 320, 338, 344, 364, 366, 378, 380, 390, 411, 474see also God: path or cause ofpāṭha29patience88, 319see also endurance; fortitudepatriotism311pattern/ing3, 5, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 65, 93–105, 129, 152, 155, 156, 163, 178, 191, 229, 257–263, 267, 274, 280, 383pausal form100peace (salām) oratorical theme120, 194, 318, 434, 450, 517 greeting86, 87, 277, 278, 394 Peace Companies (Sarāyā l-Salām)451 treaty180, 447peers see audience of peersPenitents/Repentants (tawwābūn)82, 84, 111, 113, 122, 187, 193, 202, 205, 213, 293, 297, 310, 317, 323, 327, 533, 535, 539, 556, 557, 558, 559performance, performative3, 6, 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 35, 60, 81, 92, 105, 106, 111, 147, 158, 207, 209, 212, 221, 303, 321, 349, 377, 389n35, 424, 428, 431Pericles60Persia/n(s) see Iran; Sassanidpersuasion, persuasive, persuade, convince, convincing1, 2, 9, 10, 18, 19, 62, 65, 82, 90, 91, 92, 93, 101, 105, 112, 128, 133, 142, 146, 158, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167–168, 178, 184, 185, 190, 201, 205, 206, 210, 221, 222, 223, 294, 296, 297, 304, 308, 311, 323, 330, 355, 360, 380, 430, 435n3, 467, 481, 517 tacit persuasion92, 163petition(s)212, 235, 285, 342, 347Pharaoh132, 368philology, philological16, 17, 31, 410, 412, 419, 439, 440, 448, 482philosophy, philosophical, philosopher16, 19, 59, 61, 147, 166, 290, 372, 430, 448, 457, 474, 476piety/consciousness of God (taqwā)8, 13, 26, 51, 81, 82, 103, 105, 112, 123, 126, 130, 152, 161, 168, 173, 175, 178, 186, 189, 190, 229–237, 238, 239, 240, 244, 245, 252, 254, 256, 257, 258, 259, 261, 262, 266, 269, 272, 274, 275, 278–282, 284, 285, 287, 288, 289, 290, 294, 319, 321, 324, 325, 331, 333, 337, 340, 345, 350, 354, 355, 356, 371, 372, 378, 397, 414, 435, 452, 460, 469, 470, 476, 478, 556see also pious counsel; pious counsel sermon; provisions: “the best of provisions is piety”; taqwāpig(s)122, 123, 225pilgrimage see Hajjpious counsel (waʿẓ)37, 75, 128, 278-282, 290, 291, 321–322, 334, 338, 354–357, 368, 373n7, 375, 401, 427n86, 474, 478, 479, 509pious counsel sermon (khuṭbat al-waʿẓ)2, 19, 26, 34, 51, 74, 76, 77, 81, 84, 101, 102, 105, 106, 109, 110, 112, 113, 115, 125, 126, 130, 131, 145, 147, 151, 152, 162, 168, 172, 173, 181, 189, 190, 210, 229–274, 278, 280, 333, 367, 410, 440, 458, 491, 554, 556, 562pledge237, 272, 273, 288, 340, 412see also promise; God: reward (or promise) ofpledge/oath of allegiance (bayʿah)171, 178, 180, 189, 213, 216, 220, 222, 224, 295, 309, 334, 335, 336, 337, 343, 344, 348, 350, 359, 367, 384, 487, 489, 511, 513, 519, 527, 541 Pledge of ʿAqabah (Bayʿat al-Aqabah)202, 556, 559pluralism434, 482poetry, poem(s), poet(s), ode(s) (qaṣīdah)1, 4, 6, 7–9, 15, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 30, 32, 33, 34, 37, 43, 45, 47, 50, 52, 54, 55, 60, 62, 71, 74, 81, 86, 91, 92, 93, 95, 105, 115, 129, 135–142, 144, 147, 161, 164, 181, 193, 200, 240, 241, 266, 285, 286, 290, 292, 322, 323, 331, 365, 384, 394, 397, 408, 412, 413, 414, 418, 424, 426, 427, 430, 432, 435, 440, 441, 443, 447, 448, 449, 460, 461, 471, 474, 479, 553, 562, 563see also Zulu panegyricspolicy/making, policies1, 9, 10, 11, 13, 76, 82, 165, 169, 175, 182, 184, 207, 215, 228, 282, 333, 334, 337, 343, 345, 353, 354, 355, 365, 368, 416, 425, 427, 460, 467, 473, 483, 541politics, political passim politician(s)333, 432, 445, 473, 483political speech (khuṭbah siyāsiyyah)2, 19, 81, 333–368, 333n2, 562polytheist(s)131, 133, 173, 306, 324, 386, 390Potomac331, 332power, powerful9–13, 31, 42, 70, 112, 124, 125, 126, 133, 146, 165, 166, 167–168, 176, 179, 181, 182, 183, 190, 199, 206, 207, 228, 241, 269, 272, 273, 282, 285, 310, 312, 319, 324, 325, 326, 333n1, 342, 343, 358, 366, 374, 383, 401, 404, 405, 409n10, 416, 425, 426, 436, 453, 468, 475n86, 483 symbols of191, 192, 194, 195, 199, 200, 415see also God: authority/power of; authorityprayer (duʿāʾ), supplication oratorical component18, 35, 37, 64, 82–86, 133, 211, 244n60, 262, 267, 273, 278, 279, 285, 291, 292, 298, 306, 322, 323, 354, 355, 377, 394, 424, 438, 442, 450, 451, 455, 461, 462, 469, 470, 472, 474, 476, 489, 554 for forgiveness37, 64, 82–83, 105, 177, 279, 471 formula/e77, 82–83, 90, 105, 443, 461, 463, 469 spaces197, 198, 334, 436, 437, 462 “Prayer unites” (al-ṣalātu jāmiʿah)202, 334 ritual prayer (ṣalāh), prayer leaders36, 42n64, 130, 131, 235, 236, 261, 275, 276n5, 277, 281, 286, 338, 389, 424, 436, 442, 450, 455, 456, 458, 461, 462, 464, 466, 478 for ruler77, 84, 284, 285, 420, 425, 471 for victory84, 296, 322, 330see also curses; Eid prayers; Friday prayer; God: praise of; God: mercy of; rain-prayer orationpreacher(s), preaching passim preaching manual441predator, predatory115, 240predestination, predestinarian12, 233, 342, 356pre-Islamic, pre-Islamic period passim age of ignorance (jāhiliyyah)124, 169, 346, 370, 388prescriptive phrases105, 112–114, 158prince(s)74, 417, 426, 552profit(s)106, 113, 114, 162, 249, 297, 302, 416prohibition(s) see God: prohibitions or permissions ofpromise(s)173, 184, 211, 212, 213, 214, 292, 302, 303, 330, 338, 339, 342, 343, 347, 364, 366see also God reward (or promise) of; pledgeproof texts, testamentary texts (shawāhid)26, 129–146, 223, 323, 354, 365, 440, 449, 479, 563propaganda15, 380, 483prophet(s)4, 8, 86, 218, 223, 233, 237, 252, 267, 280, 311, 335, 385, 387, 395, 404, 415, 476 prophecy, prophecies66, 68, 75, 125, 279, 356, 519see also Abraham; Adam; David; Jesus; Moses; Muḥammad; Noah; Solomonproperty69, 151, 171, 175, 185, 219, 242, 243, 251, 253, 317, 345, 346, 354, 364, 367, 369prose general mention of17, 28, 33, 42, 47, 50, 55, 95, 125, 129, 147, 406–431, 432, 440, 448, 457, 562 prose genres1, 14, 19, 20 prose-proverb137, 138, 142 rhymed prose19, 98, 100n27, 101, 167, 331, 422, 429 rhythmic prose8, 18, 32, 54, 99, 105protect/ion68, 188, 217, 220, 232, 233, 236, 250, 255, 269, 271, 288, 306, 314, 322–323, 345, 356, 402, 452, 454, 455, 474, 547see also God: protection ofproverbs (mathal, amthāl) general mention of5, 9, 22, 26, 50, 99, 137, 138, 142–144, 148, 164, 171, 292, 323, 331, 346n31, 250n40, 386n13, 388n19, 394, 409, 413, 435, 440, 449, 471, 562 proverbial91, 129, 135, 136, 137, 142, 163, 170, 554, 558province, provincial85, 284, 359, 453provision(s) (zād) for journey to hereafter108, 130, 147, 153, 154, 155, 156, 159, 160, 161, 162, 232, 240, 245, 248, 249, 250, 254, 257, 261, 269, 272, 356 “the best of provisions is piety”30, 161, 230, 245, 252, 259, 325, 452 literal70, 237, 328 (other) metaphorical398Psalms38, 91, 324public address1, 9, 14, 15, 20, 31, 77, 135, 176, 189, 198, 199, 214, 233, 318, 321, 379, 382, 383, 385, 400, 433, 434, 436, 479, 483, 484 miscellaneous aspects relating to11, 13, 16, 19, 31, 45, 62, 77, 86, 167n6, 175, 187, 189, 197, 205, 215, 236, 286, 287, 288, 290, 336, 357, 361, 380, 385, 403, 411, 425, 437 space(s)2, 10, 19, 165, 207, 216, 228, 436 speaking, admonishments, orations10, 14, 18, 28, 55, 166, 179, 266, 333, 358, 359, 360, 383, 385, 400–403, 402, 403, 428, 431, 432, 450, 482, 484, 562 spheres9–11, 18, 401; voice, 168, 179, 206, 212, 383, 400, 401, 402, 425, 467, 468see also audience: publicpulpit(s) (minbar)28, 44, 49n86, 69, 79, 85, 86, 116, 117, 123, 138, 164, 166, 178, 183, 191, 194, 195, 197–201, 211, 214, 215, 233, 265, 268, 275, 276, 285, 286, 307, 349, 350, 355, 357, 360, 362, 367, 368, 400, 406, 411, 415, 416, 417, 420, 423, 424, 425, 426, 434, 435, 443, 444, 449, 460, 462, 468, 472, 475n86, 533punish/ment83, 98, 171, 184, 194, 212, 247, 296, 303, 332, 339, 345, 346, 347, 350, 352, 370, 405n53see also God: reward or punishment ofPure Brethren (Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ)415purpose (oratorical theme)13, 67, 91, 133, 136, 138, 142, 224, 229, 232, 237, 244, 264, 284, 296, 332, 404, 430n101, 479Qadariyyah342, 555Qaḥṭabah ibn Shabīb al-Ṭāʾī310, 323n107, 532, 557qaṣaṣ (homily), qāṣṣ, quṣṣāṣ14, 49, 140, 144n215, 266, 321–322, 562Qāṣiʿah sermon36, 507Qatar439Qaṭarī ibn al-Fujāʾah analysis of full oration by267–274 oration by268–272 miscellaneous re. career and orations51, 112n81, 131, 132, 163, 189, 200, 229, 246, 258n108, 259n118, 264, 267–274, 321, 355, 411, 440n18, 532, 557Qays ibn al-Ashʿath219, 220, 222, 224Qays ibn Mushir8, 532, 557Qays ibn Rifāʿah al-Anṣārī137, 139, 140Qays ibn Saʿd75, 179, 532, 557 oration-texts344Qirwāsh ibn al-Muqallad420Qubāʾ66n7, 275, 276, 277, 283, 286, 291, 526Quintillian24Qurʾan general mentions of1, 7–9, 22, 26, 34, 58n101, 60, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 74, 81, 84, 93, 98n17, 100n27, 103, 108, 123, 147, 159, 163, 166n4, 172, 173, 188, 189, 203, 230, 231, 234, 235, 236, 237, 241, 249, 254, 278, 290, 311, 323, 328, 344, 353, 357, 277, 389, 390, 405, 412, 415, 421, 432, 439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 457, 458, 470, 471, 479, 483, 521, 537, 553, 563 cited verses from38n47–48, 69, 72, 74n42, 87, 88, 107, 109, 110, 123, 128, 130–135, 160–161, 166, 173, 183, 191n103, 225, 230, 231, 241n54, 245, 250, 268, 270, 271, 273, 283, 288, 290, 297n10, 314, 317, 320, 321, 323–325, 335, 358, 364, 366, 385, 386, 387, 388, 391, 392, 396, 397, 398n43, 414n35, 442, 443, 451, 452, 455, 461, 470, 471, 473–474, 478n94, 531 citation/quotation from14, 91, 127, 128, 129–135, 160–161, 164, 185, 190, 191, 223, 224, 226, 230, 257, 259, 266, 267, 274, 276, 285, 286, 292, 295, 323–325, 330, 331, 332, 354, 355, 357–358, 366, 394, 395, 396, 414, 415, 435, 438, 450, 451, 452, 455, 460, 462, 468, 469, 472, 476, 477, 478, 479 exegesis, exegetical, interpretation of16, 49, 146, 202n159, 374, 448, 449, 457, 464 reciters, memorizers, transmitters of12, 28, 30, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 45, 49, 131, 142, 305, 457, 467, 470, 471, 473, 553, 555, 562see also God: book of; provisions: “the best of provisions is piety”Quraysh tribe7, 49, 77, 95, 102, 111, 113, 144, 169, 170, 172, 173, 186, 196, 199, 203, 237, 290, 378, 379, 399, 497, 519, 521, 552, 553, 556, 559, 560Qurayẓah tribe173Quṣayy ibn Kilāb49, 170Quss ibn Sāʿidah al-Iyādī7, 49n86, 74, 79, 108, 112, 126, 141, 163, 170, 172, 192, 197, 201, 264, 411, 412, 440n18, 534, 557 oration-texts238–239Quṣwā176, 213Qutaybah ibn Muslim al-Bāhilī112, 122, 185, 235, 297, 309, 324, 534, 558Qutaylah183Rabīʿah tribe294, 556Rabīʿah ibn Umayyah203raid(s)214, 283, 295, 299, 317, 327, 489, 503, 560rain37, 114, 123, 125, 126, 127, 238, 271, 380 rain-cloud32, 123, 125, 126, 381 descriptions (waṣf al-maṭar)9rain-prayer oration (khuṭbat al-istisqāʾ)93, 195, 198, 275n1, 458, 529rajaz32, 139, 140, 144, 363Ramadan see Hijri months: RamadanRamadi448, 453, 481rank175, 288, 289, 400rare words (gharīb)54, 128, 146, 148, 159, 210, 413n25, 562Rashīd, Hārūn411, 419, 429, 440n18, 534, 558Rashīd (or Ruwayshid) ibn Ramīḍ al-ʿAnzī139, 365rational/irrational, rationalize4, 5, 92, 296, 435 rationalist264, 376rationale232, 234, 312, 314, 467Rawḥ ibn Zinbāʿ al-Judhāmī185, 534, 558Rayy212, 213, 516, 560register135, 250, 251, 263, 353, 425see also language registerrefuge224, 232, 303, 319, 327, 328, 348, 351see also God: refuge inrelatives, (familial) relations/hip(s)81, 83, 84, 88, 119, 186, 190, 295, 398, 402, 403, 405, 442relative pronouns71, 72, 89, 334n3, 345, 370Relevance Theory6, 7n9religion/religious passimsee also faith; God; MuḥammadRenaissance3, 29, 46see also Arab: Renaissance (nahḍah)Repentants see Penitants/Repentantsrepetition (takrār)5, 22, 23, 27, 29, 65, 96, 103, 104, 155, 157, 158, 163, 435, 481, 562, 563revolt(s), revolution/ary, rebel/lions, insurgency Abbasid293, 310, 323, 533, 557 against ʿUthmān178, 214 by Umayyad governors79, 308, 326, 517, 555, 556, 558, 560 (general)11, 82, 137, 146, 181, 285, 293, 318n85, 389, 390, 453, 455, 477, 558, 561 Ibn al-Zubayr’s123, 182, 367 Khārijite12, 68, 317, 361, 426, 555 miscellaneous anti-Umayyad79, 181, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 199, 200, 216, 284, 293, 295, 341, 342, 347, 351, 367, 552 Mukhtār’s78, 293, 491, 531, 552, 556, 557, 558, 560 of apostasy (ḥurūb al-riddah)176, 293, 295, 324n108, 389, 554, 559 Penitents’293, 531, 535, 539 present-day475 (Iranian), 477 (Tunisian) Zaydī163, 283, 293, 495, 545, 553, 561see also French Revolutionrhetoric general13n25–26, 14, 15, 26n10, 60, 116n102, 174, 185, 310, 312, 385, 412, 419, 427, 429, 430, 431, 435, 445, 447, 448, 457, 473, 475, 476, 477, 481, 562 rhetor24 rhetorical1, 7, 14, 22, 25, 91, 96, 230, 310, 411, 428, 480 devices27, 54, 64, 92n3, 98, 99n24, 102, 105, 116, 118, 158, 421 questions22, 92, 111–112, 160, 162, 163, 192, 209, 223, 241, 272, 273, 274, 331, 394, 396 rhetorization430Rhodes53rhyme general10, 22, 32, 34, 35, 44, 98, 99–103, 155, 331, 441, 471 assonance (muwāzanah)8, 99–100 consonant-rhyme (sajʿ)92, 93, 100–101, 102, 103, 123, 128, 157, 158, 163, 171, 267, 380–382, 406, 408, 410, 421, 422, 427, 428, 429, 562, 563 rhyme and meter5, 7, 8, 26, 32, 54, 55, 71, 79, 95, 96, 97, 418 rhyme-parallelism (tarṣīʿ)101, 102, 157, 352, 365, 423, 428, 435, 563 soothsayer rhymes (sajʿ al-kuhhān)9, 19, 54, 101, 102, 157, 172, 380–382, 383, 421, 563rhythm, rhythmic, cadence(d)1, 5, 7, 8, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 32, 33, 34, 63, 92, 93–105, 134, 152, 155, 156, 157, 158, 162, 163, 164, 292, 365, 394, 396, 406, 421, 427, 435, 562Riʾām tribe125, 561Rifāʿah ibn Shaddād al-Bajalī82, 187, 310, 534, 558right(s) general109, 175, 186, 190, 191, 192, 206, 219, 221, 226, 227, 255, 256, 283, 317, 337, 338, 342, 345, 385, 388, 389, 392, 398, 482, 503 right and wrong147, 153, 154, 162, 253, 312, 338, 340 righteousness, righteous82, 83, 89, 113, 178, 186, 217, 230, 232, 255, 256, 283, 287, 288, 294, 296, 305, 307, 337, 338, 340, 342, 344, 350, 361, 378, 396, 403, 455, 477, 481, 503ritual72, 130, 198, 369, 402, 403, 414, 435, 444, 462, 475, 476, 478, 480see also prayer: ritual prayerRiyāḥ ibn ʿUthmān al-Murrī117, 534, 558Roderic (Ar. Ludharīq)327, 329, 330, 331Rome, Roman3, 14, 16, 24, 53, 60, 310, 311, 472, 476, 482rope(s)84, 123, 269, 272, 274, 389, 390, 395, 396Ruḥaymah bint ʿAẓamah44, 384, 400, 401, 402, 534, 558rule(s)23, 26, 168, 175, 236, 292, 316, 344, 369, 378, 409, 412, 414, 543rule/r, ruling2, 11, 38, 84, 100, 101, 112, 133, 166, 174, 183, 184, 186, 187, 189, 190, 191, 200, 205, 206, 233, 241, 245, 264, 265, 267, 289, 290, 305, 307, 338, 344, 349, 352, 356, 359, 379, 404, 405, 408, 409n10, 414, 420, 425, 427, 445, 454, 461, 462, 475, 501, 552, 562Russia114, 469Rutbīl (or Zunbīl)185, 303, 521Sabaic36Ṣabrah ibn Shaymān al-Azdī76n58, 534, 558, 559sacred, sacral, sacrosanct, sanctuary general9, 109, 111, 195, 251, 369, 402, 404, 444, 450, 484 authority65, 91, 135, 172, 173, 191, 223, 479 texts/literature92, 135, 223, 391, 464 mosque/sanctuary (of Mecca)169, 170, 237, 284, 286, 351, 379, 555Saʿd clan102Saʿd, ʿAlī’s attendant44Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqāṣ176, 177, 213, 308, 359, 534, 555, 558Saʿd ibn Ḥudhayfah ibn al-Yamān111, 187, 213, 536, 558Saʿd ibn Mālik356Saʿd ibn ʿUbādah al-Anṣārī557Sadat, Anwar447Saʿdī471Sadr, Muqtada / Sadrist movement451Ṣafā80, 196Safavid(s)454, 475Saffāḥ135, 190, 191, 440n18, 493, 511, 536, 554, 558Ṣafiyyah bint ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib144Ṣafiyyah bint Hishām al-Minqariyyah244, 384, 397, 399, 400, 401, 536, 558Ṣafwān al-Anṣārī193, 200sage(s)52, 231, 251, 267Saḥbān ibn Zufar al-Wāʾilī163, 171, 189, 193, 249, 265, 411, 412, 536, 558 oration-text147Sahl ibn Ḥunayf al-Anṣārī179, 558Sahl ibn Saʿd al-Sāʿidī218Saʿīd ibn Aḥmad al-Maqqarī536Saʿīd ibn al-ʿĀṣ oration-text344 miscellaneous re. career and orations183, 343, 536, 558Saʿīd ibn al-Mujālid185Saʿīd ibn al-Musayyab42Saʿīd ibn Qays82, 306, 319, 322, 323, 536, 558saints248, 323, 460, 471sajʿ see rhyme: consonant-rhymesajʿ al-kuhhān see rhyme: soothsayer rhymeSalafist, Salafism434, 445, 446, 454, 456, 459, 463, 470, 473, 477, 480Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn (Saladin)454ṣalawāt see blessings (invocation of)Ṣāliḥ ibn ʿAlī135, 191, 536Ṣāliḥ ibn Musarriḥ oration-text317 miscellaneous re. career and orations76n53, 128, 131, 133, 189, 261n129, 261n135, 299, 301, 355, 536, 558, 559Salih, Sheikh Nagdy444Sālim ibn ʿAwf tribe286Salmā l-Ḥamdāniyyah383Salmān al-Fārisī553salvation140, 143, 163, 232, 234, 319Sanaa39, 443Saqīfah of Banū Sāʿidah120, 143, 148, 359, 440, 491, 519Ṣaʿṣaʿah ibn Ṣūḥān68, 76, 190, 199, 536, 558Sassanid(s), Sassanian(s)41, 170, 205, 407Satan88, 117, 186, 235, 236, 255, 263, 314, 320, 341, 352, 386, 387, 393, 395, 404, 470Saudi Arabia, Saudi433, 434, 440, 445, 446, 454, 457, 468, 473–474, 480Sawād ibn Qārib al-Dawsī126, 536, 558saying(s)9, 48n85, 104, 142, 144, 150, 152, 209, 412, 414, 432, 448, 468, 471, 476, 562Scandinavian Uppsala School24scepter192scholar(s) (medieval), scholarly, scholarship16, 17, 27n11, 28, 29, 30, 32, 40, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 50, 56, 57, 58, 59, 63, 91, 98, 168, 171, 209, 238, 265, 266, 272, 276, 286n35, 334, 374, 408, 410, 412, 414, 417, 427, 428, 432, 552scribe see kātibscripture(s), scriptural17, 37, 38, 41, 73, 93, 130, 183n80, 185, 312, 424, 432, 439, 443, 450sea115, 123, 185, 328, 330, 331sectarian12, 15, 21, 46, 52, 56, 59, 63, 478, 480sedition (fitnah)118, 121, 124, 344, 364, 389, 390, 395, 452, 507seductress, seduce246, 247semantic35, 75, 95, 96, 103, 104, 155, 156seminary448, 452, 457Semitic24, 205Senegal/ese434, 473, 478, 479Sermon on the Mount61sermon(s) see cassette sermons; Friday sermon (khuṭbat al-jumʿah); Eid sermon (khuṭbat al-ʿīd); khuṭbah; pious counsel sermon (khuṭbat al-waʿẓ)serve, service(s)10, 42, 170, 180, 183, 211, 222, 234, 305, 355, 398, 556see also God: servants/service ofSfax446Shabath ibn Ribʿī219, 222, 315, 523Shabīb ibn Shaybah208, 209, 558Shabīb ibn Yazīd al-Shaybānī76n53, 189, 203, 213, 303, 309, 313, 321, 511, 515, 538, 559, 561Shaddād ibn Aws al-Ṭāʾī oration-texts250 miscellaneous re. career and orations68, 85, 177, 187, 264, 538, 559shahādah (testimonial of faith)68, 72, 105see also witness, to bear: that there is no god but Godshaman/istic9, 54, 168, 171shame92, 109, 115, 141, 151, 222, 223, 233, 298–300, 304, 319, 341, 391, 392, 394, 396, 399, 402, 403, 405see also disgraceSharawy, Huda435n4, 447Shariʿah174, 234, 235, 236, 254, 272, 369, 372, 378see also God: command, prescription of; God: prohibitions or permissions of; lawful, unlawfulShaʿthāʾ383shaykh see elderShaybah ibn Rabīʿah391n26Shaymān ibn ʿUkayf al-Azdī76, 538, 559sheep122, 126, 148, 315, 316Sheikh-ul-Islam (Turkey)472Shiʿa, Shiʿism, Shiʿite general mentions of12, 17, 31, 39, 48, 57, 76, 78, 174, 176, 178, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 193, 202, 204, 213, 215, 225, 227, 253, 276, 297, 321, 334, 335, 338, 361, 374, 420, 432, 445, 448, 449, 452, 454, 463, 474, 475, 476, 480, 483, 531, 554, 555, 557n97, 553 anti-Shiʿa448, 454, 455, 473, 478, 481 Kufan184, 187, 188, 310, 531, 547 Ṭayyibī-Ismāʿīlī463 Twelver433, 448, 449, 450, 451, 452, 453, 476, 480, 531 Zaydī79, 163, 561, 283, 495, 553, 561see also ʿAlid; expansion: “Shiʿite expansion”shield(s)123, 137, 236, 312, 313Shimr (or Shamir)217, 219, 223, 224, 226, 227ship(s)120, 185, 327, 330Shuʿayb, prophet of Midian8Shūrā election council77, 124, 177, 206, 359, 491, 552, 558, 559, 561Shurayḥ ibn Awfā al-ʿAbsī180, 559Sijill al-bishārah (Register of Glad Tidings)425Sijistan85, 303, 518sikkah (coinage)425silk24, 194, 195, 211, 326, 362simile (tashbīh)110, 115, 116, 117, 118, 122, 234, 235, 563sin(s), sinners, sinning; grave sin237, 344, 377Sinān ibn Anas223Sistani, Ayatollah448, 450sister(s)187, 210, 217, 226, 295, 391n27, 404, 450sky, skies102, 109, 120, 125, 126, 127, 128, 134, 160, 238, 239, 259, 268, 273, 381, 382, 391, 396, 402slave(s)79, 112, 220, 346, 371, 391, 396, 400, 402Slavs308slogan79, 136, 214, 310, 455, 501society, social, societal passimSoghdian(s)45, 122, 185, 535, 558soldier(s)151, 185, 186, 225, 296, 312, 330, 331, 343Solomon (Ar. Sulaymān), Prophet/King385n10, 415Somalian(s)308son(s), grandson, great grandson passim son-in-law178, 305, 451, 552, 554 stepson249soothsayer(s) (kāhin, kuhhān, kāhinah, kawāhin)9, 19, 98, 100, 101, 109, 125, 126, 128, 147, 168, 169, 171, 172, 192, 237, 383, 384, 510, 511, 520, 522, 554, 558, 559, 560, 561, 562, 563 oration-texts381see also rhyme: soothsayer rhymessoul(s)67, 80, 108, 140, 147, 153, 154, 155, 156, 158, 159, 161, 162, 172, 218, 231, 234, 242, 243, 245, 250, 260, 262, 263, 270, 300, 301, 320, 362, 371source texts for oration47–51 and passimSouth Africa/n446South Asia/n17, 433, 436, 460Spain see Andalusiaspear(s)89, 300, 302, 303, 312, 313, 314, 319, 327, 329, 332, 346, 391spiritual1, 83, 181, 232, 278, 282, 290, 388n23, 398n43, 403, 427, 468n73spontaneity, spontaneous3, 10, 21, 32, 61, 140, 165, 207, 208, 210, 413, 420, 423, 442, 446, 449, 450, 452 extemporaneity, extempore6, 13, 61, 65, 166, 207, 208, 215, 420, 422, 444, 450, 455, 472see also improvisationstaff or stick (leaning on)49, 137, 138, 171, 200, 275, 326, 415, 435, 444, 446, 449, 462, 463, 472, 476 staff, sword, and bow192–195, 286, 400stand/ing (orating while)33, 49n86, 80, 165, 196, 197, 199, 225, 265, 326, 382, 404, 428, 462star(s)102, 125, 126, 127, 148, 237, 238, 360, 380, 381, 392, 399stature and standing42, 57, 135, 171, 176, 180, 201, 205, 223, 360, 361, 391, 393, 394, 396, 399, 405, 447stipend(s)298, 303, 304, 343, 347, 353, 354, 372, 501strategy see battle oration: strategystructure (of oration)2, 15, 18, 19, 22, 23, 24, 34, 56, 64–90, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 105, 108–110, 114, 134, 146, 153, 155, 156, 158, 177, 191–192, 209, 221, 223, 257, 260, 265, 274, 275, 277–278, 289, 291, 323, 331, 332, 368, 383, 394, 401, 406, 414, 422, 431, 435, 441, 442, 449, 466, 469, 475, 484style of epistles and maqāmāt407, 408, 421, 424, 428, 431 oration2, 4, 8, 9, 15, 16, 18, 19, 24, 44n74, 55, 56, 59, 72, 91–164, 191–192, 201, 206, 209, 221, 223, 229n1, 323, 349, 368, 383, 394, 406, 408, 413, 415, 416, 417, 418, 421, 422, 423, 424, 430, 431, 435, 440, 450, 481, 483, 484succession120, 174, 177, 333, 334, 359, 368, 503, 543 successor78, 84, 134, 176, 178, 206, 265, 336, 358, 359, 361, 420, 425, 447, 527succession speech174, 215, 334–337Sudais, Sheikh Abd al Rahman473, 474Sufi(s), Sufism12, 47, 375, 407, 420, 440, 443, 446, 456, 458, 460, 471Suhayl ibn ʿAmr al-ʿĀmirī173, 559Suḥaym ibn Wathīl al-Riyāḥī81n93, 139, 140, 365Ṣulayḥid425Sulaymān ibn ʿAlī440n18Sulaymān ibn ʿAbd al-Malik115n96, 135, 182, 185, 236, 246, 281, 367, 535, 538, 559Sulaymān ibn Ṣurad oration-texts298, 318 miscellaneous re. career and orations84, 87, 111, 113, 120, 187, 193, 202, 205, 213, 297, 310, 317, 323n107, 327, 440n18, 537, 538Sunnah262, 276, 286, 343, 377, 378, 440, 448, 454, 459n56, 461, 462, 467, 468see also hadithSunni/sm38, 39, 56, 57, 174, 176, 276, 334, 338, 341n19, 354, 374, 414, 433, 435, 436, 445, 448, 449, 453, 454, 456, 457, 461, 462, 463, 464, 473, 474, 476, 480, 483, 531, 552, 556 caliphs11, 17, 31, 39, 106, 244n60, 266, 302, 316, 336, 337, 384, 385, 401, 410, 439, 440, 445, 459, 464, 465, 466, 469, 470, 471n79, 477, 481, 490, 553, 554, 557, 560see also legal schoolssupplication(s) see prayersurah(s)30, 65, 72, 132, 160, 173, 290, 395, 415, 421, 451, 452, 453, 497, 419, 537, 563Surat458, 460, 461sustenance127, 150, 246, 262, 324, 343, 364, 366, 371sword general mention of85, 89, 116, 122, 136, 176, 182, 183, 184, 190, 211, 292, 295, 300, 301, 302, 303, 308, 313, 315, 319, 322, 327, 328, 343, 349, 352, 353, 365, 405 leaning on sword192, 193, 194, 195, 275, 292, 326, 415, 435, 444, 449, 462, 472 leaning on sword and bow292, 323, 325–326, 330, 477 sword and whip348, 349, 350, 353see also staff: leaning on staff, sword, and bowsymbol(s), symbolic, symbolize41, 114, 115, 120, 193, 462, 483, 484 of authority/power165, 191, 192, 194, 195, 196, 221, 285, 286, 415, 425, 433, 443, 444, 472, 483synagogues38synecdoche (majāz mursal subtype)116, 119, 562syntax, syntactic/al23, 24, 94, 95, 96, 98, 99, 101, 148, 155, 156, 161, 380, 406, 408, 418Syria/n(s)11, 12, 46, 49n86, 50, 80, 85, 122, 131, 132, 174, 176, 177, 180, 181, 193, 195, 198, 200, 213, 244, 283, 293, 295, 303, 307, 308, 310, 311, 316, 318, 320, 324, 325, 326, 365, 407, 434, 454, 455, 473, 474, 477, 481, 483, 511, 515, 524, 525, 539, 541, 547, 553, 555, 556, 557, 559, 560see also DamascusSyriac language36, 41, 44, 384, 407, 514, 534ṭabaqāt47, 57tafḍīlī Sunni (who profess ʿAlī’s superiority)334, 374Taghlib tribe169, 170, 554tag-phrase277, 281Ṭahfah ibn Abī Zuhayr149, 174, 538, 559taḥrīd396, 397, see also battle orationtaḥmīd (praise-formula)64, 65–74, 75, 78, 81, 83, 89, 90, 102, 105, 106, 127, 128, 133, 134, 152, 159, 177, 191, 223, 277, 279, 394, 422, 435, 441, 442, 443, 445, 452, 459, 460, 463, 465, 470, 471, 478, 480, 563al-ḥamdu li-llāh65, 73see also God: praise ofṬāʾif171, 365, 528, 557takbīr see Allāhu akbar (God is great!)takhyīl (fantasy, imaginary)117, 430, 563Ṭalḥah ibn ʿUbaydallāh38n49, 73, 84, 177, 180, 359, 388, 538, 559Taliban457Tamīm al-Dārī49n86, 198, 266Tamīm tribe45, 70, 72, 75, 76n58, 82, 85, 102, 106, 147, 170, 174, 179, 268, 302, 384, 400, 497, 541, 545, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 560, 561taqrīr (sit-down exposition after Friday sermon)462taqwā (the term)26, 103, 105, 123n138, 130, 161, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233n17, 234, 235n29, 237, 240, 245, 252, 254, 257, 258, 259, 261, 262, 269, 279, 287, 288, 289, 290, 319, 325, 340, 345, 378, 452, 460, 490, 492, 502, 504, 506, 526, 532see also pietytargums93Ṭarīf ibn al-ʿĀṣī al-Dawsī109, 536Ṭarīfat al-Khayr109, 125, 383, 538, 559Ṭāriq ibn Ziyād al-Thaqafī analysis of full oration by327–332 oration-text328–329 miscellaneous re. career and oration108, 111, 185, 292, 294, 303, 315, 319, 327–332, 440, 476, 538, 559tawātur (broad dissemination of hadith)59tax(es)171, 354, 426 tax collector200, 212, 345, 489, 552see also alms levy, alms-taxṬayyib (Fatimid imam)425teeth115, 125, 173, 209, 314, 338, 363, 366, 390, 392 canines112, 115 molars119, 312, 313, 314, 332, 338tent(s)33, 120, 124, 172, 226, 314, 453testament (waṣiyyah)14, 49, 171, 265, 266, 267, 334, 336, 345, 354, 372, 409, 440, 495, 553, 563Thābit ibn Qays al-Anṣārī oration-text70–71 miscellaneous re. orations71, 82, 127n154, 174, 540, 559Thamūd tribe241Thamūdic36thunder and lightning114, 123, 360Thaqīf tribe366, 557, 561Thawr ibn Maʿn al-Thaqafī337theme(s) of oration, thematic passim subthemes35, 106, 251, 252, 254–256, 263, 272, 274, 278, 332theology, theological2, 12, 16, 17, 19, 40, 47, 48, 50, 56, 59, 67, 129, 229, 235–237, 369, 372–378, 382, 432, 457, 464, 465, 466, 481, 507, 509, 547 theologian36, 264, 265, 372–378, 439, 457, 560threat(s), threaten/ing100, 110, 165, 167, 168, 183, 184, 190, 194, 213, 224, 227, 283, 284, 292, 294, 296, 303–305, 330, 331, 332, 334, 343, 347, 348, 349, 351, 352, 359, 360, 361, 366, 367, 477, 481, 513, 545throne70, 134, 199, 241, 359, 367Thucydides53, 60Tigris River176, 213, 536topic(s) of oration16, 50, 81, 175, 229, 244, 278, 282, 332, 372, 401, 433, 438, 444, 447, 449, 466, 467, 468, 469, 471Topkapi Palace Library413trade/r(s), trading literal43, 46, 58, 120, 154, 169, 416, 555 metaphorical106, 113, 254, 255, 297, 298, 327, 362, 387training of30, 112, 207, 451, 457 orators and preachers28, 29, 423, 433, 437–438, 440, 447, 448–449, 456–457, 464–466 scribes and critics152, 409, 410, 412, 413, 416, 429 the soul153, 154, 159, 162, 320transition phrase (ammā baʿd, etc.)18, 64, 74–75, 78, 81, 89, 90, 105, 106, 152, 177, 277, 394, 422, 442, 443, 454, 460, 470translation(s) Arabic translation movement42, 46 medieval translations of orations44, 61, 384transmission, transmit/ted, transmitter verbatim (riwāyah bi-l-lafẓ) vs gist (riwāyah bi-l-maʿnā)26–29, 563 written transmission34, 36, 40, 43, 58, 59, 63, 354see also oral/ity: oral transmission; Qurʾan: reciters, memorizers, transmittersTransoxiana185trauma/tic19, 268, 383, 391n27, 395, 396, 397 trauma studies16, 400–403, 403–405travelers see journeytreasury82, 175, 187, 300, 307, 337, 338, 347, 353, 354, 393, 404, 491, 501, 503tribe(s)177, 185, 187, 192, 197, 199, 201, 203, 204, 205, 226, 237, 241, 265, 290, 293, 300–308, 350, 359, 366, 380, 381, 390, 400, 403, 445, 481, 493, 497, 523, 527, 535, 537, 541, 545, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 559, 560, 561 tribal/ism300–308 tribesman, tribeswoman294, 384, 399, 401, 402, 487, 539, 549, 556, 558, 559, 560, 561see also various tribes by nametroops82, 112, 120, 122, 131, 140, 176, 177, 185, 186, 196, 213, 266, 294, 295, 296, 302, 303, 304, 308, 309, 312, 313, 315, 316, 317, 319, 321, 322, 328, 330, 337, 364, 367, 491, 501, 521, 527, 533, 537, 539, 551truth/ful, true (ḥaqq and ṣidq) (oration theme)78, 83, 84, 88, 94, 101, 110, 133, 164, 172, 184, 214, 218, 221, 236, 237, 247, 248, 250, 252, 253, 255, 271, 272, 281, 282, 284, 288, 290, 296, 299, 300, 301, 302, 305, 306, 307, 310, 318, 319, 324, 335, 340, 341, 344, 371, 377, 378, 386, 389, 390, 391, 395, 442, 443, 454, 470, 474ṣiddīq (true believer)389Ṭufayl ibn ʿAwf al-Ghanawī136, 139, 140, 559Ṭulayḥah ibn Khuwaylid al-Asadī177, 307, 326, 540, 559Tunisia/n434, 446, 473, 477–478turban(s)139, 195, 275, 313, 326, 362, 363, 365, 415, 416, 453Turkey, Turkish433, 434, 454, 460, 463–473, 475, 479 language433, 465, 468, 469n74, 470, 471, 472, 477, 483tyrant(s)233, 302, 305, 328, 329, 367, 474ʿUbādah ibn al-Ṣāmit al-Anṣārī oration-text110 miscellaneous re. orations and career68, 101, 115n93, 130, 176, 177, 179, 264, 540, 557, 559ʿUbaydallāh ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Murrī49n86, 187, 310, 559ʿUbaydallāh ibn Sulaymān417ʿUbaydallāh ibn Ziyād oration-text350 miscellaneous re. orations and career77, 86, 144, 183, 184, 194, 199, 202, 213, 216, 301, 348, 361, 393, 525, 540, 556, 557, 559Ubayy ibn Kaʿb39, 103, 353ubi sunt112, 241, 242, 272, 273, 274, 415, 416ʿUfayrāʾ383ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz oration-texts242, 245–246, 254–255, 282, 342 miscellaneous re. orations and caliphate49, 51, 68, 73n35, 82, 85, 116n99, 118, 124, 135, 146, 181, 182, 195, 211, 213, 232, 233, 234, 237n39, 241, 244n60, 250, 260n124, 261n132, 262, 264, 281, 348, 354, 410, 411, 439, 459, 460, 540, 552, 556, 560ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb oration-texts317, 338, 339, 353–354 miscellaneous re. orations and caliphate11, 31, 37, 38n49, 45, 51, 66n5, 68, 75, 83, 103, 108, 121, 135, 143, 144n216, 145, 146, 148, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 198, 203, 206, 211, 212, 215, 236, 266, 267, 281, 282, 285, 294, 306, 324n108, 334n3, 336, 355, 358, 359, 361, 372, 398, 401, 408n5, 410, 411, 422n72, 439, 469, 480, 497, 542, 545, 547, 553, 554, 555, 557, 559, 560ʿUmar ibn Saʿd ibn Abī l-Ṣayd28ʿUmar ibn Saʿd ibn Abī Waqqās225, 226Umayyad(s) passimUmayyah171, 380, 381, 523Umm al-Khayr178, 295, 325n120, 384, 394, 396, 399, 400, 544, 560Umm Kulthūm bint ʿAlī68, 115n94, 119, 187, 210, 226, 295, 324n111, 384, 391n27, 395, 398, 401, 402, 403, 544, 549, 560uncle144, 191, 218, 221, 222, 350, 554see also Muḥammad: unclesUnited Kingdom, U.K.434, 461 British (colonial)475n86, 478United States of America see AmericaUqayli, Sheikh Nazim453ʿUqaylid420ʿUqbah ibn Abī Muʿīṭ343, 560ʿUqbah ibn Simʿān220, 225urban2, 13, 82, 169, 345, 408, 467Urdu457, 459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 483ʿUrwah ibn Zubayr43usury (ribā)354, 369, 370ʿUṭarid ibn Ḥājib ibn Zurārah oration-text70 miscellaneous re. orations71, 174, 544, 560ʿUtaybah ibn al-Nahhās315ʿUtbah ibn Abī Sufyān78, 116n97, 141, 145, 183, 212, 283, 285, 357, 411, 440n18, 544, 560 oration-texts284, 349–350ʿUtbah ibn Ghazwān oration-text356 miscellaneous re. orations and career115n95, 145, 148, 198, 258n109, 355, 358, 544, 560ʿUtbah ibn Rabīʿah181, 391n26Uthaymeen, Muhammad Salih446ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān oration-text339 miscellaneous re. orations and caliphate11, 31, 38n49, 39, 49n86, 50, 67, 73n36, 74n40, 77n66, 86, 88, 115n93, 133, 166, 174, 177, 178, 180, 189, 198, 199, 206, 214, 215, 241, 244n60, 259n118, 295, 306, 307, 336, 340, 343, 344, 352, 355, 359, 361, 384, 388, 397, 398, 401, 411, 439, 440n18, 480, 489, 497, 511, 521, 533, 544, 551, 553, 556, 557, 558, 560, 561 ʿUthmānid227ʿUthmānic Codex39ʿUthmān ibn Ḥayyān al-Murrī oration-text348 miscellaneous re. orations and career79n79, 117, 183, 347, 366, 546, 558, 560Uttar Pradesh (UP)456, 457, 459, 461, 462, 463ʿUzzā Salimah (or Salamah)126, 171, 546, 560Valencian414variant(s)15, 24, 113, 152, 193 see also memory variantsvaunt oration (mufākharah, fakhr, munāfarah)70, 109, 170, 174, 211, 348, 359, 539Veda(s)29, 30veil147, 195, 284, 347, 362, 379, 390, 392, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 443velayat-e faqih (authoritative rule of the jurist)475vessel115, 253, 258, 301, 356vices232, 236, 273victim(s), victimization159, 325, 331, 401, 404victory, victorious8, 69, 83, 84, 171, 172, 174, 199, 260, 288, 292, 296, 300, 308, 309, 310, 311, 317, 318, 319, 321, 322, 324, 330, 332, 341, 357, 405, 416, 453, 455, 462, 469, 489, 491, 513Vienna44, 45violence89, 167, 183, 190, 194, 304, 316, 349, 401, 434, 445, 463, 479, 481viper117virtue (the term, and various individual virtues)140, 199, 229–233, 235–237, 278, 306, 341, 344, 403, 445, 458 and passimVisigoth111, 315, 327vocabulary19, 58, 76, 80, 81, 122, 130, 133, 147, 148, 149, 159, 161, 162, 257, 259, 265, 274, 280, 350, 380, 396, 418, 459, 482, 484vocative18, 75–79, 81, 83, 89, 90, 105, 106, 107, 135, 158, 203, 277, 291, 394, 442, 443, 470voice (in oration) loud/bold/raised196, 202, 203, 209, 217, 224, 455 low/ered313, 470n75, 472 miscellaneous expressions of392, 399 (hoarse); 464 (modulation); 129 (unvoiced) women’s401, 402see also public voiceWahhabi434, 445, 446, 468, 473, 477Waḥīdah sermon36, 372, 509Wāʾil tribe555, 558Walīd (I) ibn ʿAbd al-Malik146, 182, 185, 202, 244, 329, 357, 546, 547, 558, 560 oration-text341Walīd ibn ʿUqbah76, 142, 177, 320, 546, 560Walīd ibn ʿUtbah391n26Walīd (II) ibn Yazīd182, 342war/fare general mentions of120, 122, 275, 296, 304, 311, 317, 327, 333, 363, 394, 405, 477 civil war162, 283, 293, 312 other wars476 (July War); 404, 469 (World War I/Great War); 312 (World War II)see also battles; Battle Days of the Arabs; battle orations; Battle of: various; booty; justice: just warWaraqah ibn Nawfal41, 42warning(s)7, 82, 83n94, 84, 102, 107, 109, 119, 124, 136, 139, 143, 184, 215, 235, 239, 240, 242, 244, 245, 254, 272, 273, 274, 290, 296, 298, 300, 303, 330, 341, 342, 350, 352, 365, 366, 367, 386, 387, 390, 399, 422, 467, 501, 507, 523, 527see also threatswarrior(s)1, 12, 119, 140, 143, 145, 185, 186, 195, 196, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 223, 224, 292, 294, 295, 296, 300, 302, 304, 308, 309, 314, 316, 317, 318, 319, 322, 327, 329, 330, 360, 363, 386, 402, 549Washington, George333Wāṣil ibn ʿAṭāʾ oration-text376–377 miscellaneous re. preaching36, 112, 115, 130, 189, 193, 208, 241, 264, 266, 375, 546Wāṣilah homily505water general mentions of32, 120, 127, 259, 360, 370, 389n25 abundant/scarce126 block access to216, 225 from the skies268, 273 few drops of115, 258, 356 sweet/brackish/bitter124, 269, 305 urinated-in-water118, 121, 122, 386, 396 watering hole/pool/well83, 102, 239, 387, 395 waterskin(s)120, 350, 363, 366see also mustard waterWāthilah ibn Khalīfah al-Sadūsī200waʿẓ, mawʿiẓah (term)14, 229, 266, 439n10, 562, 563see also pious counselweep/ing89, 188, 210, 211, 217, 218, 226, 243, 248, 307, 392, 399, 403West Africa/n433, 436, 478West/ern general mentions of11, 14, 53, 54, 170, 200, 310, 401, 430, 435n3, 443n25, 447, 453, 458, 477, 482, 483 Western battle speeches76, 293, 311, 312 Islamic West420see also East and Westwhip(s)194, 212see also sword and whipwicked/ness67, 164, 262, 263, 296, 305, 363, 365, 367evil12, 67, 240, 286, 290, 301, 322, 363, 365, 387, 399, 454, 470, 478 bad54, 288, 347, 361, 460 evildoers and deeds84, 89, 122, 123, 230, 318, 362, 391, 395 struggle against evil (jihād)34, 290see also good and evilwife41, 113, 141, 142, 148, 244, 302, 304, 343, 384, 388, 389, 395, 397, 398, 453, 459, 480, 553, 554, 557 see also Muḥammad: wiveswisdom4, 104, 125, 133, 135, 138, 142, 193, 238, 261, 265, 376, 411, 412, 423, 558, 562 wise25, 137, 138, 192, 193, 194, 209, 238, 240, 274, 553witness, to bear393, 419, 443 that there is no god but God66, 67, 68, 108, 287, 376, 441, 442 asking God to bear witness335, 370wolf122, 315, 393 wolf-bandit(s)/brigand wolf7n13, 143, 386Wolof479, 483women’s orations2, 19, 175, 383–405, 494, 510, 512, 520, 532, 534, 536, 538, 544, 548see also voice: women’sWorld War I/II see war/fareworld passim worldliness, materialism244, 245, 247, 248, 257, 258, 272, 278 worldly115, 124, 143, 162, 176, 232, 233, 236, 246, 247, 249, 254, 258, 259, 264, 265, 274, 281, 294, 296, 298, 307, 311, 330, 331, 332, 396wound/ed219, 254, 255, 316, 318, 387, 392, 399, 555, 556, 557 “If wounds afflict you” (Qurʾan verse)132, 324, 473, 474writing, write, written passimYamani, Sheikh Ahmad Hasan452Yaʿqūb ibn ʿAṭāʾ44n74, 45Yathrib (Medina)38, 172, 286Yazīd ibn Abī Sufyān38n49, 176, 546Yazīd ibn Anas al-Asadī76n55, 188, 546, 560Yazīd ibn Asad al-Bajalī74, 180, 193, 195, 294, 304, 324n109, 326, 546, 560Yazīd ibn ʿĀṣim al-Muḥāribī180, 560Yazīd ibn al-Ḥārith219, 222, 315Yazīd (I) ibn Muʿāwiyah67, 77, 80, 104, 133, 182, 184, 185, 187, 188, 206, 215, 216, 220, 221, 222, 224, 258n110, 259n114, 259n118, 278, 281, 285, 286, 336, 337, 348, 350, 352, 359, 390, 391, 392, 395, 396, 399, 402, 403, 404, 405, 417, 487, 489, 509, 519, 527, 541, 546, 549, 560Yazīd ibn al-Muhallab oration-text308 miscellaneous re. orations and career68, 79, 326, 440n18, 517, 546, 560Yazīd ibn Muqniʿ337Yazīd ibn Qays al-Arḥabī179, 306, 548, 560Yazīd (III) ibn al-Walīd oration-text343 miscellaneous re. orations and caliphate87n117, 146, 182, 342, 353, 440n18, 548, 561Yazīd ibn Ziyād140n201Yāzūrī416Year of Unification (ʿām al-jamāʿah)182Yemen39, 126, 189, 377, 381, 384, 425, 434, 443, 454, 488, 490, 496, 514, 520, 534, 538, 548, 552, 556, 559, 561 Yemeni147, 185, 195, 342see also SanaaYūsuf al-Fihrī302Yūsuf ibn ʿUmar al-Thaqafī78–79, 199, 232, 281, 366, 548, 561Zabrāʾ125, 383, 548, 561Ẓabyān ibn Ḥaddād127, 548, 561Zahrāʾ homily505Ẓāhir (Fatimid imam-caliph)415Zāʾidah ibn Qudāmah76n53, 309, 313, 548, 561Zakzouk, Mahmoud437, 438Zarqāʾ bint ʿAdī178, 295, 384, 394, 396, 399, 400, 548, 561Zayd ibn ʿAlī31, 163, 276, 293, 366, 410, 548, 549, 561see also Shiʿa: Zaydī; revolt: ZaydīZayd ibn Arqam218, 334Zayd ibn Ḥuṣayn al-Ṭāʾī179, 561Zayd ibn Thābit39n50–52, 103, 353Zayd ibn Wahb al-Juhanī44Zaynab bint ʿAlī oration-text390–394 miscellaneous re. Karbala and orations77, 104, 108, 115n94, 163, 187, 226, 295, 311, 383, 384, 395, 396, 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 448, 545, 548, 561Ziyād ibn Abīhi oration-text345–348, 360, 361 miscellaneous re. orations and career31, 39, 73, 76n58, 86, 87, 98, 108, 116, 117, 138, 140, 149, 164, 168, 179, 183, 184, 190, 206, 215, 225, 267, 350, 358, 359–361, 408, 411, 440n18, 541, 548, 555, 556, 559, 561Ziyād ibn Kaʿb179, 550, 561Ziyād ibn al-Naḍr al-Ḥārithī179, 561Zoroastrian(s)45n7, 225Zubayr ibn ʿAlī al-Salīṭī87, 131, 134, 189, 297, 324, 550, 561Zubayr ibn al-ʿAwwām77, 83, 84, 88, 177, 180, 359, 388, 552, 557, 561Zufar ibn Qays179, 550, 561Zuhayr ibn Abī Sulmā139Zuhayr ibn Qayn140n201, 187, 196, 213, 227, 294, 310, 550, 561Zuhrī43Zulu panegyrics18, 91