Indexabako (Alliance des Bakongo) 262263Abbenhuis, Maartje 56Abbeville 180181, 218Abkhazia 295acs (Association of Caribbean States) 284activism/activists. See language questionAdamthwaite, Anthony 132n14, 173Adenauer, Konrad 260261Adler, Les K. 155n96Aerts, Koen 357, 359Afghanistan 266, 319, 328329Agius, Christine 321n238, 340341Albania 79, 80n89, 148, 261, 291, 362Albert Canal. See BelgiumAlbert de Ligne, Prince 60n38Albert i (King of the Belgians) xi, 29n42, 4546, 4849n10, 51n12, 53, 5354n20, 54, 56, 56n28, 57, 62n48, 63, 63n51, 105n148, 107n160, 113, 113n180, 114, 180Albert, Prince (future King Albert ii of the Belgians) 208Alexander (King of Yugoslavia) 66Alexander, Martin S. 5253n15, 94n128, 117n193, 118Algemeene Bankvereeniging 70Algemeene SS Vlaanderen 218Algeria 197, 262, 302, 316alliances. See International RelationsAlsace and Lorraine 197, 232American Civil War 2324, 24n25Amery, L. S. 212n38Anderson, John 232n96Andorra 272, 288, 288n65, 292n82, 362Anglo-French Alliance Treaty, March 1947, 250Anglo-French One-Way Treaty of Guarantee, April 1937 117, 119, 122, 126128, 128n2, 133, 144, 162, 348Anglo-French Union 196197, 197n2Anglo-German Declaration of 30 September 1938 137, 137n31Anglo-German Naval Accord, June 1935 7778, 78n84, 137, 148Anglo-Irish Treaty, 1921 307Angola 43, 316, 362Annan, Kofi 294Anschluss 134, 303Anseele, Edward 49Anti-Comintern Pact 133anti-communism 77n80, 9899, 130n8, 133, 137138n33, 149n73, 150n77, 155156, 204, 216, 217n47, 221, 257258, 308, 342Antigua and Barbuda 272, 284285, 362antimilitarism 16, 16n4, 30anti-Semitism 77n80, 225226, 233235, 234235n101, 333334Antwerp, city of 16n2, 48, 95, 219n51, 234, 239, 257, 271Antwerp-Namur Line 144, 163, 163n117, 169, 175, 180Antwerp redoubt. See fortificationsappeasement 78, 90, 123, 123n211, 126, 130n8, 139, 139n38, 140141, 194Archer, Clive 279, 317319Archives of the Royal Palace. See BelgiumArdennes. See BelgiumArmenia 294, 295n91, 296n98, 298, 362Art, Robert J. 350asean (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) 281282, 290AS/GL (Armée Secrète/Geheim Leger) 237Astrid (Queen of the Belgians) 114, 114n184, 230Atlantic alliance. See natoAtlantic Charter 212, 212n38, 213, 351atrocities/anti-atrocities campaign. See CongoAttlee, Clement 172n138AU (African Union) 290, 315n207Auschwitz 234, 234235n101Australia 213n40, 270n202, 362Austria/Austria-Hungary 11, 18, 21n19, 22, 24, 30, 79, 80n89, 135136, 199n6, 241, 270n202, 275, 287, 292n82, 301304, 304n143, 305n148, 305307, 330331, 335336, 339341, 362Austrian neutrality. See neutralityAustrian State Treaty, 1955 275, 303Austro-Prussian War, 1866 2324, 26n33, 29n42authoritarian regimes (AR). See Democracy IndexAuwers, Michael, xi 16n4, 4748n9awacs (Airborne Warning and Control System) 304Axis Powers 203, 213, 333Azerbaijan 294, 295n91, 296n98, 298, 362Azores 204Baehr, Peter R. 277Baels, Henri 230Baels, Lilian (Princess of Réthy) 230, 230n88Bahamas, The 272, 284, 362Bahrain 302n132, 362Bailes, Alyson J. K. 279Balace, Francis 23n24, 174n143balancing/balance of power. See International RelationsBaldachino, Godfrey 336Baldwin, Stanley 68, 78, 80, 80n90, 123Balkans, The 30, 149n71, 211, 290292Balthazar, Arthur 189190n184, 207n28Baltic States/Area 149, 149n73, 150, 275276, 297300, 300n121, 321, 326, 349351, 351n9bandwagoning. See International RelationsBangladesh 314n203Banning, Émile 21n21, 30Banque Belge du Travail/Belgische Bank van de Arbeid 70Barbados 272, 284, 362Bargen, Werner von 234235n101Bargeton, Paul 135Barthou, Louis 6466, 67n59, 69, 76Basque Region 129Basyn, Jacques-Antoine 243244n121Battle of Britain 203, 211Baudouin/Boudewijn (Prince, King of the Belgians) 208, 252253, 253n154, 255256, 256n160, 262264bck (Compagnie du Chemin de Fer du Bas-Congo au Katanga) 145Bech, Joseph 204Bêchet, Christophe 2627n35Beck, Józef 88n112, 148, 151Beernaert, Auguste 30Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony 211n36bef (British Expeditionary Force) 178n151Belarus 294, 295n91, 296n98, 298, 362, 366naBelgian army mobilisations 138, 138n35, 157n102, 160n108, 168, 174, 178Belgian army, unilingual units. See language questionBelgian Congo. See CongoBelgian Constitution of 1831. See BelgiumBelgian economy/finances. See BelgiumBelgian elections. See BelgiumBelgian Foreign Ministry. See BelgiumBelgian-German Non-Aggression Pact, 1937 66, 120, 120n203, 121, 124126, 128, 128n2, 177, 348Belgian government-in-exile (London) 34, 190191n185, 203207, 207n28, 209, 229230, 232233, 237, 240Belgian National Archives. See BelgiumBelgian National Bank. See BelgiumBelgian national sentiment. See BelgiumBelgian neutrality. See neutralityBelgian rearmament. See rearmamentBelgian Relief Commission 39, 42, 207Belgian war aims. See World War iBelgium 57, 7n16, 911, 1718, 2223, 2526, 28, 3035, 35n59, 3738, 38n74, 3940, 42, 45, 45n4, 4647n7, 4748n9, 52, 5455, 57, 59, 61, 6364, 67, 67n59–n60, 68, 72n70, 74, 78, 81, 83, 84n103, 85, 86n106, 87, 87n107, 89, 9193, 95, 95n130, 9697, 100101, 101n138, 103n142, 104, 104n145, 104n146, 105, 105n148, 106109, 109n163, 111n169, 113114, 114115n187, 115117, 117n193, 118120, 120n200, 121122, 122n208, 123129, 129130n6, 131132, 135, 135n23, 136, 136n26, 138, 138n35, 144145, 153, 156, 158159, 161, 161n111, 162, 162n112, 163, 165169, 171172, 172n139, 174, 175n146, 176, 176n147–n148, 177179, 179n153, 180, 183, 183n168, 184, 184n169, 186188, 189190n184, 209, 209n30, 210, 210n33, 211, 211n35–n36, 212n37, 213, 213n41, 214217, 219n51, 223, 225, 225n69, 226, 227n75, 228, 230n88, 231233, 240, 243245, 247248, 248n139–n140, 249251, 256257, 257n165, 258, 258n169, 259, 261, 265271, 273274, 276277, 290, 310312, 313n196, 314n203, 315n207, 316, 330, 336337, 342343, 347349, 349n1, 351354, 357360, 362Albert Canal 48, 69n65, 9495, 95n129, 144, 158, 163, 163n117, 170, 175Archives of the Royal Palace xiArdennes 154, 172173n140, 175, 177, 243, 243n119Constitution of 1831 111Article 64 111, 111n167Article 68 113, 192Article 82 187, 192, 209n30constitutional revisions 11, 266, 266n195Eastern Cantons 44, 44n3, 248, 357Eupen 43, 82n96Malmédy 43, 82n96Sankt-Vith 43economy/finances 51, 5859, 6974, 102, 134, 134n22, 146, 146n54, 147, 222elections1929 49, 971932 56n28, 77, 97981936 87, 9799, 1041939 143, 144n491946 2452461949 2532541950 255, 255n159Foreign Ministry x, xiii, 95, 101102n140, 110n165, 112, 132n13, 164n118, 169n128military reforms 16, 16n4, 2627, 41, 52, 55n25, 62, 87, 95, 95n130, 106107, 109110n164, 110, 116n190, 117, 121122, 122n208, 123n209, 124, 129, 133, 274military service 48, 4849n10, 49, 83, 87, 89, 95, 101, 106107, 109110n164, 114115n187, 121n206, 122, 122n208, 129, 257, 276n5, 342National Archives x, xin8, xiiiNational Bank 68n62, 7172, 133, 198national sentiment 18, 181, 248political partiesbsp (Belgische Socialistische Partij) 245246n130bwp/pob (Belgian Workers’ Party/Belgische Werkliedenpartij/Parti Ouvrier Belge) xii, 11, 47, 47n8, 49, 51, 5354n20, 70, 73n71, 74, 97, 99101, 105, 110, 121122, 129130n6, 130131, 131n10, 132, 135, 135n24, 170, 220, 220221n54, 352, 358Catholic Party (after October 1936: Parti Catholique Social/Katholieke Vlaamsche Volkspartij) 11, 30, 32, 47n8, 4950, 56n28, 68, 70, 7071n68, 72, 73n71, 74, 98101, 110, 122, 129130n6, 131, 133n17, 135n24, 143144, 170, 243, 245, 245n126, 253n153cdh (Centre Democratique Humaniste) 245n126, 269CD&V (Christen Democratisch en Vlaams) 245n127, 269270Communist Party (Parti Communiste Belge/Kommunistische Partij van België) 56n28, 97, 122, 131, 143, 150151n78, 170, 239, 243, 246, 248n140, 252, 257cvp (Christelijke Volkspartij) 245, 245n127, 255DéFI (Démocrate Fédéraliste Indépendant) 245n128Ecolo (French-speaking Green Party) 271fdf (Front Démocratique des Francophones/Fédéralistes Démocrates Francophones) 245n128, 265Frontists (Frontpartij) 4950, 98, 133Groen (Flemish Green Party) 271Liberal Party 11, 30, 47n8, 49, 56n28, 70, 7071n68, 73n71, 74, 99101, 105, 110, 122, 129130n6, 135n24, 143144, 170171, 245mcc (Mouvement des Citoyens pour le Changement) 245n128MR (Mouvement Réformateur) 245n128, 268270N-VA (Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie) 269271Partij voor Vrijheid en Vooruitgang 245n129, 255Parti pour la Liberté et le Progrès 245n128PP (Parti Populaire) 270prl (Parti Réformateur Liberal) 245PS (Parti Socialiste) 245, 268269, 271psb (Parti Socialiste Belge) 243, 245, 245n126, 245246n130, 252, 255psc (Parti Social Chrétien) 245, 245n126, 255ptb (Parti du Travail de Belgique – Workers’ Party of Belgium) 271pvda (Partij van de Arbeid van België – Workers’ Party of Belgium) 271Rexism/Rexists (Christus Rex) 51, 9799, 99n135, 100, 105, 110, 122, 133n17, 143, 170, 188, 218, 218n49, 221, 359SP (Socialistische Partij) 245, 245246n130, 255SP.A (Socialistische Partij Anders/Alternatief) 245246n130, 269udb (Union Démocratique Belge) 243244n121, 246VB (Vlaams Belang, former Vlaams Blok) 270271vld (Vlaams Liberalen en Democraten, from 2007, Open vld) 245, 245n129, 268270vnv (Vlaams Nationaal Verbond) 51, 9798, 122, 143, 170, 218, 358359Belgium-Luxemburg Economic Union, 1921 4647, 4748n9, 71, 342Belgium’s return to neutrality, 1936–40. See neutralityBelgrave Square (London) 203Belize 272, 284, 362Belkin, Aaron 3Bellefroid, Diane de 240n111Benelux Countries 80n89, 260, 275, 292n82, 313, 316Benelux Customs’ and Cultural Union 205, 240, 240241n113, 310Beneš, Edvard 77n80, 88n112, 135136, 139Benin 362Berchtesgaden 136, 223, 223n62, 224, 358Bergsmann, Stefan 27n36Berlin Act, 1885 33, 39, 40n77Berlin Blockade 250Berlin Wall 266, 304, 340Best, Antony, et al. 148n70, 150n78, 151n79–n80, 172n139, 273n1, 281n23, 281n25, 282n27, 290291n77, 293n84, 328n272, 352n10Bevin, Ernest 172n138, 250Beyens, Eugène 96n131, 127n1bff (British Field Force) 178n151, 180, 190Bhutan 362Bildt, Carl 321Binding 337338Bingen, Franz, xiiBinion, Rudolph 113114, 114n184Bismarck, Otto von 29n42, 30, 30n44Blake, Francis 158Blitzkrieg 152, 152n84, 171Bloch, Marc 173Blondel, Jules 103n142Blum, Léon 83, 9697n132, 103n142, 115, 122, 129, 130n8, 132n14Bock, Fedor von 177, 182, 185n172Boerenbond 70, 72Bohemia and Moravia 141Bolivia 362Bolshevism/Bolsheviks 74, 77, 9798, 212n37, 226n72, 227, 348, 352Bond, Brian 119, 158, 163n117, 175n145, 178n151, 182, 185n172, 190191n185Borchgrave, Jacques de 131n10Bordeaux 196, 198n4, 199, 199n8Borremans, Jean 246n131Borchert, Heike 335Bosnia and Herzegovina 291, 305n148, 314, 335, 362, 367nbBotswana 282, 282283n30, 362Boulanger, Georges 30Bovesse, Francis 5657n28, 7071n68, 73n71, 188, 218n49Braithwaite, John 279280n17Braun, Mats 300Braurer, Curt 77n81, 89n116, 127128, 128n2Brauschitsch, Walthere von 182Braveboy-Wagner, Jacqueline Anne 284285Brazil 327Brazza, Pierre Savorgnan de 34n56Brazzaville 34n56, 263Breda 164, 178Breendonk, Fort 175Brescianino, Clementina 82n96, 86n105Breton redoubt 196Brialmont, Henri-Alexis 30Bridge, F. Roy 330Britain. See United KingdomBritish Defence White Paper, 1935 75British rearmament. See rearmamentBroqueville, Charles de 49, 56, 56n28, 61n44, 62, 62n48, 6364, 64n53, 64n54, 6869, 114, 133Brook, Alan 185n172Bruce, David K. E. 232Brugère, Raymond 56n26Bruges/Brugge 180181, 264n191Brunei 282, 363Brussels, city of/Region 50, 7273, 133, 165, 175, 176n148, 188189n182, 208, 218n50, 219, 219n51, 226227, 227n75, 228229, 234, 241, 246, 254255, 263, 265266, 268269, 276, 301Brussels, University of. See ulbbsp (Belgische Socialistische Partij). See Belgium: political partiesbuck passing. See International RelationsBulgaria 250251n146, 261, 270n202, 291, 292n82, 362Bullen, Roger 330Bülow-Schwante, Vicco von 138n36, 177, 177n149Burkina Faso 363Burma. See MyanmarBurundi 265, 266267n196, 316, 363Bus de Warnaffe, Charles du 7071n68, 73n71, 251n148Bush, George W. 268Buxton, G. Edward 231232Buzan, Barry 7n16bwp/pob (Belgian Workers’ Party/Belgische Werkliedenpartij/Parti Ouvrier Belge). See Belgium: political partiesCabinda Enclave 43Cabo Verde 316, 363Caddick-Adams, Peter 178n152Cadogan, Alexander 200Calvocoressi, Peter 340Cambodia 282, 363Cameroon 363Campbell, Ronald Hugh 65n57Canada 213n40, 248, 250, 314n203, 315n207, 327, 346n345Canal Line (Valenciennes to Gravelines) 182Canaris, Wilhelm 159Canary Islands 203cap (Common Agricultural Policy) 313, 338Capelle, Robert 65n57, 87n107, 105n148, 160n108, 164n118, 188, 189190n184, 208, 209n30, 223n62, 225, 228229Caribbean Sea 272, 273n1, 284286, 338caricom (Caribbean Community) 284286, 290cariforum 286Carley, Michael Jabara 150, 150n77Cartier de Marchienne, Émile de 111112Carton, de Wiart, Edmund 191192n189Caserne Dossin 234casualties. See World War i and World War iiCatalonia 129Catholic Church 17, 32n51, 133n17, 193, 193n192, 221, 221n55, 235, 258n168, 288n65, 308, 358Catholic Party. See Belgium: political partiesCauvin, André 233cci (Comité Central Industriel) 222cdh (Centre Démocratique Humaniste). See Belgium: political partiesCD&V (Christen-Démocratische en Vlaams). See Belgium: political partiesCecil, Lord Robert 139n37ceges/soma (Centre d’Études et de Documentation Guerre et Société Contemporaine/Studie- en Documentatiecentrum Oorlog en Hedendaagse Maatschappij/Centre for Historical Research and Documentation on War and Contemporary Society) xi, xin8, 235Central African Republic 363Central and Eastern Europe 66, 67n59, 69, 77, 8384n100, 88n112, 92, 95n130, 122, 126, 139n38, 148151, 195, 212n38, 251, 260; 298, 300, 313, 351352cepag (Commission d’étude des problems de l’après-guerre/Committee for the Study of Postwar Problems) 240, 240n111Cerruti, Vittorio 87cfdp (Common Foreign and Defence Policy) 276277, 339cfl (Compagnie du Chemin de Fer du Congo Supérieur aux Grands Lacs Africains) 145cfsp (Common Foreign and Security Policy) 275, 305307, 318, 335, 340Chad 310, 363Chamberlain, Neville 123, 136, 136n27, 137, 137n32, 141, 148n67, 149, 151153, 153n87, 165, 172n138Charleroi 74, 218n50, 246Charles, Noel 106Charles, Paul 7071n68Charles, Prince (Regent) 228n76, 241, 241n116, 242, 242n117, 251n148, 255Charlotte of Belgium, Princess 24Charlotte of Luxemburg, Grand Duchess 46, 204205Charmley, John 140n39Chasseurs Ardennais, Les 174Chastel de la Howarderie, Ferdinand du 120n204Chevalier, Christophe 26n33Chile 363China (before 1949) 2829n41, 213n40China, People’s Republic of 251, 282, 282n27, 344, 344n342, 344345n343, 346n345, 361n2–n3Chong, Alan 283284Christensen, Thomas 27n36Churchill, Winston S. 139140, 140n39–n40, 141, 149n73, 159, 168, 171172n137, 172n138, 190191, 190191n185, 191n186, 191192n189, 193194n194, 196197, 197n2, 200, 211n36, 212, 212n38, 213, 229, 242n117, 244, 251, 332, 334, 357358cia (Central Intelligence Agency) World Factbook 344, 362, 367neCiano, Galeazzo 166167Cienciala, Anna M. 139n38Clarence (intelligence-gathering network) 239240n110Classical Realism. Seeirt (IR Theories)Claudel, Paul 61n46, 65n57Claus, Hugo 220Cleeremans, Jean 191n187, 224n63Clerk, George Russell 63n52climate/environment 318n218, 325326, 345Clinton, Bill (William Jefferson) 350n4Clive, Robert 128n4Cold War/post-Cold War xii, 56, 92, 104, 130n8, 155, 248249n141, 249, 250n145, 251, 261, 265266, 273n1, 275, 279, 283, 302303, 309, 309n173, 317, 317n215, 320321, 329, 339340, 341n339, 343, 345, 347352, 360Colignon, Alain 110111, 123n209, 169170, 219220n52Colin, Paul 218n49collaboration/collaborators. See World War iicollective security. See securityCollin, Fernand 215Colombia 284, 327Colonels-affaire or Obersten-Affaire, 1916 331Colonial Charter of 1908 147Comintern (Communist International) 130Comité National Belge 205Commonwealth 263, 282283, 307Communism/Communists 100, 130n8, 137138n33, 151, 155, 195, 198n4, 212n37, 217, 237238n106, 239, 242243, 243n119, 245, 250, 255, 257, 263, 268269, 320, 342, 352, 359Communist Party of Belgium (Parti Communiste Belge/Kommunistische Partij van België). See Belgium: political partiesComoros 363Compagnie du Chemin de Fer du Katanga 145Compagnie du Congo pour la Commerce et l’Industrie 145Concert of Europe 17, 19, 1920n17, 20, 20n19, 350Condor Legion 132Congo xi, 33, 34n56, 123n211, 147148n65atrocities/anti-atrocities campaign 3334, 34n56Belgian Congo 34, 3940, 40n77, 43n2, 145147, 176n148, 180, 185n171, 198, 200201, 206, 208210, 213n39, 224, 232233, 233n97, 238239n108, 260264, 316, 359Congo Free State 33Congo River/Basin 33, 39, 43, 145évolué class 261export-import statistics 146, 146n56–n57Force Publique 39, 43n2, 238239n108immatriculation 147, 261missionaries 146, 146n55White Fathers 147Zaïre 265, 266267n196Congo Crisis 261, 264265, 309, 327n270Congo Free State. See CongoCongolese exports/imports. See CongoCongolese neutrality. See neutralityCongolese uranium 232, 232n96Congo, Republic of the 363Congo River/Basin. See CongoCongrès National Wallon 246Consociational Democracy 259, 259n171Constructivism. Seeirt (IR Theories)Consultative Council 207n28content analysis 355Continuation War, 1941–45 155Convention of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1919 145Conway, Martin 5152n13, 221, 240n112, 243244, 243244n121, 246n131, 248n139, 249250n144Coolsaet, Rik, xi 26n33, 265Cooper, Andrew Fenton 285Corbin, Charles 58n34Cornet de Ways-Ruart, Louis 229Cornil, Léon 228n76, 251n148corporatism 51, 101Costa Rica 213n40, 288n67, 363Côte d’Ivoire 363Couloumbis, Theodore A. 294Council of Europe 303Counterfactual History/questions/reasoning ix, 13, 4n6, 10, 10n37, 12n38, 22, 22n22, 3637, 40, 9293, 93n124, 141, 155, 214n42, 258, 337, 347, 354, 357360Cox, Michael 340Craeybeckx, Jan 99Creswell, Michael 260261Crimea 349n1Crimean War, 1854–56 19, 20n17, 23, 23n23, 29n42Croatia 291, 291n78, 292n82, 304, 314n203, 363, 367nb–nccsce (Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe) 275, 287, 304, 324325csdp (Common Security and Defence Policy) 296, 305n148, 309, 318csme (caricom Single Market and Economy) 285286Cuba 213n40, 284, 363Cudahy, John 192, 192n190Cumont, Adolphe 71, 83, 94Curzon Line 150cvp (Christelijke Volkspartij). See Belgium: political partiesCyprus, Republic of 288, 288n65, 294, 294n90, 309, 327n270, 363Cyprus, Turkish Republic of Northern 294, 294n90Czech Crisis, 1938. See CzechoslovakiaCzechia/Czech Republic 250251n146, 270n202, 295, 300301, 350n4, 363, 367nd, 367njCzechoslovakia 55, 77n80, 8384n100, 88, 101n138, 135137, 137n28, 138, 138n36, 139, 139n38, 140, 140n40, 141142, 142n43, 144, 206, 213n40, 250, 261, 300, 300n122, 301, 303304, 339, 367ndCzech Crisis, 1938 88n111, 135, 135n25, 136142Munich Agreement of 1938 137138, 137138n33, 138n35, 139, 139n38, 141142Dahl, Anne-Sophie 321Daladier, Edouard 60, 118, 137, 137n30, 137138n33, 156, 156n97, 187, 187n178, 196n1Danish Freedom Council 320Danzig/Gdansk 148, 148n67, 151, 173Davignon, Jacques 120, 120n203, 159160, 160n108, 164166, 223n62D-Day landings in Normandy 231232, 238De Brouckère, Louis 241Declaration on Liberated Europe 212n38De Clercq, Staf 51, 98, 176n148, 217219, 219n51, 222, 358decolonisation 261, 263, 272, 273n1, 316, 339Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement (dcfta) 296, 296n98DéFI (Démocrate Fédéraliste Indépendant). See Belgium: political partiesdefinition of neutrality. See neutralityDe Fraiteur, Raoul 246n131, 249250n144de Gaulle, Charles 196, 205, 205n26, 206n27, 247248, 262263, 265, 265n193, 358Degrelle, Léon 51, 5152n13, 9899, 105n149, 133, 133n17, 181, 218, 218n50, 221, 222, 236, 239240n110De Greve, Jean-Pierre xiiDelacroix, Léon 74Delattre, Achille 73n71Delbos, Yvon 9697n132, 103n142, 108, 115116, 122Delfosse, Antoine 167n127, 207n28Delors, Jacques 304Delsemme, Martine xiiiDelsemme, Paul xiiiDelvoie, Maurice 160n108, 162163De Man, Hendrik 51, 7273, 7374n71, 97, 101, 130131, 131n10, 133134, 134n19, 161, 167n127, 202, 220, 220221n54, 222, 222223n60, 225, 358Demany, Fernand 242Demets, Fernand 242n118democracy 11, 1112n38, 13, 50, 101102, 106, 125, 155, 244, 256, 259, 272277, 284285, 295, 297298, 302, 326, 336, 342, 346, 348, 352353, 361362definition 1112n38, 272273democracy in Belgium 11, 1112n38, 45, 4950, 99101, 244, 253254n155, 259Democracy Index (DI) 11, 1112n38, 272, 282, 288n65, 302, 302n132, 317, 336, 361366, 367nhauthoritarian regimes (AR) 272, 282283n30, 284, 294, 295n91, 302n132, 361366flawed democracies (FlD) 272273, 282283, 282283n30, 284285, 288n65, 288n67, 291, 294295, 302, 336, 361366full democracies (FD) 272, 285, 288n65, 295, 303, 310, 315, 317, 336, 361366hybrid regimes (HR) 272, 282283n30, 284, 288n65, 291, 294295, 295n91, 302n132, 361366Deng Xiaoping 282n27Denis, Henri 101, 101n139, 121n206, 135n24, 144, 162, 168, 170, 176n148, 180, 183, 189190n184Denmark 54, 59, 153, 156, 169, 179n153, 250, 275, 292n82, 314n203, 317318, 320, 322323, 325326, 326n267, 328329, 331, 363De Panne 180, 191n186De Schaepdrijver, Sophie xi, 38n74, 253254n155De Schrijver, August 73n71, 207n28, 242n118, 263Desiré, Claude 230n88De Smaele, Albert 243n120, 246n131Desneux, Pierre xDe Staerke, André 228n76, 230, 241, 241n116, 242, 242n117, 251n148, 260Destrée, Jules 74de Valera, Éamon 307308developmental states 281282, 286Devèze, Albert 56, 56n27, 62, 62n48, 69, 69n65, 7071n68, 71, 8284, 84n101–n102, 94, 95n130, 101, 101n139, 107, 167n127, 192Devine, Karen 340DeVlag (Deutsch-Flämische Arbeitgemeinschaft/Duitsch-Vlaamsche Arbeidgemeenschap) 218219, 236De Vleeshauwer, Albert 135n24, 199200, 200n9–n10, 202, 206, 207n28, 208, 242n118, 253254n155, 256n160, 358Develeeshouwer, Robert 105n148, 106, 107n160De Voghel, Franz 243244n121De Vos, Luc 237238n106, 264n191Dewé, Walthère 239240n110De Wever, Bart 269, 271De Wever, Bruno 357, 359De Wilde, Maurice 224n63, 225, 228De Witte, Ludo 264n191Dierckx, Octave 5657n28, 135n24Dill, John 94n128Dinesen, Ruxandra Lupu 295296Di Rupo, Elio 269Disarmament Conference, Geneva, 1932–34 41, 5556, 58, 6062, 6263n49, 63, 65, 125, 312, 343Dispy, Raymond 242n118Djibouti 363Dominica 272, 284, 363Dominican Republic 213n40, 284, 286, 363Dominions 140n40Doumergue, Gaston 64Drahos, Peter 279280n17Dreyer, John R. 7n16, 9, 16n4, 128129n4, 155, 278n15, 279n16, 309n173, 331n291, 337Dubois, Sébastien 18Dujardin, Vincent 88n110, 134n19, 216217, 255n158, 256n160, 257n165Dumont-Wilden, Louis 114115n187Dumoulin, Michel 31, 88n110, 101102n140, 105n148, 109n163, 110n165, 112, 134n19, 246247, 257n165Dunkirk 181183, 187, 190, 193194, 193194n194, 196, 250, 357Dupong, Pierre 204Duroselle, Jean-Baptiste 66, 8081n90, 82n94–n95, 8384n100, 132n14, 156n97, 173Dutch East Indies 185n171, 312Dutch neutrality. See neutralityDutry, Armand 211n36Dutry-Soinne, Tinou 211n36Duursma, Jorri 286, 286n55, 287Duvieusart, Jean 249250n144, 255, 255n159, 256Dyle River 163n117, 177eapc (Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council) 305Eastern Cantons. See BelgiumEaton Place—Eaton Square (London) 203Eben-Emael. See fortificationsEC/EU (European Communities/European Union) 257n165, 265, 275277, 277n6, 279, 280, 280n19, 281282, 286, 290291, 291n78, 292, 292n82, 293n84, 294296, 296n98, 297, 297n100, 298300, 300n121, 301, 304, 304n143, 305, 307, 309, 313, 313314n198, 315, 317, 319, 321, 321n236, 323324, 328329, 330n284, 334335, 337341, 344n342, 346n345, 348349, 349n1, 351n9Ecolo (French-speaking Green Party). See Belgium: political partiesEconomist Intelligence Unit 1112n38, 272, 361ecowas (Economic Community of West African States) 315n207ecsc (European Coal and Steel Community) 257Ecuador 363edc (European Defence Community) 250251n146, 257, 257n165, 260Eden, Anthony, (Earl of Avon) 8081, 85, 85n103, 8788, 88n110, 89, 91, 93, 93n126, 103, 119, 127n1, 141, 191, 260eea (European Economic Area) 287288, 304, 319, 334eec (European Economic Community) 259260, 260n173, 275, 303, 310, 313, 334efta (European Free Trade Association) 275, 287288, 303304, 319, 334Egypt 314n203, 327, 368nnEighteen Days’ Campaign 113, 178n150, 185186n173, 193, 206Eilat 327Ekengren, Magnus 321Elisabeth (Queen of the Belgians) 158, 225226Elisabethville (Lumumbashi) 264Elman, Miriam Fendius 8, 337El Salvador 213n40, 363Emmerson, James T. 85n103, 9091, 91n119–n120, 92, 92n123empire by imposition/empire by invitation 339Empiricism 354England. See United KingdomEnglish School of IR. See International RelationsEnos-Attali, Sophie 4enp (European Neighbourhood Policy) 296Epstein, Jonathan A. 4849n10, 101n139, 118n195, 123n209, 138n35, 172173n140, 175n146Equatorial Guinea 282283n30, 363Eritrea 363Erlikman, Vadim 43n2Estonia 154, 250251n146, 295, 297, 299300, 323, 363Ethiopia/Abyssinia 76, 7880, 80n89, 81, 81n92, 82, 91, 102, 103n142, 134n21, 167, 200, 210, 238239n108ethnic cleansing 290, 290291n77Eupen. See Belgium: Eastern Cantonseupm (European Union Police Mission) 305n148Europäische Grossraumwirtschaft 357European Court of Human Rights 306European Union Constitutional Treaty, 2005 313, 313314n201Eurozone 293, 293n84, 300eutm (European Union Training Mission in Mali) 310Evans, Graham 45évolué class. See CongoEyskens, Gaston 243n120, 249250n144, 253254, 253254n155, 255n158, 263failed states 344Fall Gelb (Operation Yellow) 154, 172, 175Fanning, Ronan 307309Fascism/Fascists 98100, 129, 129130n6, 136, 137138n33, 225, 323, 342, 352Félix of Bourbon-Parma, Prince 204Ferguson, Niall 2, 3638, 38n74, 140141n41fdf (Front Démocratique des Francophones/Fédéralistes Démocrates Francophones). See Belgium: political partiesFianna Fáil (The Warriors of Destiny) 307Fidesz (Hungarian Civic Alliance) 301Fiji 288, 363Finland 54, 101n138, 149, 153156, 156n97, 171, 275, 277n7, 298, 305306, 315n207, 317, 322325, 325n261, 326, 329, 335336, 339341, 363Finlandisation 275, 317, 324325Finnemore, Martha 325FI/OF (Front de l’Indépendance/Onafhankelijkheidsfront/Front for Independence) 220221n54, 237, 239First or Little Northern War, 1655–60 322First Vienna Award, 1938 142n43First World War. See World War i.Flahaut, André 268Flamenpolitik. See language questionFlamingia 232Flanders 4950, 98, 100, 105, 171, 181, 192n190, 218220, 222, 230231, 236, 246, 254, 254n157, 266, 266n195, 269, 271, 276, 358Flandin, Pierre-Étienne 76, 81, 8384n100, 85, 8788, 91, 91n120flawed democracies (FlD). See Democracy IndexFlemish nationalism/separatism. See language questionForce Publique. See CongoForminière (Société Internationale Forestière er Minière) 145fortifications 16, 16n3, 52, 53n16, 57, 60, 62, 62n48, 69, 84n102, 118Antwerp redoubt 26, 26n33, 3031, 69n65Eben-Emael 53, 62, 175, 175n146Meuse forts 3031, 31n45, 53Forsberg, Tuomas 324325Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation, and Security Between nato and the Russian Federation, 1997 350Four-Power Pact, 1933 5960, 60n42, 139n38Fourteen Points 45, 212Fox, Annette Baker 277, 277n7fpö (Freiheitlichen Partei Österreichs/Freedom Party of Austria) 306France 5, 11, 20, 2021n19, 2223, 23n23, 2425, 25n28, 26, 28, 29n42, 30, 32, 32n51, 33, 34n56, 35, 37, 4041, 45, 45n4, 4647n7, 4748n9, 52, 5455, 56n27, 59, 61, 6263n49, 6566, 67n60, 71, 72n70, 7475, 77n80, 79, 8182, 82n94, 83, 84n102, 85, 86n106, 87, 88n112, 89, 89n114, 9094, 94n128, 95, 95n130, 97, 101, 103, 104n145, 105n148, 106109, 114, 114115n187, 115119, 122123, 125126, 127, 130n8, 131132, 132n14, 135, 135n23, 136, 137138n33, 138n35, 139, 139n38, 140142, 144, 148149, 149n72–n73, 150, 150n77, 151, 151n80, 152, 152n84, 153157, 161, 161n111, 163, 163n117, 165166, 168, 171172, 172n139, 172173n140, 173, 173174n141, 175176, 176n148, 178179, 179n153, 180, 180n155, 182, 186, 188189, 190191n185, 193, 193194n194, 194195, 196197, 197n2, 198, 198n4, 199200, 202203, 203n21, 205206, 207n28, 210, 217, 219220, 223, 225, 232, 237, 245248, 248n140, 250, 257, 259261, 265, 267, 273n1, 274275, 282, 288, 292n82, 314n203, 315, 315n207, 316, 327, 330333, 342343, 347348, 351352France-Belgium commercial and financial relations 5859, 7174Franck, Louis 71Franco-Belgian Military Accord, 1920 4041, 47, 4748n9, 48, 4849n10, 5354, 54n21, 56, 60, 61n47, 64, 64n54, 66, 75, 77n80, 83, 83n98, 84, 84n101–n102, 8586, 86n105–n106, 89, 9495, 120n200, 188, 342Franco-Belgian military staff talks 4849n10, 71, 83, 84n101, 86, 94, 105, 107108, 110, 115116, 118, 127, 144Franco, Francisco 121, 129132, 132n13–n14, 196, 203204, 352François-Poncet, André 62n49Franco-Polish Pact of Mutual Assistance, 1921 88n112Franco-Prussian War, 1870–71 24, 24n26, 2627n35, 27n36, 29n43, 43n2Franco-Soviet Pact of Mutual Assistance, 1935 65, 77, 77n80, 8183, 8384n100, 85, 90, 108, 114115n187Francqui, Émile 70, 7071n68, 72, 73n71Frank, Tibor 142n43Franks, Tommy 268Franz Joseph (Habsburg Emperor) 23Fredericq, Louis 202, 208, 210, 224, 251n148French rearmament. See rearmamentFrente Popular (Spain) 121, 129, 352Frentz, Jean-Marie 316Freymond, Jean F. 334, 334n311Frieser, Karl-Heinz 152n84frontier defence thesis 48, 53n16, 54n22, 56, 5657n28, 57, 62, 62n48, 71, 8283, 94, 95n129, 101n139, 107, 185n172, 188, 342Frontist Movement. See language questionFrontists (Frontpartij). See Belgium: political partiesFry, Michael G. 32n50full democracies (FD). See Democracy IndexGabon 282283n30, 363Gaddis, John Lewis 350, 350n4Gaiffier d’Hestroy, Edmond 5253, 82n96Galet, Émile 4849n10, 54n22, 56, 62Gällivare 171172n137Galopin, Alexandre 215, 218, 222Gambia 363Gamelin, Maurice 71n69, 82n95, 83, 9495, 117, 117n193, 118, 118n194, 160n108, 162163, 163n117, 180, 187n178, 193194n194Ganshof Van der Meersch, Walter 237238n106Gap of Visé 175Gärtner, Heinz 305, 305n148, 306Gaza Strip 327, 361n4gdp (Gross Domestic Product) 273, 276, 278, 278n14, 282, 282283n30, 283, 293, 293n84, 317, 336, 343344, 361366Geeraerts, Gustaaf xiGenin, Vincent 21n21, 206n27genocide 34n56, 233235, 266267, 266267n196, 268, 290291n77, 322Gensoul, Marcel-Bruno 197George vi (King of the United Kingdom) 160, 164, 183n168, 184Georgia 294296, 296n98, 297298, 302n132, 349, 363Gerard, Emmanuel 7374n71, 100n137, 264n191Gérard, Gustave-Léo 222Gérard, Max-Léo 7374n71, 215Gérard-Libois, Jules 264n191German atrocities 42, 43n2, 185186n173German rearmament. See rearmamentGerman-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, 1939 149150, 150n77, 150151n78, 156, 170Germany (includes references to the Federal Republic of {West} Germany and the Democratic Republic of {East} Germany) 5, 11, 18, 21n19, 2223, 24n26, 2426, 28, 29n42, 30, 30n44, 32, 32n51, 3536, 36n62, 3738, 4041, 43, 45, 4647n7, 5253, 5556, 5861, 6263n49, 63, 6567, 71, 7577, 79, 82, 8384n100, 84n102, 85n103, 86, 86n106, 87n107, 8788, 88n110, 88n112, 89n114, 9091, 91n119, 92, 94, 95n130, 9697, 107, 115117, 119120, 120n201, 122, 123n211, 124126, 127n1, 128, 130n8, 132n14, 133, 135136, 136n27, 137n28, 137n32, 137138n33, 138n35–n36, 140n40, 140141n41, 141142, 144, 148, 148n67, 149, 149n71–n72, 150, 151n80, 152, 152n84, 153154, 156157, 157n102, 161, 161n111, 163, 165, 167168, 171, 171172n137, 172n139, 173, 173174n141, 176178, 180, 183n168, 185186n173, 192, 193n192, 194195, 197, 203n21, 204206, 208, 209n30, 210211, 214215, 219, 219n51, 222223, 225, 231, 247248, 250, 250251n146, 257, 259261, 274275, 292n82, 301, 303, 311, 313, 313n196, 315n207, 316, 320, 321n236, 322323, 332, 342, 347348, 350351n6, 351352, 357358Geyl, Pieter 17Ghana 262, 316, 363Ghent, city of 98, 179, 181Ghent, University of xi, 11, 12n38, 50, 75Gholz, Eugene 341n339Gilbert, Arthur N. 32n50Gilbert, Martin 140n39, 171172n137, 190191n185, 212n38Gillet, Florence 233globalisation 277, 279, 279n17Goethals, Georges 159, 168Golan Heights 327, 367neGold Standard 59, 59n37, 7173Goldstein, Eric 137n32Goetschel, Laurent 340Goossens, François 257258Gorbachev, Mikhail 325Gort, Lord (John Vereker) 185n172, 190Gotovitch, José 129130n6, 132n13, 217Goutard, Alphonse 173174n141Grâce-Berleur 255, 256n160Granville, Earl (George Leveson-Gower, 3rd Earl Granville) 60n40Great Britain. See United KingdomGreat Depression of the 1930s 49, 55, 9798, 125, 147, 303, 343Great Northern War, 1700–21 322great powers. See statesGreat Recession of 2008 281, 286n51Great War. See World War iGreece 148, 213n40, 291293, 293n84–n85, 294, 363Grégoire, Marcel 243244n121Grenada 272, 284, 364Groen (Flemish Green Party). See Belgium: political partiesGrosbois, Thierry 193n192, 227n75, 228n76, 253n153Group of 77 281, 339Gsthöl, Sieglinde 279280Guatemala 213n40, 364Gubin, Eliane 18Guderian, Heinz 172, 177178, 180182Guernica 132133Guillen, Pierre 31Guinea 364Guinea-Bissau 316, 364Gulf of Aqaba 327Gunsburg, Jeffrey A. 116117, 173Gutt, Camille 70, 72, 144, 182185, 187, 189190n184, 196, 199, 199n6, 202, 205206, 207n28, 208, 213n39, 226n72, 232n96, 253n154Guyana 284, 364Haag, Henri 62Haas, Mark L. 2021n19, 150n77Habyarimana, Juvénal 267Hague, The 160, 164n118, 311Hague Convention of 1907, The 303, 330Hague Peace Conferences, The First (1899) and Second (1907) 311Haider, Jörg 306Haile Selassie (Ethiopian Emperor) 79Haiti 213n40, 284, 286, 364Halder, Franz 182Halifax, Lord (Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax) 357Handel, Michael 7n16, 278, 278n14–n15Hansson, Per Albin 322Harinxma Thoe Slooten, B. P. H. van 164n118Harmel, Pierre 260, 265Hayoit de Termicourt, Raoul 184, 192hcb (Huileries du Congo Belge) 145Helmreich, Jonathan E. 25n27, 55n25, 135, 168, 180, 186, 189, 224225, 232, 251n148, 268269Hempel, Eduard 308Henlein, Conrad 135Hermans, Ward 218Herriot, Édouard 56n26, 9697n132Herwig, Holger H. 214n42Heuser, Beatrice xiiHey, Jeanne A. K. 286n51, 316hiding. See International RelationsHiernaux, Jules 7071n68Hill, Christopher 148n67Hirschstein, Fortress of 231, 231n93historiography 150151n78, 173, 173174n141, 234n100, 247n136, 353History xi, 10, 14, 93, 353355Hitler, Adolf 37, 44n3, 58, 6062, 6263n49, 66, 7579, 8182, 82n94, 83, 8384n100, 85n103, 86, 86n105, 8788, 9092, 92n123, 93, 93n126, 9697n132, 103, 114, 114115n187, 117, 120121, 123n211, 125126, 129, 130n8, 133, 135137, 139, 139n38, 140141, 142n43, 144, 148n67, 148n70, 149, 149n73, 151152, 152n84–n85, 153, 153n87, 154156, 159, 164, 164n118, 165, 169, 171, 172n138, 173175, 175n145, 178179, 181182, 182n165, 190191n185, 193, 194195, 196, 201, 203, 211, 213214, 214n42, 216, 217n47, 218n50, 219, 223224, 224n63, 225, 231, 245, 274, 301, 308, 312, 333, 343, 348, 352, 357360Hoare, Samuel 7880, 80n90Hoare-Laval Plan 80, 80n89, 81Hochschild, Adam 33Hoenmanns, Erich 167Höll, Otmar 305, 305n148, 306Holland. See Netherlands, theHolmes, Richard 140n39Holocaust, The 214n42, 226n72, 233234, 234n100, 234235n101, 235, 235n103, 323, 332, 334Holy Alliance 18, 2021n19, 23Honduras 213n40, 364Hong Kong 361, 361n2Hughes, Jeffrey L. 136n27, 140141n41Huldt, Bo 321n236Humes, Samuel 277Hungary 79, 80n89, 88, 141, 142n43, 250251n146, 261, 270n202, 295, 300301, 303, 323, 339, 349, 350n4, 364Huntington, Samuel P. 343Husayn, Saddam 92, 304Hutus 149, 267Huysmans, Camille 49, 205, 211n36, 246n131, 248n140, 358hybrid regimes HR). See Democracy IndexHymans, Paul 44n3, 54, 5657, 61, 61n43–n44, 6364, 64n54, 65, 6768, 68n62, 70, 7273, 73n71, 75, 8586, 244iaf (Integrated Analytical Framework). See levels of analysisIberian Peninsula 203204icc (International Criminal Court) 288n67Iceland 250, 281, 288, 288n65, 292n82, 317320, 326, 364icrc (International Committee of the Red Cross) 202, 333334icru (Icelandic Crisis Response Unit) 318319ideology as factor 1011, 13, 2021n19, 22, 55, 66, 7475, 77, 77n80, 9698, 100101, 104105, 105n148, 110, 125, 130, 130n8, 132n14, 136, 136n26, 150, 150n77–n78, 155156, 169170, 184, 195, 212n37, 247, 258, 342, 347, 352ifor (Implementation Force) 305n148igos (International Government Organisations) 279imf (International Monetary Fund) 281, 293, 293n84, 344n342immatriculation. See Congoimmigration/migration 269270, 292, 292n83, 301, 326, 326n267, 344Indépendance Belge, L’ 58n35independence, policy of. See neutralityIndia 213n40Indian Ocean 272, 338Indochina 260Indonesia 282283, 316, 327inf (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces) Treaty, 1987 346n345Ingebritsen, Christine 277, 325326Ingólfsdóttir, Auöur H. 318n218integral defence-in-depth thesis 48, 4849n10, 53n16, 56, 62, 83, 95n129, 107, 343interdisciplinarity 353355intermediary bodies 20n17, 351International Brigades. See Spanish Civil WarInternational Court of Justice 287International Relations 10, 14, 258, 271, 337, 343, 345346n344, 354355alliances ix, 27, 27n36, 28, 28n39, 40, 42, 45n4, 47, 4748n9, 54, 54n21, 66, 66n59, 67, 104, 104n146, 109, 114, 114115n187, 116, 124126, 140n40, 149, 149n71, 149n73, 150n77, 151, 247, 249, 273, 279, 289290, 302, 302n133, 303, 307, 309, 336, 340, 348, 351, 358balancing/balance of power 58, 17, 19, 1920n17, 20, 20n19, 21, 25, 25n29, 26, 2728, 28n38–n39, 2829n41, 54n21, 55, 55n24, 67n59, 78n84, 95n130, 96, 123124, 148n70, 149n73, 269, 274, 276, 278279, 290, 311, 320, 343, 345346, 347, 352bandwagoning 2628, 28n38, 55, 67n59, 123125, 155, 274, 276, 279, 290, 309n173, 320, 347, 352binding 337buck passing 8English School of IR 12n39, 28n41hiding 29, 67n59, 104, 124, 274, 276, 279, 339, 343, 347, 352multilateralism/unilateralism 289n19self-help 1314, 22, 22n22, 40, 55, 125, 129, 273, 347348transcending 29, 29n42, 87, 274, 276, 312, 343uni-multipolar system 343international system ix, 57, 1011, 1213n39, 14, 21, 40, 125, 153, 261, 272, 277279, 290, 325, 330, 336, 340, 342, 344346, 347348, 351Internet gambling/gaming industry 285inutom (Institut Universitaire des Territoires d’Outre-Mer) 262ira (Irish Republican Army) 308Iraq 268, 288290, 295, 319, 335Iran-Iraq War 341n339Ireland (Éire) 292n82, 302, 307309, 309n173, 310, 314, 339340, 364Irish neutrality. See neutralityIron Curtain 251irt (IR Theories) ixxi, 4, 25n28, 44n3, 337, 341n339, 347Classical Realism 78, 337Constructivism 9, 12n39, 20n19, 128129n4, 155, 298, 302n133, 309n173, 321n238, 331n291, 337, 340, 345346, 345346n344, 346learning theory 28n38, 124125, 289, 337Neo-Classical Realism 337Neo-Liberal Institutionalism 9, 12n39, 20n19, 31, 277, 337, 345346Realism 9, 19, 22n22, 88n106, 9192, 123, 156, 173174n141, 279280n17, 289, 309n173, 312313, 324, 331n291, 340, 345347Neo-Realism 7, 7n16, 24, 27, 31, 32n50, 96, 104, 155, 302n133, 352, 354Defensive 78, 22, 5, 27, 123, 337Offensive 8, 337, 344345n344Structural 7, 7n20, 337islandian sovereignty 273n1Israel 268, 270n202, 274275, 275n2, 302, 327328, 328n272, 361n4, 364Italy 11, 4647n7, 59, 61, 71, 76, 7980, 87n107, 80n89, 90, 102, 103n142, 120, 132n14, 134, 134n21, 148149, 149n71, 154, 166, 196n1, 197, 200, 203, 208210, 210n33, 245, 248n140, 250, 260, 267, 275, 288n66, 315n207, 316, 357Jacquemotte, Joseph 97Jackson, Julian 137138n33, 156, 173174n141Jakobsen, Peter Viggo 328329Jakobson, Max 325Jamaica 284285, 364Jamar, Joseph 228n76Janson, Paul 101102n140Janson, Paul-Émile 75, 101102n140, 134, 134n21, 136n26, 167n127, 189190n184, 205Janssens, Gustaaf xiJapan 55, 7879, 98, 133, 153, 213, 213n39, 214, 232, 281, 281n25, 282Jaquet, L. G. M. 313Jaspar, Henri 49, 64n53, 68, 68n62, 6970Jaspar, Marcel-Henri 64n54, 99, 133n18, 139, 139n37, 166, 167n127, 187n179, 189190n184, 198199, 205206, 206n27, 358Jerusalem (East and West) 327, 328n272, 367neJervis, Robert 25n28Jesse, Neal 7n169, 16n4, 128129n4, 155, 278n15, 279n16, 309n173, 331n291, 337Jews 77n80, 139n37, 141142, 212n38, 214, 214n42, 221, 226n72, 233234, 234n100, 234235n102, 235, 323, 332334, 357359Jiang Jieshi 361n3Johnson, Chalmers 281n25Jordan 302n132–n133, 314n203, 327, 364Jordan River, West Bank of 327, 361n4Josephine-Charlotte, Princess 208Juárez, Benito 24Jullian, Marcel 230n88Jurkynas, Mindaugas 297298, 351n9Kaliningrad 297, 297n100Karlsrud, John 329Karovich, Pavlé 120n200Karsh, Effraim 302Kasavubu, Joseph 262264Katanga (Shaba) 264, 264n191, 265Katholieke Vlaamsche Volkspartij. See Belgium: political partiesKazakhstan 295n91, 364Kekkonen, Urho 325Kennan, George F. 324, 349350, 350n4Keohane, Robert O. 277278, 285Kerchove de Denterghem, André, Comte de 82n96, 87, 107, 108109, 111112, 114115n187, 115, 166167Kérillis, Henri de 137138n33Kershaw, Ian 172n138, 214n42Kesteloot, Chantal xi, 239240n110, 245n128, 247n136Keyes, Roger, Admiral 158, 158159n105, 168, 190191n185, 191n186Keyes, Roger (biographer) 158159n105, 171, 176n147, 179, 179n153, 201, 209n30, 229, 231n92, 241, 255256, 256n162Khong, Yuen Foong 141Kieft, David Owen 83, 86, 86n105, 88n110, 112, 114n184, 119, 121n206, 127n1, 128n2Kier, Elizabeth 173174n141Kiewitz, Werner 222223n60Kigali 267Kirchoff, Hans 179n153, 320Kiribati 272, 288, 364Kleffens, Nicolaas van 160Koch Assault Detachment 175Koninckx, Christian xi, 113n180, 160n108–n109Koops, Joachim A. xiiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic of (North) 364, 367nhKorea, Republic of (South) 281282, 364Korean War, 1950–53 251, 257, 314Kosovo, Republic of 291, 291n78, 292, 306, 319, 335Kossmann; E. H. 17, 259Krasner, Stephen D. 22n22Kreisky, Bruno 304Kristallnacht 141Kronacker, Paul 242n118Kruizinga, Samuël 311, 311312n188, 312Kupchan, Charles A. 20n19, 350, 350n5Kupchan, Clifford 350, 350n5Kuwait 92, 302n132, 304, 364Kux, Stephan 334335K-W Line (Koningshoycht {near Antwerp} to Wavre) 177, 226Kyrgyzstan 295n91, 364Laeken Castle/Château/Palace of 158, 186, 222223n60, 225226, 230Lagrou, René 218Lahaut, Julien 257258, 258n166Lalmand, Edgard 243n120, 246n131, 251n148language question 12n38, 13, 18, 48, 4950, 51n12, 98, 116n189, 171, 184, 195, 258, 266, 342, 347, 352, 360activism/activists 50, 133, 143, 219, 358Belgian army, unilingual units 4849n10, 5657n28, 116n189, 121n206, 134n21Flamenpolitik 1112n38, 42, 50Frontist Movement (Front Beweging) 50, 98, 236nationalism/separatism/identity 1718, 50Flemish 1718, 4950, 51n12, 86n106, 99n135, 100, 108, 176n148, 219, 240, 248, 269, 352Walloon 1718, 32n51, 50, 74, 111, 219, 240, 246248, 269, 352passivism/passivists 50Lanneau, Catherine 247, 247n135–n136Laos 364Laqua, Daniel 4748n9large-N studies 355Laroche, Jules 84, 84n101–n102, 106107, 114115Lateran Treaty, February 1929 288n65Latvia 154, 250251n146, 295, 297, 299300, 323, 364Laurent, Edmond 118Laureys, Eric 237238n106Lausanne Conference, 1932 59Laval, Pierre 7577, 77n80, 7981, 198Laveleye, Victor de 211, 211n36, 242n118Law of Neutrality 303, 330, 335Law of Universal Competence 267268League of Nations 6, 41, 44, 47, 4748n9, 54, 58, 6061, 65, 69, 7981, 81n92, 85n103, 87, 90, 95n130, 96, 102103, 103n142, 105, 108, 109n163, 112, 115, 117, 119, 120n200, 121122, 126, 127n1, 128n2, 139n37, 142n43, 145, 155, 244, 262, 287, 311, 341342, 348League of Nations Union 78learning theory. See irt (IR Theories)Lebanon 302n132, 309310, 314, 364Lebensraum 214n42Lebow, Richard Ned 23n4, 37Lebrun, Albert 160, 164, 196Leeb, Ritter von 177Leffler, Melvin 173Leger, Alexis 115Legioen Vlaanderen 219Légion Wallonie 218, 218n50Lemass, Sean F. 307Lemkin, Raphael 290291n77Lenin, Vladimir 74, 97Leopold i (King of the Belgians) 15, 15n2, 16, 2425Leopold ii (King of the Belgians) 24, 25n27, 27, 30, 33, 34n56, 145Leopold iii (King of the Belgians) 65n57, 68, 69n65, 70, 111, 111n168, 116n189, 136n26, 153, 154n89–n90, 157n102, 158, 158n105, 163164, 167168, 174176, 178n150, 179, 179n154, 180, 180n156, 181n161, 183184, 184n169, 185187, 192, 192n190, 192193n191, 193, 209, 225n69, 226227, 258n168–n169, 357359(and his attitudes toward, decisions with regard to, relationship with, or views on)abdication 252, 253n153–n154, 255256, 256n160, 256n162, 257258Albert i (King of the Belgians) 5354n20, 113, 113n180Baudouin/Boudewijn (Prince, King of the Belgians) 252253, 253n154, 255256Capelle, Robert 65n57, 100, 100n137, 135n23, 209n30, 223n62, 229Charles, Prince (Regent) 241242, 242n117, 251n148, 252n149Churchill, Winston S. 190, 190191n185, 191, 242n117collaboration/collaborators 222, 229constitutional reform 143, 202, 222, 227, 358359De Man, Henrik 222, 222223n60, 358Elisabeth (Queen of the Belgians) 225226entourage 135n23, 161, 206, 208, 209n30, 210, 223n62, 224227, 229, 252, 357, 359France 118n195, 119120, 160n108, 161163, 206, 225226Germany 182, 225, 231Jews 225226, 226n72, 357359language question 226, 228Marie-José, Princess 223, 358marriage to Lilian Baels 230meeting with Hitler 223, 223n62, 224, 224n63, 225, 252, 357358military reforms 83, 114115n187Netherlands, the 87n107, 154, 160neutrality 65n57, 67n60, 104105, 107n160, 109110, 109110n164, 111n168, 112113, 113n180, 114, 116, 116n190, 118n195, 135n23, 138139n36, 156, 161162, 166, 176, 186, 190, 206, 213n41, 226peace talks with Nazi Germany 183, 183n168, 184n170, 187, 187188n180, 192, 199, 201, 201n12, 357Pierlot, Hubert 181, 183184, 198, 201202, 227n75, 228n76, 229, 253, 253n153Pirenne, Jacques 176n147, 251n148, 253, 253n154plebiscite on King Leopold iii, 12 March 1950 253254, 254n156–n157, 358political parties in Belgium 100n137, 143, 171Political Testament 227, 227n75, 228, 228n76, 229230, 252, 252n149press censorship 166, 357refugees 226, 226n72Rexism/Rexists 100, 222Reynaud, Paul 187Royal Question 111n168, 113, 116, 176n147, 184, 186n175, 225, 229230, 242n117, 248249, 249250n144, 251256, 258259, 359Spaak, Paul-Henri 105n148, 107n160, 134, 157, 160, 166, 181, 183184, 189, 189190n184, 199, 201202, 228, 228n76, 252253, 255, 256n160surrender on 28 May 1940 186, 187n179, 190, 190191n185, 191, 191n186–n187, 191192n189, 192, 209n30, 216, 229United Kingdom 119120, 161162, 206, 225United States 208n29, 231232, 251n148Vandervelde, Émile 67n60, 99, 111n169Van Overstraeten, Raoul 160, 180181, 185n171, 209n30, 219n51, 223n62, 229Wijnendaele, Castle of (confrontation at on 25 May 1940) 183, 183n168Léopoldville (Kinshasa) 262263, 263n187, 264Lerchenfeld-Kofering, Hugo von 58n35Lesotho 282283n30, 364lesser evil policy (moindre mal/minste Kwaad) 215216Le Tellier, Pol 208Leuven 177, 180levels of analysis 1213, 1314n40, 14, 276, 354355iaf (Integrated Analytical Framework) 1214, 40, 46, 55, 125126, 129, 156, 194195, 206, 259, 272274, 337, 354unit-or state-level ix, 7, 10, 1214, 25n28, 32, 32n50, 62, 77, 87, 171, 258259, 270274, 276, 280, 343, 354system-level ix, 7, 1214, 58, 62, 77, 171, 258259, 266, 270274, 276, 343, 353354Levine, Paul A. 322323, 332Levy, Jack S. 23n4, 32n50Liberal Party. See Belgium: political partiesLiberation 215216n44, 228n76, 236237, 236237n104, 238n107, 239Liberia 310, 364Libre Belgique, La 188189n182Libya 302, 302n132, 364Lie, Trygve 244Liechtenstein, Principality of 272, 286, 286n55, 287288, 288n65, 317, 364Liège, city of 32n51, 48, 53, 86, 95, 101, 101n139, 170, 175, 246247, 256n160Lijphart, Arend 259Limburg, Belgian Province of 16n2, 50, 62n48, 71, 167Limburg, Dutch Province of 21, 43, 48, 53Limoges 189, 189190n184, 192, 202linguistic turn 354Lippens, Maurice 358Lipponen, Paavo 324Lithuania 148, 154, 250251n146, 295, 297, 297n100, 299300, 364Little Entente 55, 88Litvinov, Maxime 6566, 91n119, 149Livre Blanc, Le 176n147, 253Lloyd George, David 35, 88n111Lobell, Steven E. 78n84Locarno, Eastern 6566, 69Locarno Treaty. See Treaty of LocarnoLockhart, Bruce 211n36London Declaration of 19 March 1936 8990, 90n117, 91, 93, 106Lorand, Georges 32n51Lothian, Lord (Philip Henry Kerr) 88, 88n111Louis Philippe (King of the French) 21Low Countries 1718, 22, 28, 35, 36n62, 52, 117n193, 152n84, 154, 163, 165, 175Luftwaffe 140141n41, 182, 193, 203Luif, Paul 303, 303n135–n136, 304306Lukacs, John 172n138Lumumba, Patrice 261264, 264n191Lundestad, Geir 339Luso-Spanish Friendship and Non-Aggression Pact 204Luxembourg, Belgian Province of 50, 62n48Luxemburg, Grand Duchy of 1516n2, 21, 26n34, 39, 43, 4546, 47, 4748n9, 50, 54, 59, 90, 153, 172, 177, 203n21, 204205, 213n40, 240, 249n142, 285, 286n51, 288, 288n65, 302, 310, 312, 315317, 364Luxemburger neutrality. See neutralityLys/Leie River 181, 185n172, 193Maas/Meuse River 31, 48, 62n48, 9495, 95n129, 161, 170, 172, 175, 178, 185186n173Maastricht/Maestricht 16n2, 21, 175, 293n84MacDonald, Ramsay 76, 78Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of (The Republic of North Macedonia) 291292, 294, 364, 367nb, 367nfMacGinty, Roger 340Madagascar 364Maere d’Aertrycke, Baudoiun 251n148Maginot Line 52, 82, 117118, 141, 153Malawi 282283n30, 364Malaya, Federation of 282Malaysia 272, 282283, 314n203, 364Maldives 272, 364Mali 310, 315, 315n207, 329, 365Malmédy. See Belgium: Eastern CantonsMalta 288, 288n65, 365Manchuria 55, 79Manhattan Project 232Manifeste de Conscience Africaine 262Manstein, Erich von 175, 175n145Marck, Hendrik 167n127Marcq, René 224Marie-Adélaide (Grand Duchess of Luxemburg) 39Marie-Anne (Dowager Duchess of Luxemburg) 204Marie-José, Princess 167, 223, 358Marks, Sally, xii 44n3, 173Marne, Battle of the 37Marne, Miracle of the 178, 180, 195Marne River 37, 178, 180, 195Marrakech 270Marshall, Don D. 285286Marshall Islands, Republic of 272, 288289, 365Marshall Plan (European Recovery Program) 249, 249n142, 250, 316, 360Marteaux, Albert 242n118, 243n120, 246n131Martens, Adriaan 143Marxism/Marxists 101, 220Massigli, René 107108Mauritania 365Mauritius 365Maximilian (Habsburg Archduke) 2324May, Ernest 173174n141Mayer, Arno J. 32n50mcc (Mouvement des Citoyens pour le Changement). See Belgium: political partiesMearsheimer, John J. 8, 20n19, 25, 344345n343, 349n1Mechelen 176, 180, 193, 234Mechelen-aan-de-Maas/Mechelen-sur-Meuse 167Mechelen Incident 167169, 175n145Mediterranean Sea 78, 103, 149n71, 203Meinen, Insa 235n103Melakopides, Costas 294Melvern Linda 266267Memel/Klaipėda 148Mendès-France, Pierre 260mercosur (Mercado Común del Sur) 290Mers-el-Kébir 197, 197n3Meuse Forts. See fortificationsMexico 2324Michel, Charles 269270Michel, Louis 264n191, 268Michiels, François-Fidèle-Oscar 168Micronesia, Federated States of 272, 288289, 365micro-states.See statesMilitärverwaltung 214military reforms, Belgian. See Belgiummilitary service, Belgian. See Belgiummilitary staff talks 89, 94, 115116, 118, 127, 136, 144, 148, 158159, 162164, 169170, 174Miller, Jane K. 64n54Miniotaite, Grazina 298300minusma (UN Multidimensional Integrated Stablization Mission in Mali) 310, 310n181, 315, 315n207, 329missionaries. See Congomitigated anarchy 12, 1213n39, 14, 125, 272Mitzen, Jennifer 20n19Mixed Parliamentary Commission, 1936 95, 106107, 107n156mnc (Mouvement National Congolais) 262264mnr/NKB (Mouvement National Royaliste/Nationale Koningsgesinde Beweging) 237Mobutu, Joseph-Desiré 264265Moeyes, Paul 330331Mohammed, Debbie A. 286Moldova 295298, 302n132, 365Molotov, Vyacheslav 149Monaco 272, 288, 288n65, 292n82, 365Mongolia 365Monnet, Jean 197Monroe Doctrine 350Mons 246, 265Montenegro 250251n146, 288, 288n65, 291, 365, 367ngMontgomery, Bernard 229Moore, Bob 313Morelli, Anne 266n195Moresnet 44Morgenthau, Hans 7, 36n62Morocco 270, 319Moscow 213Möttölä, Kari 317n215Moyen, André 258Mozambique 316, 365MR (Mouvement Réformateur). See Belgium: political partiesMûelenaere, Nel de 16, 16n4Mundeleer, Léon 243n120, 251n148Munich Agreement of 1938. See CzechoslovakiaMurphy, Ray 309310Murray, Williamson 341n339Mussolini, Benito 59, 61n44, 66, 76, 7881, 81n92, 91, 93, 98, 102103, 129, 133, 137, 139n38, 149, 149n71, 151152, 166, 213, 357Muûls, Fernand 110n165Myanmar (Burma) 282nafta (North American Free Trade Association) 284, 290nam (Non-Aligned Movement) 339Namibia 365Namur, city of 163, 169, 175, 177Namur, Province of 188, 218n49Napoleon, Louis. See Napoleon iiiNapoleon iii (Emperor of the French) 23, 23n23, 24, 24n25Narvik 156, 171172Nasser, Gamal Abd-al- 92, 327National Archives. See Belgiumnational sentiment, Belgian. See Belgiumnationalism/separatism/identity. See language questionNation Belge, La 64n54, 114115n187nato (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) 250, 250251n146, 251, 251n147, 258, 258n169, 259261, 265, 265n193, 266, 275276, 279, 288, 291, 291n78, 292, 293n85, 294297, 297n100, 298, 300301, 304306, 308310, 313, 315, 317, 317n215, 318, 320321, 323, 325n261, 328329, 330n284, 335, 338341, 346n345, 348349, 349n1, 350, 350n4–n5, 350351n6, 351, 351n9, 352, 360Nauru 272, 288, 365Nazism/Nazis 37, 55, 58, 66, 98, 139, 139n37, 141, 155, 219221, 225227, 234n100, 322, 333, 342, 352Nazi-Soviet Pact. See German-Soviet Pact of Non-Aggressionnear-abroad 349Neo-Classical Realism. See irt (IR Theories)Neo-Liberal Institutionalism. See irt (IR Theories)Neo-Realism. See irt (IR Theories)Nepal 365Netherlands, the 5, 9, 11, 1516n2, 18, 2122, 4344, 4647n7, 50, 54, 59, 75, 87n107, 90, 96n131, 98, 117n193, 120, 127, 128129n4, 143, 153154, 159, 161162, 162n112, 166, 172, 172n139, 177, 179, 179n153, 185, 194, 203n21, 213n40, 219, 223, 240, 249n142, 302, 310311, 311312n188, 312313, 313n196, 313314n198, 314, 314n203, 315, 315n207, 316317, 319, 328, 330, 342, 365Neumann, Iver B. 279280Neurath, Constantin 120, 120n203Neuray, Fernand 64n54neutrality 2, 6n15, 7n16, 10, 28n39, 29, 104n146, 107, 112113, 121122, 124, 126, 155, 203204, 258259, 279, 287, 290, 292, 296, 303, 312313, 320321, 324, 338342, 349, 351, 353354Austrian neutrality 303304, 306307, 317, 335Belgian neutrality ixx, xii, 12, 4n6, 10, 1617, 17n5, 18, 20, 21, 21n21, 22, 22n22, 23, 23n23, 2426, 26n33, 2627n35, 2728, 29n43, 2933, 35, 35n59, 3536n60, 36, 36n62, 3738, 38n74, 3940, 40n77, 4243, 4748n9, 4849n10, 121122, 127128, 128129n4, 213, 213n41, 330, 342, 348Belgium’s return to neutrality 1936–40 ix, 45, 10, 41, 46, 4647n7, 4748n9, 53, 64n54, 86, 86n105–n106, 89n116, 96, 101, 103105, 105n148, 106, 109111, 113114, 114115n187, 115120, 124127, 128n4, 132n14, 136, 138, 141, 143144, 153, 156158, 162, 165, 168169, 169n128, 170, 172, 174, 176177, 190191, 194, 223, 229, 244, 258, 274, 313n196, 342, 347348, 352Congolese neutrality 33, 3940, 40n77, 200, 208, 224definition of neutrality 46Dutch neutrality 153, 156, 172n139, 310311, 311312n188, 312313, 313n196, 331Irish neutrality 307309, 309n173, 310Luxemburger neutrality 15n1, 39, 4546, 4748n9Swedish neutrality 275, 317, 321, 321n236, 322323, 329330Swiss neutrality 306307, 317, 330332, 331n291, 334335U.S. neutrality 142143, 341n339Neutrality Acts, 1935–37 142143New Caledonia 273n1Newnham, Jeffrey 45New Order (Ordre Nouveau/Nieuwe Orde) 217New Zealand 140n40, 213n40, 314n203, 365ngos (Non-Governmental Organisations) 279Nicaragua 213n40, 365nieo (New International Economic Order) 281, 339Niger 365Nigeria 212n38Nilsson, Claes 327n270, 329, 330n284Nkrumah, Kwame 262Nobel Peace Prize 139n37, 321nonalignment ix, 45, 6n15, 10, 28n39, 40, 104, 117, 133, 143, 273n1, 279, 290, 304, 317, 321, 330, 338339, 341342, 347, 349, 349n1, 353Non-Intervention Agreement. See Spanish Civil WarNord, Philip 173174n141Norden (Nordic Community) 298Nordic Defence Union 317norm entrepreneurship/norm entrepreneurs 279280, 298, 325326, 337North Borneo, Crown Colony of 282Northern Ireland 308309Norway 9, 54, 59, 128129n4, 153, 156, 169, 171, 179, 213n40, 250, 275, 277n7, 292n82, 303, 305, 314n203, 317322, 325326, 329, 331, 365, 367nhNothomb, Pierre 21n21, 44, 98November Alert, 1939 159161Ntuyanga, Bernard 268Nuremberg Trials 167Nuyten, Prudent 56, 62, 69N-VA (Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie). See Belgium: political partiesNye, Gerald P. 142, 143n47oas (Organization of American States) 288n67, 290Obama, Barack 315, 329obligatory work 214215, 215n43, 222, 216, 231, 231n92oda (Official Development Assistance) 326oecd (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) 290oecs (Organization of Eastern Caribbean States) 284oeec (Organization of European Economic Cooperation) 249Oest, Kajsa Ji Noe 288290Office of Strategic Services (oss) Planning Group 231Office Parlementaire Belge 211n36Offshore Financial Centres (ofc) 285, 338O’Halpin, Eunan 308309oic (Organization of Islamic Cooperation) 291Oman 302n132, 365Operation Iraqi Freedom 288290Orbàn, Viktor 301osce (Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe) 296, 335Osland, Karl M. 329Oslo Accords, 1993 321Oslo Convention/Group 54, 59, 127n1, 153154, 154n90, 312Ostend 179, 179n154, 181Oster, Hans 159Ottawa Agreements 59Ouchy Convention 59Oudenarde/Oudinaarde 181Overy, Richard 137n28, 137n32, 139n38, 140n40, 152n85Ovey, Esmond 76n79övp (Österreichische Volkspartei/Austrian People’s Party) 303n135, 306Pacific Ocean 272, 288290, 338Pact of Steel, 1939 148149Pakistan 314n203Palau 272, 288289, 365Palestine 212n38, 361Palestinians 268, 327, 328n272Palmerston, Lord (Henry John Temple) 19Panama 213n40, 365Panzer Divisions 152, 172, 175, 177178, 178n151, 182PA (Partisans Armées) 237Papua New Guinea 365Paraguay 365Paris 64, 196Paris Accords, 1954 261Paris Peace Conference/Settlement,1919 xii, 42, 44n3, 45, 56, 59, 60, 6365, 75, 78, 84n102, 85n103, 90, 148, 313n196Parker, R. A. C. 8081n90, 89n114, 132n14Parti Catholique Social. See Belgium: political partiesPartij voor Vrijheid en Vooruitgang. See Belgium: political partiesParti Ouvrier Belge (pob). See Belgium: political partiesParti pour la Liberté et le Progrès. See Belgium: political partiesPartnership for Peace (PfP) 291292, 297, 305, 309310, 321passivists. See language questionPaternotte de la Vaillée, Alexandre 88n112Paterson, Thomas G., et al. 142, 155n96path dependency 64n54Paul-Boncour, Joseph 58n34Pauwels, Henri 243n120Peace Ballot, 1934–35 78Pearl Harbor 213Peemans, Françoise xperception/misperception in decision-making 25n28Permanent Court of Arbitration, The Hague 311Permanent Court of International Justice at The Hague 90Pertinax (André Géraud) 114115n187Peru 272Pesu, Matti 324325Pétain, Philippe 52, 8384n100, 196198, 203, 226Petersen, Nikolay 318Philippe/Filip (King of the Belgians) 359Philippines, the 282Phipps, Eric 67n61Pholien, Joseph 135n24, 192, 192193n191, 216, 256, 256n163, 257Phoney War (drôle de guerre/Sitzkrieg) 141, 153, 166Picard, Edmond 21n21, 131Piercy, Michael R. H. 185n172Pierlot, Hubert 7071n68, 112, 131, 143144, 144n49, 157, 157n99, 157n102, 160n108, 161162, 166167, 167n127, 168, 171, 176n148, 180, 180n156, 181183, 183n168, 184, 187188, 187188n180, 189190n184, 193, 193n192, 198201, 201n13, 202, 202n20, 203, 203n22, 205207, 207n28, 208, 208n29, 209n30, 211213, 213n39, 227, 227n75, 228n76, 229, 230n88, 239, 241n116, 242243, 253, 253n153, 358Pillarization (Verzuiling) 259Pirenne, Henri 18, 21n21Pirenne, Jacques 176n147, 183n168, 251n148, 253, 253n154Piron, Jean-Baptiste 237238n106, 239Plan D (Dyle) 163n117Plan of Work (Plan du Travail/Plan van de Arbeid) 51, 72, 7374n71plebiscite on King Leopold iii, 12 March 1950. See Leopold iiiPleven, René 257Poincaré, Raymond 52Poitiers 192, 198Poland 2829n41, 52, 55, 60n42, 6667n59, 77n80, 8384n100, 88n112, 133, 139n38, 141, 148, 148n67, 148n70, 149, 149n72–n73, 150151, 151n80, 152153, 153n88, 154, 156, 162, 165, 190, 213n40, 250251n146, 261, 270n202, 292n82, 297n100, 300301, 349, 350n4, 351Polasky, Janet xii, 111n169Polish Corridor 151Polish-German Non-Aggression Pact, 1934 66, 88, 148political parties. See BelgiumPolitical Science 10, 355Political Testament. See Leopold iiipolitics (domestic/internal) ix, 4, 89, 13, 29, 3132, 32n50, 3638, 41, 42, 4546, 4647n7, 4849, 5455, 55n25, 62, 70, 77, 83, 86n106, 96, 101102n140, 104105, 108, 109110n165, 110111, 117, 121126, 128129n4, 129, 132133, 143, 155, 169171, 184, 195, 244, 247248, 249250n144, 257259, 265266, 270271, 274, 302, 342, 347348, 352354Ponting, Clive 140n39, 171172n137Popular Front (France) 81, 96, 9697n132, 97, 97n133, 102, 105n148, 108, 114115n187, 137138n33, 173, 352Portugal 43, 75, 98, 154, 203204, 250, 275, 304, 316, 365Porch, Douglas 173, 173174n141Posen, Barry R. 140141n41, 148n70, 173174n141Positivism 354Postmodernism 354Poulet, Robert 236Poullet, Prosper 5354n20, 73, 73n71pows (Prisoners of War) 186, 209n30, 214, 224, 357358PP (Parti Populaire). See Belgium: political partiesppp (Purchasing Power Parity) 344, 362Prasad, Naren 338Prégny on Lac Leman, Switzerland 252press censorship 23n23, 25, 155156, 165166, 212n37, 214Press, Daryl G. 341n339press/public opinion 25, 31, 32n51, 45, 46n7, 56, 58, 58n35, 62, 62n48, 69, 77, 77n80, 85, 92, 106, 108109, 110n165, 114115n187, 115, 120, 120n204, 123, 126, 128, 128n2, 135136, 136n26, 140, 144, 151n79, 161, 165, 169170, 193n192, 194, 211n35, 226227, 231, 353Primat der Innenpolitik 347Primo de Rivera, José Antonio 129prl (Parti Réformateur Libéral). See Belgium: political partiesprocess tracing 337, 355propaganda 38, 38n74, 39, 74, 166, 197, 233Provoost, Guido 61n47, 62n48, 77n80, 83n98, 86n105Prussia. See GermanyPS (Parti Socialiste). See Belgium: political partiespsb (Parti Socialiste Belge). See Belgium: political partiespsc (Parti Social Chrétien). See Belgium: political partiesptb (Parti du Travail de Belgique – part of national Workers’ Party of Belgium). See Belgium: political partiespvda (Partij van de Arbeid van België – part of national Workers’ Party of Belgium). See Belgium: political partiesQatar 302n132, 317, 365qualitative analysis 355quantitative analysis 355Quisling, Vidkun 320Raben, Remco 316racism 77n80, 271radar (radio detection and ranging) 140, 140141n41Raquez, Georges L. E. 94n128, 117Raxhon, Philippe 26, 264n191Realism. See irt (IR Theories)rearmamentBelgian 41, 114115, 122123, 126, 129, 274, 343, 347, 352British 75, 78, 8081n90French 56n27, 77n80German 41, 60, 62, 6263n49, 63, 65, 7576, 75, 75n75, 76, 125, 257Red Sea 327réduit strategy 333refugees 130, 181, 187188, 204, 226n72, 267, 292, 301, 323, 326, 326n272, 333334, 344Reinberger, Hellmuth 167Reiter, Dan 28n38, 54n21, 124125, 337Relecom, Xavier 97Rendall, Matthew 20Renkin, Jules 49reparations 39, 43, 52, 59Resistance, the 215218, 220221, 231, 236237, 237n105, 237238n106, 238, 238n107, 239, 239240n110, 242, 242n118, 245, 251, 320Rexism/Rexists. See Belgium: political partiesReynaud, Paul 8384n100, 116, 187, 187n178–n179, 188189n182, 190, 190191n185, 191192n189, 196197, 197n2Rhineland 5253, 5354n20, 8182, 82n95, 8384n100, 84n102, 85, 85n103, 8687, 87n107, 88, 88n112, 9092, 93n124, 94, 103, 109, 114115, 136, 247248, 348Ribbentrop, Joachim von 67n61, 149, 164165Rich, Norman 78n84, 135n25Rickli, Jean-Marc 306307, 335Riedinger, Georges 84n101, 118Right to Protect (R2P) 345Rijckmans, Pierre 200, 200n10, 210Ritchie, Douglas E. 211n36Roberts, Geoffrey 249n142Rochet, Bénédicte 239, 239240n110Rolin, Henri 80n89, 102, 103n142, 105n148, 106, 121122, 122n207, 129130n6, 136, 170Romania 55, 88, 148149, 149n73, 250251n146, 261, 291292, 292n82, 299, 365Rome-Berlin Axis 133Rood, Jan 313Roon Ger van 90Roosevelt, Franklin D. 142, 192n190, 196, 197n2, 207208, 208n29, 211n35, 212n38, 213, 213n39, 232233, 244Rothstein, Robert 17n5, 28n39, 4748n9, 86n106, 277Rotterdam 178179, 179n153Round Table Conference, 1960 263Royal Question. See Leopold iiiRuanda-Urundi 44, 145, 147, 200, 238239n108, 261263Rubbens, Edmond 7071n68, 73n71Rundstedt, Gerd von 177, 182, 205Russia/Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) 11, 18, 20, 2021n19, 2223, 23n23, 2526, 29n42, 30, 32n51, 45, 4647n7, 6567, 69, 7475, 77, 77n80, 97, 120, 129130n6, 130, 130n8, 137n30, 139n38, 140n40, 149, 149n72–n73, 150, 150n77, 152, 154155, 156n97, 171, 203, 211212, 212n37, 213n40, 214, 214n42, 216, 217n47, 218, 237, 244245, 248249n141, 249n142, 250251, 260, 264266, 274275, 278n14, 287, 290291n77, 294295, 295n91, 296297, 297n100, 299, 300n121, 303, 314n203, 320, 322325, 327, 335, 339340, 342, 346n345, 348350, 350n4, 350351n6, 351352, 359Russo-Finnish Treaty, 1992 324Ruthenia 141, 142n43Ruzagyura Famine 238239n108Rwanda 265266, 266267n196, 267268, 316, 365Ryan, Curtis R. 302n133SA (Sturmabteilung/Storm Detachment) 6263n49, 155Saakashvili, Mikhail 295Saar Basin 141, 151n80, 153, 247Sabić, Senada Selo 292Sabra and Chatila (Lebanon) 268Saerens, Lieven 235n103Saint Kitts and Nevis 272, 284, 365Saint Lucia 272, 284, 319, 365Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 272, 284, 365Salazar, Antonio Oliveira 98, 204Salmon, Patrick 321Samardzya, Visnja 292Samoa 272, 288, 365Sandler, Rickard 323San Francisco Conference, 1945 241, 244, 361San Marino 272, 288, 288n65, 292n82, 365Sankt-Vith. See Belgium: Eastern CantonsSão Tomé and Principe 272, 316, 365Sap, Gustave 68n62, 6970, 70n66, 133, 133n18, 161Sarawak, Crown Colony of 282Sardinia-Piedmont 23n23, 29n42Sargent, Orme 104n145Sarraut, Albert 81, 94Sas, Gijsbertus 159Scandinavia/Scandinavian States 90, 120, 141, 143, 154, 156, 171, 171172n137, 194, 300, 302, 317, 318n218, 320, 325326, 328, 325328, 337Scheldt River (Escaut/Schelde) 43, 48, 62n48, 95, 163n117, 181Schengen Area/Convention 292, 292n82, 300301, 305Schlieffen Plan 154, 177Schmidt, Paul 92n123, 223225, 224n63Schroeder, Paul W. ixx, 2, 23n4, 4, 1819, 1920n17, 20, 2729, 29n42, 124, 276n4, 351Schuker, Stephen A. 9192, 92n123, 173Schuman, Robert 257Schuschnigg, Kurt von 92n123Schweisguth, Victor-Henri 94n128, 95Schweller, Randall L. 123124, 352sea (Single European Act) 1986 304Second World War. See World War iisecuritization. See securitysecurity 7, 10, 13, 28, 33, 4142, 46, 4748n9, 4849n10, 54, 6162, 64n54, 65, 69, 8384n100, 117n193, 122n208, 125, 184, 240, 250, 250n145, 266, 273274, 277, 280n19, 283, 285, 289290, 295, 295n91, 297, 299, 302, 302n133, 309, 313, 317, 320321, 326, 328, 335337, 341343, 345346, 347348, 350, 352354collective security 20, 47, 4748n9, 55, 78, 81, 81n92, 102104, 108, 121, 136, 335, 338, 341, 345, 348, 352securitization 318n218, 345, 345346n344security community 20n19, 104, 345, 350, 350n5security dilemma 8, 56n27, 109, 274, 349security community. See securitysecurity dilemma. See securitySecurity Policy Report, 1993 and 2000 (Switzerland) 335Sedan, Battle of 1870 2627n35, 29n43Sedan, Battle of 1940 172, 178, 178n150, 178n152, 182self-help. See International RelationsSenegal 366Sengier, Edgar 232n96September Programme (German war aims, 1914) 3637Serbia 291292, 304, 306, 314, 366, 367ngSeward, William H. 24Seychelles 272, 366sfor (Stabilization Force) 305n148sgb (Société Générale de Belgique) 70, 145146, 215shape (Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe) 265Sharon, Ariel 268Shaw, Timothy M. 286Siegfried Line 151n80Sierra Leone 366Sikkink, Kathryn 325Simon, John 61n46, 67, 75Simpson, Archie W. 288Sinai Peninsula 327Singapore 281283, 366Singapore Cooperation Programme (scp) 283Singapore Model of Development (smd) 283Singer, J. David 27Six Day War, June 1967 (also known as Third Arab-Israeli War) 302, 327328Slovakia 141, 142n43, 250251n146, 270n202, 292, 300301, 366, 367nd, 367njSlovenia 250251n146, 291, 304, 366, 367nb, 367nkSmall, Melvin 27small states. See statesSmith, Charles D. 328n272Smith, Leonard V. 44n3Smith, M. L. 123n211smugglers 222n58Social Pact, 1944 240, 240n112Soete, Gérard 264n191Soloman Islands 272, 288290, 366Somalia 329, 366Sonderbund War, 1847 330Soudan, Eugène 73n71, 131, 134, 167n127, 171, 189190n184South Africa, Union of 213n40South Ossetia 295South Sudan 366, 367nlSP.A (Socialistische Partij Anders/Alternatief). See Belgium: political partiesSpaak, Paul-Henri 73, 97, 99, 101, 101102n140, 102, 105, 105n148, 106108, 109n163, 109110n164, 110112, 114117, 122, 122n208, 127128, 130131, 131n10, 132135, 135n24, 138, 143, 157, 157n99, 161162, 164, 166, 168, 170171, 176177, 177n149, 179184, 187, 187n179, 189, 189190n184, 192193, 198203, 203n22, 205207, 207n28, 208, 208n29, 209, 209n30, 209210n31, 210n33, 211, 211n35–n36, 213n39, 228, 228n76, 240242, 242n118, 243, 243n120, 243244n121, 244245, 246n131, 249, 249250n144, 250251, 251n147, 252, 252n151, 253, 254n156, 255, 256n160, 260, 265, 358Spain 17, 106, 129134, 134n21, 154, 196, 203204, 250251n146, 277n7, 288, 292, 304, 314n203Spanish Civil War 129130, 129130n6, 130n9, 131n10, 132, 132n14, 143, 167, 195, 342, 352International Brigades 130131Non-Intervention Agreement, 1936 129, 132, 132n14Spears, Edward 172173n140spö (Sozialistische Partei Österreich/Socialist Party of Austria) 303n135, 304, 306Srebrenica 314Sri Lanka 319, 366SS (Schutztaffel/Protection Squadron) 6263n49, 179n153, 216, 218, 221sss (Small States Studies) 277, 279, 336338Stalin, Joseph 6566, 69, 77, 77n80, 97, 130, 130n8, 137n30, 149150, 150n77, 154155, 195, 211, 244, 250, 290291n77, 352Standaard, De 58n35, 68n62, 133Stanhope, Lord (James Stanhope, 7th Earl Stanhope) 103n142Stanley, Henri Morton 34n56Stanleyville (Kisangani) 264statesfailed states 281, 286, 344great powers xii, 12, 3n4, 56, 8, 10, 10n37, 11, 13, 15, 1516n2, 17n5, 1819, 20n17, 20n19, 2122, 22n22, 25, 28, 28n39, 2829n41, 29n42, 33, 56, 59, 64, 65n57, 84n102, 86n106, 104105, 129, 132n14, 133, 139n38, 153, 244, 274, 278, 289, 316, 317n215, 325, 330, 342343, 346, 353micro-states 250, 272, 273n1, 283, 286290, 319, 338, 361middle powers 278, 278n15, 355small states ix, 610, 1112n38, 1314n40, 28n39, 45, 54, 59, 86n106, 124, 223, 271, 272279, 279n16, 279280n17, 280282, 284285, 290, 295n91, 298, 302, 316, 318n218, 325, 330, 336339, 342346, 347, 353, 355, 361368strong states 7n16, 280, 346weak states 67, 7n16, 811, 14, 14n40, 124, 272274, 276279, 279280n17, 280281, 290, 295n91, 302, 302n132, 336337, 339, 342, 344346, 348, 349n1, 352353Stengers, Jean x, 18, 25, 32n51, 3334, 111n168, 182n165, 183n168, 187188n180, 191, 192193n191, 201202, 207n28, 224, 224225n66, 226n72, 252n151, 262263, 359Steiner, Zara 78n83, 81n92, 130n7, 137n30, 151n80Steinmetz, Robert 337338Straits of Tiran 327Straeten-Pontoz, Robert van der 213n39Strang, G. Bruce 150n77Streel, José 221, 221n55Stresa Front 76, 78, 8788Strikwerda, Carl J. 100101Strobl, Lake Sankt-Wolfgang, Austria 241, 242n117, 251n148Struye, Paul 188, 188189n182, 189190n184, 193n192, 210, 212n37, 218n49, 222n58, 224, 226227, 227n74, 231, 239, 249250n144Stuka Dive-Bomber 133, 178Sudetenland 135136, 135n25, 138Suez Canal/Crisis 7980, 92, 327Sundelius, Bengt 321Surinam 284, 366Sverdrup, Ulf 320Swaziland (eSwatini) 366, 368nmSweden 54, 59, 153, 275276, 277n7, 292n82, 298, 303, 305306, 314n203, 315n207, 317, 321323, 321n236, 325327, 327n270, 329, 330n284, 331332, 335, 339341, 351, 366, 367nhSwedish neutrality. See neutralitySwiss neutrality. See neutralitySwitzerland 5, 59, 75, 120, 154, 192, 220, 252, 270n202, 275, 285, 287288, 292n82, 302, 306307, 330336, 339340, 366Syria (Syrian Arab Republic) 292, 302n132, 327, 366, 368nnSyriza (Coalition of the Left) 293system-level of analysis. See levels of analysisTabouis, Geneviève 114115n187Tajikistan 295, 366Taiwan (Republic of China) 281282, 361, 361n3Talbott, Strobe 350n4Talleyrand (Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord) 19Tardieu, André 5253n15, 56n26Tardy, Thierry 305n148, 314n203, 314315n204Taylor, A. J. P. 20n17, 80n89, 8081n90, 81, 91n119, 150, 150n77, 150151n78, 152n85Taylor, Ian 282Terfve, Jean 246n131terrorism 269270, 279, 285286, 297, 302, 317319, 335, 344, 345346n344, 352353Teschen (Trans-Olza/Cieszyn) 139n38Tetlock, Philip E. 3Thailand 282Thant, U, 327Theunis, Georges 49, 70, 7071n68, 72, 72n70, 73, 208209, 209n30, 213n39Thielemans, Marie-Rose xThird World 263, 273n1, 281, 316317Thirty Years’ War, 1618–48 322Thomas, Daniel H. xiiThone, Georges 247Thorhallsson, Baldur 319, 338Thucydides’ Melian Dialogue 280Timur-Leste 366Tito, Josip Broz 290291Tjarda van Starkenborgh, Alidius 87n107Todd, Lisa M. 38n74Togo 366Toje, Asle 280n19Tonga 272, 288, 290, 366Trachtenberg, Marc 173, 260261transcending. See International RelationsTransnistria (Transnistrian Moldovan Republic) 296treaties of guarantee 15n1Treaties of London, 1839 ix, 1, 4, 15, 15n1, 1718, 29n42, 31, 35, 40n77, 42, 330Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, 1918 74Treaty of Brussels, 1948 260Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, 1948 275, 317, 324Treaty of Lisbon, 2008 307Treaty of Locarno, 1925 41, 46, 48, 5254, 5758, 6061, 61n46–n47, 62, 64, 64n54, 6768, 7679, 8183, 8384n100, 84n101, 8587, 87n107, 8890, 90n117, 9192, 92n123, 93, 93n124, 93n126, 102103, 104, 104n145, 106, 108, 108n162, 111n169, 116117, 119120, 125127, 127n1, 342343, 348Treaty of London, 1867 39, 46Treaty of Maastricht, 1992 305, 318, 321Treaty of Paris, 1951 257, 261Treaty of Tartu, 1920 297Trinidad and Tobago 284285, 366Trump, Donald 270n202, 343, 344345n343, 346n345Tshombe, Moise 264Tsipras, Alexis 293Tunisia 302, 366Turkey/Ottoman Empire 29n41, 148, 277n7, 291, 293294, 314n203, 319Turkmenistan 295, 366Tutsis 147, 267Tuvalu 272, 288, 366Tuyll van Serooskerken, Hubert P. van 313n196Tyrrell, William 53uae (United Arab Emirates) 302n132, 366udb (Union Démocratique Belge). See Belgium: political partiesUganda 267Ukraine 66, 218, 278n14, 287, 295296, 296n98, 298, 314n203, 323324, 349, 349n1ulb (Université Libre de Bruxelles) x, xiiiUmberto (Prince of Italy) 167umhk (Union Minière du Haut-Katanga) 145, 232n96, 264unamir (United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda) 266267UN Blue Helmets 267268, 314, 327n270UN Charter 6, 1213n39, 241, 244, 251, 275, 287, 307, 310, 324, 335, 345, 367nbUN Convention on Genocide, 1948 290291n77unef (United Nations Emergency Force) 326327, 327n270UN General Assembly 244, 251, 270, 281, 286n55, 287, 315, 319, 326, 361n3, 367nb–nd, 367nf–ng, 367nj–nkunificyp (United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus) 327n270unifil (UN Interim Force in Lebanon) 310n178, 314uni-multipolar system. See International Relations,United Kingdom 5, 10n37, 11, 15n1, 20, 2021n19, 2223, 23n23, 2425, 28, 30, 3340, 45, 45n4, 4647n7, 4748n9, 57, 59, 61, 65n57, 66, 68, 71, 7475, 7879, 8182, 82n94, 85, 8789, 89n114, 9093, 94n128, 95n130, 103, 104n145, 106107, 119, 119n197, 122n209, 123, 125126, 131132, 132n14, 135, 135n23, 137n32, 138139, 139n38, 141142, 144, 148, 148n67, 149n72–n73, 150n77, 151, 151n80, 152157, 161, 161n111, 163, 163n117, 165166, 168, 171, 173174n141, 176, 176n148, 177179, 182184, 185n171, 186, 194, 196197, 197n2, 198201, 203204, 206209, 209n30, 210211, 211n35–n36, 213n40, 214n42, 223, 225, 233, 237, 246247, 249n142, 250, 275, 290, 292n82, 293294, 307308, 314n203, 315n207, 316, 319, 333, 342, 344n342, 347348, 351, 357358United Nations’ Alliance/Declaration, 1942 212n38, 213, 213n4041, 313United Nations Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration 270, 270n202, 301United Nations Organization 241, 244, 251, 260, 264, 267, 272273, 276, 280n19, 283284, 286n55, 288n65, 288n67, 290291, 294, 296, 303304, 307, 313, 315n207, 316317, 327n270, 329, 335, 348349, 361368United States of America (U.S. or U.S.A.) 8, 2324, 45, 4647n7, 59, 65, 92, 120, 130n8, 142143, 194, 197, 197n2, 198, 207, 208n29, 211, 211n35, 212n38, 213, 213n40–n41, 214, 214n42, 231233, 249, 249n142, 250251, 251n148, 260261, 264265, 267268, 270, 270n202, 274, 280n19, 283, 285, 286n51, 288290, 294295, 304, 305n148, 307309, 313, 315n207, 316, 329, 334, 339, 341n339, 343344, 344n342, 344345n343, 346, 346n345, 348, 350351n6, 351unit-or state-level of analysis. See levels of analysisuniversal manhood suffrage in Belgiumwith plural votes, 1893 11, 49without plural votes, 1919 11, 12n38, 45, 50, 259, 342universal suffrage in Belgium, 1948 11, 253254n155, 254, 259unmibh (United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina) 305n148UN Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda 266267n196, 267unoc (United Nations Operation in Congo) 327n270UN peacekeeping missions 266267, 275, 305, 305n148, 309310, 314315, 314315n204, 318, 325327, 327n270, 328329, 330n284, 335unprofor (United Protection Forces) 309310, 314, 314n203, 314315n204UN Security Council 244, 268, 288n67, 305n148, 306, 319, 326, 361n3, 367nd, 367njUN Security Council Resolution 242, 1967 327328, 328n272UN Trusteeships 233, 261262, 359d’Ursel, Louis 208209, 209n30Uruguay 366U.S. neutrality. See neutralityU.S.S.R. See Russia/Soviet UnionUstasi 66utmi/uhga (Union des Travailleurs Manuels et Intellectuels/Unie van Hand- en Geestesarbeiders) 220Uwilingiyimana, Agathe 267Uzbekistan 295, 366Vaesen, Joost 53n16, 69n65, 95n129Vaïsse, Maurice 56n27, 6263n49Van Acker, Achille 242n118, 243244, 243244n121, 246n131, 249250n144, 251n148, 252, 252n149, 255, 260Van Alstein, Maarten 47n9Van Bilsen, A. A. J. 262Van Cauwelaert, Frans 7071n68Van den Bergen, Édouard 9495, 117118, 118n195, 163, 168, 169n128Vanden Boeynants, Paul 265Van den Branden de Reeth, Adrien 243244n121Van den Dungen, Pierre 183n168, 202n16, 207n28, 215216n44, 222223n60, 225n69, 227n75, 228n76, 230n88, 243n119, 253n153Van den Heuvel, Fernand 210Van den Wijngaert, Mark 216217, 230Vanderpoorten, Arthur 167n127, 180, 183n168, 189190n184, 205Vanderstappen, Tom 254n157Vandervelde, Émile xii, 49, 53, 58, 68n62, 73, 73n71, 75, 79, 80n89, 84n102, 97, 99, 101, 109110, 109110n164, 110n165, 111n169, 112, 130131, 131n10Van de Wiele, Jef 218Vandewoude, Émile xiVan Doorslaer, Rudi 257258, 258n166Van Ginderachter, Maarten 12n38, 247n135Van Glabbeke, Adolphe 243n120Van Goethem, Herman 5354n20, 209n30, 213n41, 225226, 228, 256n162, 359Van Houtte, Jean 256n163Van Isacker, Philippe 7071n68, 73n71Vanlangenhove, Fernand 60n40, 72, 72, 74n72, 84, 84n102, 86, 86n105, 89n116, 9596, 96n131, 101102n140, 103, 107108, 109110n164, 112, 122n208, 127n1, 213n41Vannuteli Rey, Luigi 61n46Van Overstraeten, Raoul 4849n10, 87n107, 95n130, 107n160, 109, 122n208, 158, 161n111, 162, 162n112, 163, 167168, 169n128, 180181, 184185, 185n171, 209n30, 219n51, 223n62, 229Van Roey, Jozef-Ernest, Cardinal 133n17, 193, 221, 221n55, 230231, 258n168Van Severen, Joris 51, 98, 181, 218Vansittart, Robert 67n61, 85n103, 119Vanthemsche, Guy xi, 34n56, 146n54, 146n55, 146n54–n55, 210, 224n64, 262Vanuatu 272, 288289, 366Vanwelkenhuyzen, Jean 63n51, 86n105, 100n137, 101n139, 109110n164, 110n165, 109110n164, 112, 116n190, 174, 185n172, 190191n185, 191n187Van Zeeland, Paul 68n62, 6970, 70n66, 7273, 7374n71, 80, 80n89, 8488, 88n110, 89, 90n117, 91, 95, 97, 99, 100n136, 101, 101102n140, 102104, 106107, 107n160, 109110n164, 115, 117, 122, 122n208, 131, 131n10, 133, 133n17–n18, 134, 143, 240, 253254n155, 256Van Zuylen, Pierre 82n94, 95n130, 101102n140, 104n145, 106108, 112, 120n200, 127128, 128n2, 162, 164n118Vatican City (Holy See) 288, 288n65–n66, 292n82Vauthier, Marcel 183n168VB (Vlaams Belang, former Vlaams Blok). See Belgium: political partiesVelaers, Jan 5354n20, 209n30, 213n41, 225226, 228, 256n162, 359Venezuela 272, 284Verbelen, Robert Jan 236Verbond Vlaamse Oud-Strijders (Union of Flemish Veterans) 77n80Verdinaso 51, 98, 181, 218Verhoeyen, Étienne 216, 222, 227n75, 237n105, 257258, 258n166Verhofstadt, Guy 268Versailles Treaty of 1919. See Paris Peace ConferenceVerschaeve, Cyriel 236Verschaffel, Tom 1516n2Vervust, Petra 34n56Vesalius College xixiivev (Vlaams Ekonomisch Verbond) 222V for Victory 211, 211n36Vichy 173, 179, 198, 198n4, 200203, 208, 247Vienna 66, 142n43Vienna Settlement/system 19, 21, 330Vietnam (Vietnam Wars) 282, 339, 346n345Visigrad Group 301Vital, David 277, 336vld (Vlaams Liberalen en Democraten, from 2007 Openvld). See Belgium: political partiesvnv (Vlaams Nationaal Verbond). See Belgium: political partiesVoix du Peuple, La 165166vub (Vrije Universiteit Brussel) xixiiiWaldheim, Kurt 304, 304n141Waever, Ole 345346n344Wallenberg, Raoul 323Wallonia 4950, 54n22, 5657n28, 59, 105, 110, 161, 171, 188, 218219, 236, 246, 254, 266, 266n195, 276Walloon nationalism/separatism. See language questionWalt, Stephen M. 27, 28n38, 54n21, 123125, 302n133, 337Waltz, Kenneth N. 7, 7n20, 8, 123Wandycz, Piotr S. 88n112Wanty, Émile 193War Refugee Board 334Warsaw Pact Organization 260261, 295, 303304, 349Washington Consensus 281Wauters, Arthur 131n10Wauters, Joseph 49Watt, Donald Cameron 154Wavre 163, 177WB (World Bank) 276n5, 281weak states. See statesWehrmacht 175, 178, 216, 304Weinberg, Gerhard L. 9192, 152n85West Bank of the Jordan River 327, 367neWest Germany. See GermanyWestphalia, Treaty or System of, 1648 22n22weu (West European Union) 250, 259261, 305, 318Weygand, Maxime 8384n100, 180, 180n157, 181, 187n178, 193194n194, 196Wheatcroft, Andrew 140n40White Fathers. See Congo: missionariesWielenga, Friso 313314n201Wiener, Jarrod xiii, xiiin14Wieviorka, Olivier 215n43, 238n107, 239240n110Wight, Martin 2829n41Wijnendaele, Castle of (confrontation at on 25 May 1940). See Leopold IIIWilhelmina (Queen of the Netherlands) 154, 160, 164, 179, 179n153, 184185, 185n171Willem i (King of the Netherlands) 1516n2Willequet, Jacques x, 5354n20, 63n51, 104n146, 105n148, 123, 132, 258259Willigen, Niels van 314315Wils, Lode 18, 270n201Wilson, Hugh 142Wilson, Woodrow 44n3, 45, 212Winter War, 1939–40 154155Witte, Els xi, 99Wivel, Anders 279, 288290, 295296, 337338women 11, 204, 215, 215n43, 219220n52, 236, 245, 245n125, 253254n155, 254, 276n5, 287World Economic and Monetary Conference, 1933 59, 71World War i ixxi, 23n4, 6, 1011, 1112n38, 18, 20n19, 21, 2829n41, 29n42, 3435, 3536n60, 37, 40, 42, 42n1, 45, 4748n9, 4849n10, 50, 51n12, 74, 90, 125, 133, 145, 178n151, 180, 191192, 194, 207, 213n41, 214, 219, 236, 239240n110, 258, 287, 301, 310312, 313n196, 322, 331, 341n339, 342, 345, 358Belgian war aims ixx, 39, 4243, 43n2, 44, 44n3, 45, 45n4casualties 43n2World War ii 6, 6n15, 10, 14, 34, 44n3, 4647n7, 5152n13, 100n136, 128129n4, 152n85, 153, 153n88, 155, 188189n182, 194, 210, 213, 248n141, 258259, 287, 303304, 307308, 309n173, 310, 313, 316, 320, 322323, 329, 332, 336, 339, 341, 345casualties 185, 185186n173, 191, 193, 193194n194, 216217, 214, 214n42, 233, 237238n106, 238239, 238239n108collaboration/collaborators 51, 123, 188, 217218, 217218n48, 218n49, 219, 219220n52, 220221, 221n55, 235236, 236237n104, 237n105, 248, 258259, 320, 357359wto (World Trade Organization) 285, 290Wullus-Rudiger, J.-A. 191192n189Wylie, Neville 332334, 341342Xenophobia 77n80, 226, 271, 333334Yalta Conference 212n38, 244Yannas, Prodromos 294Yanukovych, Viktor 349n1d’Ydewalle, Pierre van Outryve 112Yemen 302n132, 366, 368noYom Kippur War, October 1973 328Young, Robert 173Ypersele, Laurence van 113n180Yugoslavia 55, 88, 213n40, 290291, 290291n77, 304, 309310, 327328, 339, 367nb, 367ngYpres/Ieper 180, 181n161, 185n172Yser/IJzer 180, 188189n182Zaïre. See CongoZambia 366Zetterlund, Kristina 327n270, 329, 330n 284Zimbabwe 366Zivilverwaltung 216Zollverein 39