Subject IndexAcquiescence98, 147, 155, 315, 341, 357, 436, 484, 509510, 599611, 615618, 632, 865Antarctica107110, 458460Annexation141, 155157, 174175, 188Arbitration817, 827, 829, 839860, 863, 868, 869As distinguished from judicial settlement844869Applicable law854861Compromissory clause898Invalidity of the arbitral award861869Revision of the arbitral award159, 862, 867Bons offices821824Boundaries150153, 189, 210, 296, 394, 541, 926Cession155156Codification129, 299, 347, 369382Conciliation817827837, 857Condominium140Conquest147, 150Debellatio147, 150Counter-measures551, 740747, 769, 785787, 793794And State responsibility793795And the Law of Treaties(inexecution of a treaty as a ground of its termination/suspension)761765Armed reprisals in time of peace746As distinguished from reprisals740Definition740Conditions741, 744747Custom299304, 314, 318Article 38 (1) b) of the icj Statute305Ascertainment340344Burden of proof344346Codification125, 129, 299391, 829Custom as a source of pil306318Customary process98, 297, 299, 303304, 314316, 332337, 341, 366, 378, 382, 411, 459, 560, 565569, 705Opinio iuris334339Persistent Objector (doctrine of)356365Regional and Local Customs326, 331333, 359, 459States practice323334States Acts323326Dispute806836Definition806809Political and legal disputes819836Obligation to settle by peaceful means809811DoctrineAs law-determining agency (Article 38 (1) c) of the icj Statute268Enforcement of pil(Counter-Measures, State Responsibility)1619Equity292294Infra legem294, 469Praeter legem295, 855Contra legem295, 855General Principles of Law559577, 603, 622, 623, 630High seas104, 105, 111ImmunitiesAbsolute immunity125128Functional immunities of State organs131133Personal immunities of State organs131133Relative immunity125128State Immunities122Innocent Passage(Territorial waters)93Insurrectional Movement65, 71, 201, 215220, 232, 640, 644, 654, 691693, 724Internal (or Municipal) Law7, 1517, 30, 87, 98, 120, 152, 180, 185, 192, 201, 228229, 259, 267, 274285, 306, 347, 371374, 409, 443445, 450, 512, 560, 569570, 577, 655, 660, 664, 670, 681, 816, 850, 854, 858, 945And pil(Legal Pluralism)276295International relevant and irrelevant118122And inobservance of international obligations8587, 283, 513International Law Commission (ilc)657, 763International Court of Justice (icj)14, 869897Article 38 of the icj Statute244Advisory Opinions871882Jurisdiction869, 937Jurisdiction as to jurisdiction889895Optional Clause437, 606609, 912, 930934Permanent Court of International Justice (pcij)45, 87, 500, 814, 841845, 853, 888International legal order (also international legal system)1, 13, 244, 417, 842Definition5Legal pluralism22, 27, 28, 30Ius cogens60, 182, 185, 202, 264, 265, 331, 359, 441, 443, 446, 489, 494, 510, 521, 555, 591, 704, 706, 720, 746, 759, 779, 780, 784, 789, 898And Erga omnes obligations251256, 259, 261Peremptory norms of pil521, 523, 543545, 552Ius Gentium23, 3132, 38, 303, 568Iura novit Curia(Custom)344, 576, 895, 923, 927Legal personality20, 51, 52, 53, 5566, 6869, 72, 89, 132, 155157, 167, 200, 216, 217, 219221, 224227, 229232, 284, 395, 452, 457, 648, 692, 883Attributes of international legal personality52, 66Ius Contrahendi (Treaty-Making Power)63, 66, 68, 856Ius Legationis6568, 224Ius Standi6466, 68, 82Erga Omnes feaure of5960Independence as the ultimate requirement of5759Maritime Spaces9496, 101, 103, 104, 363, 926Area (The)104105Bays93, 361, 926Continental Shelf96103, 111, 325, 326, 376, 378, 379, 541, 926Economic Exclusive Zone (eez)95, 102, 103, 104, 111High seas9496, 101, 104, 105, 111, 338, 363, 742, 756Internal waters93, 95, 101, 361Territorial sea9396, 100, 101, 111, 361, 394, 599, 926Mediation205, 583, 603, 815, 817, 822, 823, 825, 826828, 846Modus vivendi396, 599, 618620Non-Intervention (principle of)122, 519, 577Non Self-Governing Territories(Self-Determination)142, 207Occupation, as a means of acquisition of sovereignty76, 96, 105, 108, 118, 145147, 150, 153, 181184, 195, 198, 211, 223, 224, 355, 671, 672, 681, 670, 706, 707, 922Outer Space105, 106, 107, 111Palestine71, 188, 221223, 232, 809, 880Public international law15, 1213, 45, 51, 58, 95, 143, 220, 228229, 303, 489, 567, 570, 601, 610, 628, 630, 638, 727, 733, 840867Anarchy and Organisation20International legal order(International Legal Order)1, 5, 717, 1927, 39, 45, 5186, 104, 115120, 132140, 178181, 185, 220, 228231, 237, 240245, 251, 259, 271277, 282, 285, 307, 310318, 371375, 407, 410, 417, 443, 510, 517, 522, 523, 535, 539, 554, 565, 568581, 626, 670, 740, 743, 770, 800, 844851, 856, 857, 863, 890Jusnaturalism2, 44, 45, 623Legal system2230, 37, 51, 55, 56, 6169, 71, 110, 125130, 135, 199, 211, 214, 228229, 237256, 276285, 290294, 300302, 344, 374, 393395, 398, 407, 479, 487495, 503505, 535, 560, 564578, 599, 637638, 666, 699, 703, 780, 799, 849850, 856, 857, 859, 869, 882883Legal pluralism22, 2730Positivism3132, 39, 44, 178, 238, 306, 358, 364365, 597, 632Primacy of pil10, 19, 276, 285, 444Quisling Government(Government, Effectiveness)117As distinguished from Puppet State81, 173, 184, 660, 725Recognition25, 62, 68, 109, 117, 150151, 157, 165172, 200204, 209, 221223, 256, 259, 315, 340343, 356, 366, 394, 396, 522, 562, 587588, 607611, 614, 783784, 829, 864, 883, 925De iure and de facto171172, 176Conditional171Belligerency, of215219, 222Government, of116118Non-recognition109, 115, 172177, 787State, of38, 166, 926And Effectiveness164, 169, 178180Obligation of non-recognition (Stimson Doctrine)172177, 779Res iudicata (or ‘chose jugée’)576, 609, 840, 880, 885Secession29, 154155, 157159, 202206, 208209, 214, 675, 693Self-Determination185, 190202, 205214, 223, 256, 701, 743, 782Indigenous Populations210212Peoples76, 149, 187202, 208214, 256, 386, 495, 693, 701Right of peoples to self-determination76, 149, 150, 156, 161, 182, 185189Secession, as opposed to202209Self-Help185, 641, 737, 741, 810Soft Law72, 295296Sources of pil(Treaties, Unilateral Acts, Custom, Doctrine, Jurisprudence, General Principles of Law, Equity, Ius cogens, Erga omnes obligations)31, 306, 319, 573Article 38 of the icj Statute245297, 854Hierarchy29, 33, 218, 247248, 260264, 267268, 277, 285286, 473, 475, 700, 778779Validity and Effectiveness240242Article 103 of the United Nations Charter (unc)262265, 447Sovereignty(State Sovereignty, Territory)10, 44, 58, 6162, 67, 74, 7881, 8384, 8790, 9296, 99101, 103110, 112, 115, 122, 125, 132141, 143151, 155, 161, 164, 169, 179, 181, 185, 190, 194195, 205206, 214, 217, 223, 224, 226, 276, 280, 303, 334, 362, 386, 394, 453, 473, 663, 685, 692, 694, 852Definition77Theories on territorial sovereignty79State and Statehood89Annexation155158, 1745, 536, 737Government114118Principle of State continuity117, 443, 692Recognition, of169Effectiveness179And insurrectional movement215220, 691695In exile117118Independence5758, 6164, 7290, 120125, 131133, 141, 168, 192, 196, 203, 207, 210, 242Population111114Puppet States81, 184, 657658Secession89, 154155, 157159, 202206, 208209, 214, 693Annexation155157, 174175, 188Separation of States162164State boundaries150154Statehood and principle of effectiveness7689State territory81, 9093, 9596, 101, 111113, 133, 148, 213218, 223, 419, 918Sovereignty58, 6162, 67, 7781, 8399, 103112, 122, 125, 133141, 144150, 155, 161164, 179185, 194195, 205207, 214217, 276, 303, 334, 362, 386, 394, 473Sovereign State10, 34, 37, 62, 74232, 849, 926Sovereign Rights88, 90, 94, 9599, 101, 124, 136, 146, 362, 518, 860Subjects of pil5469, 219, 226, 245, 276, 374, 620, 816State Responsibility635800Attribution (or Imputation)480, 639, 649696, 728, 760, 766, 794Circumstances precluding wrongfulness639, 653, 683, 727729, 759Content (Consequences) of International Responsibility726, 765791Reparation505, 537538, 695701, 713715, 721, 743744, 761, 765778, 786788, 792802Restitutio in integrum765, 767, 771, 773Compensation544, 749750, 760761, 772777, 781Satisfaction765, 772, 775778, 835Counter-measures505, 551, 740748, 766769, 785789, 793794, 886Culpa (fault)637639, 649, 749Due diligence111, 686, 691, 693699, 722State organs123, 131, 162, 323, 409, 590, 592, 618, 654667, 678680, 708, 714, 755, 829Ultra vires acts of State organs664669Wrongfulness (or violation)184, 260, 367, 517518, 648653, 683, 688, 695, 708709, 727732, 754764Tacit Agreement(Treaties, definition)304, 306, 320, 332334, 596, 611, 614615, 618620As distinguished from oral agreement454TerritoryInsula in flumine nata148Mode of acquisition of a territorial title146148Special territorial situations138146Territory-object134136Territorial sovereignty79, 9399, 107110, 133140, 146149, 195, 205206Territorial title146149, 459, 611Territory-subject136Kompetenztheorie136137Transnational Corporation227231Treaties393556Absolute invalidity516523Accession108, 130, 309, 355, 412417, 423, 429431, 437, 588, 912Application, ofPersonal452453Temporal445449Territorial449452Classification of treaties according to their making423426Clausula rebus sic stantibus (Fundamental change of circumstances)538540, 546, 627Coercion114, 510, 516518, 554, 591, 724725, 731732Corruption515, 516, 554, 591, 731, 867Denunciation44, 505, 507, 527531, 539542, 546549, 553, 588, 620, 624625, 762763, 929Error513515, 524, 591, 729, 758, 865Fraud188, 514515, 524, 554, 575, 591, 649, 731Inexecution of a Treaty as a ground of termination/suspension531536Interpretation189, 193, 249, 262263, 270274, 287, 339, 341343, 374, 385388, 405, 411, 422, 429, 452, 461473, 480, 501, 574, 586, 593, 611614, 621, 629, 647, 734736, 786, 806809, 816, 837, 846, 872, 908910, 923Methods of interpretation439, 477, 482, 491, 838Pacta sunt servanda40, 43, 228, 256, 398, 420, 441442, 527, 539, 546, 595597, 764, 858Pathology of international treaties503504, 507Procedure regarding suspension, termination and invalidity509510, 524536, 549556Under the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (vclt)506508, 525, 549554Under customary international law549554Violation, of553554Ratification88, 119, 130, 162164, 167, 353, 355, 379, 397, 403, 412417, 421, 423, 425429, 431, 436437, 452453, 460, 465, 477, 509, 513, 529, 588, 864, 912, 920921Relative invalidity508, 512516, 524Registration397, 422, 423424, 929Reservations to treaties426440Signature397, 408, 410429, 436437, 516, 588, 826, 900Source of international law41, 299, 560563, 573, 621622, 794Succession with regard to treaties446449Suspension37, 254, 407, 443, 447, 503504, 506510, 524527, 530534, 536543, 545550, 552555, 588, 607, 728, 742, 745, 762764, 900Termination38, 110, 254, 399, 407, 443, 447, 452, 456, 481482, 503510, 524534, 536542, 545550, 552556, 588, 593, 595, 607, 611, 727, 728, 730, 763764, 900, 929931, 933Travaux préparatoires119, 268, 305, 318319, 376, 423, 445, 450, 456, 468, 472476, 481, 501, 517519, 560, 566, 663, 734, 736, 879, 907, 909, 916Treaties over Time421, 445446, 527Treaty-Making Power(Ius Contrahendi)61, 64, 82, 407, 410, 413417, 480, 512, 618, 660, 858Unlawful object521523Withdrawal89, 125, 177, 210, 250, 254, 416, 420421, 456, 465, 477, 505, 507, 524, 529, 546548, 594, 625, 730, 742, 783, 915, 919, 927, 929933Unilateral Acts15, 246, 295, 346, 394, 579580, 583, 587594, 596, 598, 914Declaration102, 143, 147, 161, 167186, 206207, 341, 351, 401, 580596, 911935Legal nature37, 116, 133, 141, 220, 229230, 383, 396, 405, 428429, 529, 595, 647, 672, 776, 848, 911Notification161162, 339, 394, 412, 420, 452, 551552, 583, 588589, 606, 744, 931Promise1, 538, 589Protest39, 147, 250, 308, 331, 341, 394, 588589, 602, 605, 619, 720, 769, 808Recognition165177Renunciation109, 130, 155, 341, 509510, 589, 732United Nations Charter14, 127, 174, 182, 239, 258, 563, 782Vereinbarung (Theory of)4042, 4445