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IndexAckerman, James109, 112, 156–58, 163–64, 173, 179, 222The Architecture of Michelangelo109n, 156–58, 164, 179action, direct178–79, 195Agam, Yaacov154Agassiz, Louis76Alinari, Fratelli61n, 63n, 72, 80, 91n, 159–62Anderson, James51, 73, 103nAndre, Carl175, 200, 208n, 225Archer, Frederick Scott45Aristotle12–13Arnheim, Rudolf168, 171, 196–97, 210Art and Visual Perception196–97, 210Athens28, 120Acropolis28, 63–70, 107, 119–20, 149–51, 166, 210Erechtheion69–71Parthenon75, 104, 127, 150, 166, 236Propylaia63, 150, 166, 210Stillman, William JamesBaedeker, Karl61Barasch, Moshe14Barnes, Albert146Barr, Alfred146, 150Barthes, Roland230, 233“The Death of the Author”230Bassano, Jacopo114Baudelaire, Charles1–8, 12, 19Salon of 18461–5, 8“Le Masque”6–8, 19Bayard, Hippolyte36–37Beholder9–11, 15–18, 21, 25, 79, 82, 106, 109–63observer, spectatorBellano, Bartolomeo99–100Benjamin, Walter30–31Berenson, Bernard78–79, 83–86Berenson, Mary75Berger, Miriam Roskin182, 185–86empathyBergson, Henri23, 125–26, 134, 140, 142, 144, 152, 193“Introduction to Metaphysics”140Creative Evolution140Matter and Memory125–26, 134notion of durée193Bewick, William38Bishop, Claire178n, 179Bisson Frères51Blanquart-Evrard, Louis-Désiré46Boccioni, Umberto141–42Bode, Wilhelm86–87, 99–100Bois, Yve-Alain235–36Bologna, Giovanni,99Bonasone, Giulio56–58Bonfils, Félix69–71Borromini, Francesco167Boschini, Marco114–15Bourdieu, Pierre85Bourdon, David189Bramante, Donato156, 173Brancusi, Constantin12, 234Braun, Adolphe; Braun & Cie51, 70–75, 77–78, 80, 85, 121Brendel, Otto53Bresolin, Domenico52–53Brogi, Giacomo51, 94Brown, Frank165Burckhardt, Jacob20, 64–65, 86, 93, 97Der Cicerone64–65Butler, Judith25Cage, John174Calder, Alexander154Campbell, Stephen11–12Caramuel y Lobkowitz, Juan110Caravaggio, Cerasi Chapel paintings85, 157Caro, Anthony175, 199–200Cassirer, Ernst147Cellini, Benvenuto14, 110, 114, 116, 141Charbonnier, Georges168Charcot, Jean–Martin121Christophe, Ernest6–8, 19chronophotography112, 120–21, 134, 136, 142Cicognara, Leopoldo38cinema, and cinematographic modes23, 106, 125, 128, 135–36, 144, 152, 161Clark, Lygia194, 221Coffin, David158Cole, Michael11–12concrete art193Coolidge, John223Cope, Maurice84–85Crary, Jonathan19Crowe, Joseph, and Giovanni Cavalcaselle75Crutwell, Maud96, 102–03Cundall, Joseph, and George Downes72d’Agincourt, Seroux37–38Daguerre, Louis30n, 31n, 41daguerrotypes31, 34, 44–45, 47, 50, 64n, 76Daumier, Honoré2–3de Lacretelle, Henri47Delacroix, Eugène187de Saint-Victor, Paul59n, 72–73Dewey, John176–77Dickins, Charles Scrase Spencer42Dickson, William Kennedy Laurie124–25Diderot, Denis17–18, 23, 115–16, 119–20Salon of 176718, 115–16, 120Digby, Lord117Dine, Jim172, 180Disdéri, A.-A.-E.47, 49, 54–55, 58, 63Donatello94, 96, 162–63, 229bronze David94, 96high altar in Il Santo229Judith and Holofernes162Saint John229Doni, Anton Francesco185nDorner, Alexander146Doxiadis, Constantin165–66Dreier, Katherine146Duany, Andrés166–67Duchamp, Marcel142–45, 152, 168, 208nLarge Glass, To Be Looked at (from the Other Side of the Glass) with One Eye, Close to, for Almost an Hour143Nude Descending a Staircase142Rotative plaques verre (Optique de précision)144Rotative demisphére144Dunn, Robert176Eagleton, Terry232nEastlake, Sir Charles Lock65Eco, Umberto144n, 157, 230“The Poetics of the Open Work”157, 230Edison, Thomas124–25Edwards, Jonathan218Einfühlung88, 95n, 121, 126, 130, 180n, 187nempathyElsner, Jás96Emerson, Ruth178–79empathy180–87, 189, 199, 222Berger, Miriam RoskinEinfühlungFalconet, Étienne Maurice16–17Fenton, Roger43Ferenczi, Sántor131–33Fiedler, Conrad88Fish, Stanley230–31Flavin, Dan189, 200, 223Florence51, 53–54, 80–81, 95, 111, 124, 128, 159–162Duomo81, 161Palazzo Vecchio159Fortuna220–21Foucault, Michel228Frangenberg, Thomas9–10, 231–32, 238Freud, Sigmund23, 113, 127–36, 158and cinema113, 135–36and Michelangelo’s Moses113, 127–36Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious133Totem and Taboo129Fried, Michael24, 164, 167, 169–71, 195, 198–204, 209–20, 225–26, 231, 234“Art and Objecthood”24, 169–71, 212–20Three American Painters203–4use of the terms radical and situation216–18Furtwängler, Adolf92–94Gabo, Naum112, 144–45, 152–53, 234Kinetic Construction (Standing Wave)144, 152Realistic Manifesto152–53Gadney, Reg154gardens, landscape18–19, 127, 235–36garden design112, 116–17, 119Gefühl4Gerstner, Karl168Gestalt psychology and theory168, 170–71, 188–124, 222Morris, RobertGiambologna38, 111Giampetrino78Giedion, Sigfried146, 153Gillette, Frank, and Ira Schneider10Gilpin, William Sawrey119Glazer, Bruce200Gleizes, Albert141, 159Gombrich, Ernst54, 69, 196Art and Illusion54, 196Goodyear, William Henry195nGozzoli, Benozzo80–81Graham, Dan10Grand Tour, the18Greenberg, Clement167, 203, 213, 216, 220, 222, 227–28Grimm, Herman86, 98, 99, 232–33Groos, Karl126, 159Groupe de Recherche d’Art Visuel (GRAV) 178Gullar, Ferreira24, 193–95, 210, 222Happenings174–75, 177, 179–80, 216–17Kaprow, AllanHartt, Frederick11–12, 186nHaydon, Benjamin Robert38, 45, 73, 232–33Hege, Walter149–51Hegel, G.W.F.17–18, 28, 64, 86, 149nHemsterhius, François16Hendricks, Jon229Henneman, Nicolaas44Herder, Johann Gottfried4–6, 12, 17, 19, 23, 25–26, 28–29, 106, 114, 227Heron of Alexandria13nHess, Thomas221–22Hesse, Eva208n, 223–26Hildebrand, Adolf22, 88–94, 96–97, 103, 105–6, 120n, 161, 234–35The Problem of Form in Painting and Sculpture88–94, 97, 161Homer36n, 39Hulme, T.E.191Husserl, Edmund10, 106, 192n, 209ninner mimicry181Martin, JohnJanson, H.W.162–63Jauss, Hans Robert230Johns, Jasper167, 183Johnson, Geraldine22, 32–33, 37, 96, 107, 162Jones, Ernest131Judd, Donald167, 169, 175, 189, 200–1, 203–6, 208–15, 222n, 223, 237Judson Dance Theater25, 167, 176, 178, 186–87Judson Memorial Church24, 172Jung, Carl128, 130–31Jung, Jacqueline110, 112, 151nKames, Henry118Kant, Immanuel17, 87Kaprow, Allan24–25, 170–80, 188–89, 194–95, 214, 216, 225HappeningsKemp, Wolfgang12, 232nKennedy, Clarence104–6kinesthetic empathyempathykinetic art10, 23, 144, 152–55, 168, 178, 231kinetic viewership18, 23, 106, 109–10, 112–13, 1117–19, 136–37, 139, 142–64, 179, 222Knight, Richard Payne37, 118–19Koffka, Kurt191, 196, 198Köhler, Wolfgang191, 196Konvitz, Milton218Kozloff, Max24, 202–3, 206, 222Krauss, Rosalind10–12, 110, 204–6, 208–11, 215, 233–35, 237Passages in Modern Sculpture10–12, 110, 233–35Kroll, Jack221Lakey, Christopher110–12landskips and kinema113, 117, 127, 162Lane, Robert177Lányi, Jenö162–63Le Gray, Gustave45–47Leider, Philip214Lemnian Athena92, 105Leonardo da Vinci80n, 129, 159–61, 181, 184–85The Last Supper80n, 184, 185nThe Mona Lisa181The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne129Le Parc, Julio178, 218Lerner, Daniel177Le Secq, Henri47–49Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim4, 29, 235Lippi, Fra Filippo83–84Lipps, Theodor126, 130, 159, 180–82Lissitsky, El109, 112–13, 145–51, 154–55, 172Demonstration Rooms145–46, 154–55, 172Prouenraum145–46Londe, Albert121, 136Lorrain, Claude119Lotz, Wolfgang173, 229Lotze, Hermann121–22, 126, 140Louis, Morris204, 216–17Lysippos13Mackowsky, Hans96Macpherson, Robert59–60Maderno, Carlo15Malraux, André107Manet, Édouard167Marey, Etienne–Jules121, 134, 136n, 142Marshall, F.A.S.49Martin, John180–82, 184–86Introduction to the Dance180–82inner mimicryMartin, R.F.103–6Masaccio80Meiss, Millard81Merleau-Ponty, Maurice10, 24, 164, 171, 191–204, 206, 208–12, 219–20, 222, 234Phenomenology of Perception197–98, 202–07, 219–20, 234Signs203, 206nMetzinger, Jean141, 144, 159Michelangelo11, 38, 56–57, 68, 72–74, 94–96, 98, 109, 112–14, 126–37, 155–58, 164, 168–69, 173, 179, 183–84, 222, 229, 232Bacchus94, 232Capitoline Hill design112–14David95, 98, 232Dying Slave128Florentine Pietà11The Last Judgment184Laurentian Library155Moses68, 96, 113, 126–37, 158, 168, 232Sistine Ceiling frescoes38, 56–57, 72–74, 184, 232kinetic viewershipMichelson, Annette198, 209, 220Michotte, Albert181–82, 185Minimalism24, 169–72, 191–95, 200–1, 206–20, 223, 225, 234–35Mission Héliographique49Moholy–Nagy, Laszlo152–55, 157The New Vision152–53Vision and Motion153–54Morelli, Giovanni75–79, 81–83, 85–87, 108, 133, 162Morris, Robert10, 24, 169, 183, 186–91, 198 200–1, 206–10, 214–15, 218“Notes on Sculpture”206–10, 215notion of “co–extensive spectatorship”10Passageway187Untitled (Battered Cubes)206–7Gestalt psychology and theory, MinimalismMurray’s Handbook for Travelers61, 63, 68nMuybridge, Eadweard120–1, 134, 142Myron, The Discobolus59–60, 91, 134Nègre, Charles47, 50neo-concrete art220–21Newman, Barnet204, 216Niépce, Nicéphore31Noland, Kenneth203, 212, 216Observer22, 28, 32–33, 38–39, 49, 54, 57–58, 80, 87–88, 110–12, 126, 137, 148, 153, 157, 164–66, 176, 191, 197, 207, 229, 231, 238beholder, spectatorOldenburg, Claes172, 180Olitski, Jules203–4, 212, 216Olympia28, 92, 166, 197, 222Onians, John13Ono, Yoko188Opticality98, 100, 152, 168, 199, 202–4, 216–17, 220, 222Osborne, Robin236Paestum, the second temple of Hera at166, 197Palladio155, 179Panofsky, Erwin23, 111, 113, 146–49, 151–52, 158Perspective as Symbolic Form146–49“Style and Medium in the Motion Pictures”152paragone4, 14Passavant, Johann David75Pastrone, Giovanni135–37Paul, R.W.125Pedrosa, Mário193Perkins, Charles Callahan68–69, 96, 106, 232Perspective, linear79–81Perugino78Phenomenology10, 13, 24, 134, 166–71, 176–78, 188–212, 219–20, 222, 228–29, 233–35Photography21–22, 27–85debate about its status46–47Picasso, Pablo141Pinder, Wilhelm149–51Piot, Eugène46Pisa, and the Camposanto55, 80–81Plater–Zyberk, Elizabeth166–67Plato12Poincaré, Henri23, 137–43, 147, 193Science and Hypothesis137–40Pollock, Jackson173, 176n, 203, 216Poons, Larry202, 223Pope, Alexander39, 117Popper, Frank154, 168, 226Poussin, Nicolas119Praxiteles89n, 105Price, Uvedale119, 235Price, William Lake50–51, 58, 78nPromio, Alexandre125Raphael78, 98Rauschenberg, Robert226–27, 230Ray, Man144Reception theory10–12, 232n, 238nRembrandt227, 230Reni, Guido82reproductions of works of art84–85, 87, 91, 102, 105, 108, 125, 128, 131, 133, 235Repton, Humphrey18, 235, 236nRichardson, H.H.122Riegl, Alois147, 149nRoberts, Francis152Rodenwaldt, Gerhart149Rodin, Auguste12, 183, 187, 233–34Jean d’Aire183Rome9, 11, 16, 42, 51, 112 129, 131, 134–35, 198, 229Chigi Chapel173Column of Marcus Aurelius16Column of Trajan9Piazza del Campidoglio229Sant’Agnese, Piazza Navona112Sistine Chapel9, 38, 45, 56, 70, 72–75, 108, 232MichelangeloRose, Barbara24, 190–91, 200–1, 203, 206, 226Rosenberg, Harold176Rosenthal, Earl69, 168–69, 222Rothko, Mark228Rothlein, Arlene187Ruskin, John31–34, 44–45, 47, 119Modern Painters119The Stones of Venice44Salzmann, Auguste72Sansovino, Jacopo83Schapiro, Meyer39Schjeldahl, Peter211n, 217nSchlichter, Joseph186Schlüter, Andreas112Schmarsow, August20, 22–25, 98–101, 106, 112–13, 124, 126–27, 134, 139, 149, 155, 158, 161, 235Schneemann, Carolee186–87Schopenhauer, Arthur87–88, 93, 97, 101Scott, Lawrence177Scott, William Bell72–74Scully, Vincent164–68, 192, 196–98, 210, 222, 236The Earth, the Temple and the Gods: Sacred Architecture164–67, 197, 210, 236Seitz, William228sensory turn, in art history20, 25Serra, Richard167, 235–36Seymour, Charles229Shearman, John236–38Shepley, John235–36Sierra, Santiago9Sieveking, Johannes92Smith, Colin198Smithson, Robert225Souriau, Paul125Spectator and spectatorship1, 10, 13, 18, 21, 34, 63, 83, 87, 89, 101, 104, 109–14, 127, 145, 154, 157, 164, 168, 172, 176–79, 181–82, 187n, 194, 200, 208–9, 218, 227–31, 235–38beholder, observerSpix, J.B.76Springer, Anton69, 131Steinberg, Leo20, 24–25, 74, 85, 157–58, 163, 167, 170–71, 180–89, 199, 222, 227–31, 238“Contemporary Art and the Plight of its Public”183“Other Criteria”227–28Stella, Frank167, 189, 200, 203, 212, 228Stendhal30Stephens, Edward117Stillman, William James66–68, 75, 107, 119–20, 122, 151, 235The Acropolis of Athens66–67, 119–20, 151Stirling, William44, 57Stumpf, Carl90, 120–21, 144Sylvester, David169Talbot, William Henry Fox34–46, 50, 59, 63, 92, 106The Pencil of Nature34–36, 38–39, 41–42, 46, 50Therbouche, Madame116Tinguely, Jean154Tintoretto84Turner, J.M.W.53, 119Uccello, Paolo80–82Van Doesburg, Theo152van Lint, Enrico55–57, 80–81Varchi, Benedetto14Vasari, Giorgio13Venice9, 31, 84, 211Grand Canal52, 125S. Maria della Salute211Venturi, Adolfo71Verlaine, Paul230Vernet, Claude-Joseph18, 115–116, 120Verrocchio, Andrea del94–96, 102–3, 106bronze putto102–3David94–96equestrian statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni103, 106Vertov, Dziga146Viewership, mobile and kinetic11, 16, 18, 22–24, 98, 101, 106, 108–28, 134, 136–37, 143–44, 148–159, 164, 183, 208, 229, 236Vignola, Giacomo da14–15Vischer, Robert88, 93, 126Vitruvius13von Hildebrand, Adolf88–97, 103, 105–6, 161, 234–35von Humboldt, Alexander76von Mach, Edmund126–27von Usedom, Graf Guido99Waagen, Gustav Friedrich19, 86Warburg, Aby112–13, 124–25Wasserman, Jack158Weston, Edward162White, John229Winckelmann, Johann Joseph17, 28–30, 37, 108Winterhalter, Franz Xaver39–40Witasek, Stephan126, 159Wittkower, Rudolf112, 155–57, 210–11, 237,Wölfflin, Heinrich20, 22, 27, 32–33, 93–104, 107–8, 111–12, 163, 232–33“How One Should Photograph Sculpture”32–33, 93–103Principles of Art History98, 101, 111Wordsworth, William, The Excursion18–19You are There175Zevi, Bruno157, 165

The Place of the Viewer

The Embodied Beholder in the History of Art, 1764-1968