IndexAangzoo (military officer)194Abd al-Karim (Al-Hajj)168Abd Allah bin Datu Panglima Taupan (Al-Hajj, from Zamboanga)906Abd al-Qadir al-Said al-Rasul (Sayyid)840Abd al-Qadir bin Ahmad al-Bahr (Sayyid)827Abd al-Qadir bin Ali al-Shawi (Shaykh)790Abd al-Qadir bin Husayn al-ʿAydarus (Sayyid)817Abd al-Rahman b. Hisham (Sultan of Morocco r. 1822–1859)4n9Abd al-Rahman bin Abu Bakr Jafri (Sayyid)827Abdas Shaykh bin Mubarak al-Tahimi542Abdul Ghani bin Syaikh Muhammad Zain (from Banten)12, 665Abdul Hamid (Sharif, Sultan of Pontianak r. 1855–1872)12n32Abdul Rahman Istanbul bin Muhammad Saman al-Jawi al-Kalantani (scholar from Kelantan)12Abdul Rahman bin Malim Air Alang (al-Haj)671Abdul Rauf bin Hasan al-Asyi198, 670Abdul Salam bin Jamaluddin al-Asyi670Abdulkarim (Pangiran Temenggung Perdana Menteri al-Hajj, first vizier of the government of Bandar Aman)163, 168Abdulkhalil (Hatib, from Zamboanga)908Abdullah (Imam, from Zamboanga)907Abdullah bin al-Haj Sirah (from Aceh)671Abdullah bin Muhammad Zabidi (Shaykh)665Abdullah bin Teuku Perang Asyi672Abdullah al-Attas Efendi (Sayyid, Hadrami from Java)708–9Abdullah al-Saʿid Raʾis al-Hadrami (Sayyid)839Abdullah bin Amr al-Junaid (Sayyid)422, 426Abdullah bin Shamil (Ottoman citizen in Java)871Abdullah Efendi (Javanese student in Istanbul)717Abdullah Nuño (Haji, Antonio de la Cruz, local Muslim intellectual in Zamboanga)881, 877–78, 880–85, 887–899, 906–907, 914, 927–28, 931Abdullah Paşa (Sharif, Emir of Mecca)149, 151Abdullah Rabaki (Ottoman citizen in Java)871Abdullah Yusuf Paşa165, 167Abdulmuttalib (Factory Manager in Batavia)875Abdulwahhab (detainee in Yozgat)763Abdurrahim bin Mahmud (detainee in Adana)768Abdurrahman (al-hajj, from Zambonga)907Abdurrahman bin Abdullah (One of the chief of the Arabs in Bogor)716Abdurrahman bin Ebubekir Cefrî (Es-Seyyid)826Abdurrahman (Director of Galatasaray Imperial School)745Abdurrahman (Hacı, Ottoman citizen on Celebes)654–55Abdurrahman (Ottoman ship)980Abdurrahman (Raja of Surakarta)326Abdurrahman (Sidi)771Abdurrahman bin Abdülmecid (merchant residing in Mecca)845–855Abdurrahman al-ZahirHabib Abdurrahman al-ZahirAbdurrahman Gayfan542Abdurrahman Han (Minister from Johor)413Abdülaziz (Ottoman Sultan r. 1861–1876) 195, 276, 502Abdülaziz Baghdadi Efendi (Sayyid, Ottoman citizen and Consul General in Batavia)778–789Abdülfettah Efendi (son of Abdülaziz Baghdadi, Ottoman citizen in Batavia)778–788Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Sultan r. 1876–1909)8, 29, 242–43, 258, 264, 287, 291, 294–302, 305, 308, 313, 319, 322–24, 327, 363, 383, 386–78, 392, 394, 571, 714, 805, 835, 885 fn25Abdulhamid Mas Agus (Al-Hajj, resident of Palembang)604Abdülmecid (Ottoman Sultan r. 1839–1861)4, 6, 8, 13, 15–16, 82–84, 88, 90–92, 95, 100, 101–106, 143–145, 155, 171, 292–295, 303, 307, 311, 313, 324, 664–65, 810–11, 892Abid bin Mubarak (Arab resident of Batavia)827Abinales, Patricio882Abu Bakar (Sultan of Johor r. 1862–1895)328, 363–67Abu Bakar bin Muhammad al-Asyi670Abu Bakr (Caliph)44, 805, 816Abu Bakr al-Habashi266Abu Said (Shahbandar of Tembusai in Singapore)249Abu TuwayraqBadr bin AbdullahAbubakar (Hatib, from Zamboanga) 908Abubakar Sungkar717, 723–24AcehAceh campaign484Aceh region490, 506–507Aceh war223–26, 493, 498, 517Acehnese chronicle322Acehnese cloth89Acehnese envoy9–10, 14, 91, 97–8, 111–12, 115–19, 125, 140–41, 205–06, 212–13, 217–19, 231Acehnese epics2Acehnese government223, 229–30, 238–40, 502–03Acehnese people99–100, 197, 506, 667, 669Adana701, 762–68, 798Aden46, 48–9, 58–9, 67, 188, 384, 463, 559, 761, 995Aden (governor of)59, 761Aegean Islands736Afghanistan573, 634, 961Afghans961agila wood89, 95Ahmad (Hatib from Zamboanga)907Ahmad bin Abdurrahman al-Zahir (Sayyid)242–43Ahmad Bashir (Maranao Muslim scholar)901Ahmad bin Ali Yamaki (Sayyid)801Ahmad bin Isa al-Muhâjirîn (Sayyid)805, 816Ahmad bin Uthman al-Khalida al-Naqshbandi al-Sambawi147Ahmad Efendi (Sayyid, envoy of Riau)151Ahmad Efendi (Javanese student in Istanbul)149Ahmad Kanda Kerinci671Ahmad Khatib bin Abdul Ghaffar Sambas665Ahmad Khatib Efendi (Shaykh, Shafiʿi imam in Mecca)604Ahmad Said Efendi (Javanese student in Istanbul)717Ahmad Tajuddin Halim Shah (Sultan of Kedah r. 1803–1843)75–78Ahmed (Shaykh from Jawa)147Ahmed Adnan Paşa (son of Sharif Abdulmuttalib Efendi, Emir of Mecca)580Ahmed Ali Paşa358Ahmed Ataullah Efendi (Consul General in Singapore)445–48, 450Ahmed bin Salim Ba-wazir (a resident of Buitenzorg)613Ahmed Cevdet Paşa363, 688, 695Ahmed Daud Efendi (Medenî Molla)458–59Ahmed Efendi (son of Abdülaziz Baghdadi, Ottoman citizen in Batavia)786–88Ahmed Muhtar Paşa (Gazi)708Ahmed Paşa359, 361–62, 981Ahmed Ratıb (Governor of Hijaz)443Ahmed Rıfkı (Consul General in Batavia)490, 492, 494, 803Air Naik (on Sumatra)173Akantopolides (Doctor at Kamaran quarantine)689, 691al-Akwân family739Alauddin Ibrahim Mansur Shah (Sultan of Aceh r. 1838–1870)6, 8, 15, 81–87, 90–139, 168–170, 179–84, 205, 207, 214, 222, 229, 238, 288, 295, 305, 307, 313, 892Alauddin Jauhar al-Alam Shah (Sultan of Aceh r. 1795–1824)275Alauddin Mahmud Shah (Sultan of Aceh r. 1870–1874)9, 19, 195, 205, 214, 230, 264, 282–83, 306, 312Alauddin Muhammad Daud Shah (Sultan of Aceh r. 1874–1903)6, 8, 19, 275, 277, 287, 289–90, 294–306, 312, 314–15Alauddin Riayat Shah (Sultan of Aceh r. 1597–1615)23Alauddin Riayat Shah al-Kahhar (Sultan of Aceh r. 1537–1571)27–29, 33, 38, 52–56, 63, 66Alawi sayyids834, 78, 721, 774, 834Aleppo543–45, 798Alexander II (Russian Emperor r. 1855–1881)385Alexander III (Russian Emperor r. 1881–1894)385Alexandria (in Egypt)53, 55, 57, 63, 67, 74, 188–89, 464Algeria798Ali (Caliph)44Ali (Hajji, Raja Ali’s brother)143Ali bin Lankutah669Ali al-Mergaz (Shaykh Sayyid)283Ali bin Abdullah bin Tubigh al-ʿAmiri al-Hamdani (Shaykh)291, 294Ali bin Abdurrahman bin Sahl Efendi (Javanese student in Istanbul)740–43Ali bin Emir Jaʿfar (Raja, Yang Dipertuan Muda of Riau)7, 142–45, 149, 151, 152, 153Ali bin Hasan bin Umar al-Habashi Jamal al-Layl al-Alawi (Sharif)153, 155, 264–66, 268–270, 278–80, 282–83, 285–86, 399, 580Ali bin Sayyid Alawi al-Jafri Efendi (Sayyid)158, 155Ali bin Sharif Ismail (from Aceh)278, 282–83Ali bin Shihab (Sayyid)817Ali bin Umar al-Junaid Ba Alawi168–70Ali Daniş Bey (Ottoman Diplomat)439Ali Efendi bin Sahl (Javanese student in Istanbul)737–38Ali Galib Beg (Ottoman consul in Batavia)472, 706, 811Ali Haidar (son of Haidar, Ottoman prisoner-of-war in Thayetmyo)973Ali Hajji Ibrahim (Sayyid)995Ali Masʿud (chief of Honoured Mecca Club)629Ali Muhsin al-Shibli (Shaykh)646Ali Oglou Ismail (Ottoman prisoner-of-war in Thayetmyo)966Ali Polat (son of Ali, Ottoman prisoner-of-war in Thayetmyo)973Alim (Maharaja)908Allehanda (Swedish newspapers)564Ally Ghaza (Hadjee, Ottoman citizen in Burma)194Alrato Aʿisha (Sayyida al-Sharifa)266Amarapura (Historical Capital of Burma)187ambergris (commodity)46, 76, 171, 174Ambon526Ament (Landlord on Java)653America421, 443, 460, 516, 531, 559, 650, 900, 909, 912, 934, 936–37, 957, 958, 960, 966–68AmericanAmerican customs and laws896, 910American Embassy468, 958–60, 966–68American subjects570, 937American warship529American-Spanish war934Amr bin Said bin Talib827al-Amudi (in Hadramawt)810amulet24–26, 92Amumatam bin Pam (from Aceh)670Anatolia617, 835Andalusia816, 832Anglo-Burmese War186, 189Aniyya (Imam from Zamboanga)907Ankara (in Anatolia)762–63, 797–98Annamese348Antasari (Imam from Zamboanga)907, 928Antonio de la CruzAbdullah NuñoAntuvan Peyanki[?] (Chief deputy of Prince Chakrabongse)400al-Aqsa mosque16, 143ArabArab clothes278, 527, 556Arab community614, 718, 723–24Arab compatriots659Arab horse402, 404Arab lute (gambus)628Arab Mosque485Arab preachers600Arabia667, 676, 792, 817Arabian Peninsula228, 482, 815, 832, 834Arabic language130, 511, 817Arabs15, 44, 76, 102, 295, 315, 324–25, 370, 375–76, 446, 481–82, 485, 516, 518, 541–42, 592, 634, 654, 658–60, 696, 707, 714–16, 769, 771, 773–74, 776–77, 786–87, 791–792, 800–01, 810–13, 817–18, 820–21, 824–25, 834, 854, 864, 866–68, 872–74, 959, 961Arafat573Ârâm Efendi (Ottoman diplomat)439Arif Bey (private chamberlain)268Armenian5, 631n21, 961, 963, 979Arnavud Hasan Ağa (First chief warder)691Asahan (on Sumatra)12, 12n31, 169, 173–74Ashfaq Efendi (Hadrami Sayyid, a prominent rich Arab)636ashrāf (the Prophet’s descendants)171, 174Asım Bey (Ottoman diplomat)452Asian rulers4, 31, 75, 328, 368, 769Asians3, 9, 10, 15, 31–2, 471, 700, 862–64Asîr issue211Aşiret Mektebi (The School for Tribes)701Atâî Efendi (Qadi of Medina)750Atay (Panglima, from Zamboanga)908Athens358–59, 361–63atlas (silk fabric)23al-Attas family810, 817Augustin, Basilio529Austria22, 68, 330–32, 384, 464, 591, 595, 634, 648, 698Austrian Consul591, 595autocracy385Ava (Historical Capital of Burma)187Awn al-Rafiq (Emir of Mecca)443, 678Aydın (city in Anatolia)797al-Aydarus family812, 817Ayn al-Zubayda679Ayn Bamaʿbad (in Yemen)805Aynan (in Yemen)816Azaryan Efendi982Aziz Efendi (Lieutenant)409Ba Junaid (Shaykh, Leader of the Arab community Bogor)718, 723–24Bab el-Mandeb125, 675, 676Babakır (Indian merchant)276Bade Wun (Minister of Metalworks of Burma)186Badr bin Abdullah (Abu Tuwayraq, Emir of Hadramawt)805, 810Baghdad24, 89n13, 125, 482Baghlan294Baginda Omar (Sultan of Terengganu r. 1839–1876)429bags (commodity)977Bahoban Mosque626bajalushka (siege cannons)49Balangingi-Samal diaspora880–81Balhaf (in Yemen)805, 816Bali88, 90Balkan Wars646–47Baltic Sea Company339Bandung826Bangkok248, 348, 384–85, 496, 615, 616, 632Bangkok Islamic Committee, The632Bangta Muda Tuanku Hasyim (Acehnese minister)288Bani Hajar816Bani Hamdan816Bani Kinda816Bani Quraysh Makhzam bin Habul Makhzami482Bani Tamim816Banjarmasin (on Borneo)537–38Banta bin Selamat (from Aceh)669Bantala Ajad (from Zamboanga)908Barat207al-Barat (on Sumatra)173Baring, Evelyn (Lord Cromer)804Basilan879, 881, 888, 890n45, 894–95Basra125, 876, 798, 805, 816, 972Batavia167, 292, 294, 306, 317, 425, 430, 433, 449, 456, 464, 466, 469, 484–85, 488, 512, 557, 562, 571, 588–89, 602, 604, 607, 638, 641, 643, 648, 706, 713, 716–17, 720–21, 723, 735, 769, 771, 774, 780, 786–87, 789, 791, 800–01, 804–12, 820, 821, 826, 833, 839, 841, 843, 852, 854, 875–76, 980, 982, 985, 987, 989Batavia Handelsblad (newspaper)556Batavian Hadramis369Bates, John C. (General)897Batu al-Besar Kerinci (Mualim)671Batu Bara (in north Sumatra)12Batu Licin791Batua Kerinci (Mualim)671Baxter (Captain)969–70Bay of Bengal128, 348Bayan bin Mansyan670Baydawi, Qadi621–23Bayram Oglou Mazhar (Ottoman prisoner of war in Thayetmyo)966Bayugi (Hatib from Zamboanga)907beeswax (commodity)275Beirut721, 798, 822, 989bejewelled rings (commodity)995Bekir Sami Efendi623Belgium385, 419Benghazi798Bengkalis248, 252Bengkulu99, 105, 129, 429benzoin, fine (commodity)169white benzoinVan Den Berg, L.W.C. (Dutch Scholar)526Berlin328–32, 336, 460, 533–34, 593, 595–96, 633Betel169, 349Van Den Biesen, Jacob W. (Dutch Catholic Politician)526Biʾr Ali (Abar Ali, port of Hadramawt)805, 816Bilal Aram (from Zamboanga)907Bilal Asmail908Bilal Hasan907Bilal Musa908Bilal Tu[w]pan908Bintala Ummar907Bismarck Archipelago534Bitlis (in Anatolia)798Blanco, Ramón (Field Marshal)530Bliss, Tasker B. (Governor of the Moro Province)884Van Blokland, Frans Beelaerts867Bodrum (in Anatolia)70Boeroe (island)526Bogor554n12, 614n14, 714–16, 718, 723–24Bombay89n13, 433, 439, 441, 476, 486, 773, 803–04, 822, 981, 994Bonaparte, Louis-Napoleon (President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1852)91, 832Borneo12, 88, 90, 100, 102, 105, 128, 264, 312, 317, 320, 443, 482, 486–88, 516, 518, 537–38, 791, 816Bosnian5Botanical Garden of Batavia982Boworadet (Siamese Prince, Minister of Defence 1928–1931)414–17Braginsky, Vladimir470n1, 322n118, 470n1Brahmanists482brass (commodity)49Brindisi188Bristol, Mark Lambert (Admiral)468Britain162, 186, 188, 195, 276, 320, 363, 385, 429, 463, 472, 484, 490, 493, 516, 567, 634, 636, 695, 758, 804, 833, 958BritishBritish colonial rule189British colony248, 418, 429, 506, 571British consul248, 319–20, 438, 562British Consulate General464, 638, 644British government147, 321, 438, 461–62, 557, 567, 624, 803, 810, 959, 967, 972British governors247British Library189n48, 383n11British officials462, 465–66, 557, 804British paper factories562British police994British political agent189n48British power186British Residency320British ships466British state114, 147, 246, 508, 624, 761British territory466British towns and cities188British troops960–61Brooke dynasty320Brooke, Charles (Rajah of Sarawak)320, 324–25Brunei6, 8–9, 11, 18, 319–22, 324n120, 325Buddha349Buddhism349Bugis88, 90, 100, 142Buitenzorg554, 613, 980Bulgarian government570al-Buni, Ahmad (13th-century Egyptian Scholar)26Burma29, 185–89, 194, 349, 384, 496, 630, 958–60, 966, 969–70Bursa (in Anatolia)798Burum (in Yemen)805, 816BuruBoeroeBuyuk (Panglima, from Zamboanga)907Byzantines4Byzantium2Cairo67, 74, 188–89, 277, 367, 700, 957Calais188Calcutta186, 187n37, 634, 637, 804Calicut48, 67, 584Calicut (qadi of)27Caliphate15, 43, 66, 102, 124, 132, 162, 167, 200, 222, 229, 239, 268, 282, 294, 313, 372, 375, 425, 434, 446, 459, 463, 506, 557, 559, 576, 582, 587, 588–89, 619, 622, 634, 636, 644, 659–60, 714, 716, 719, 723, 736, 744, 746, 771, 805, 816–17, 834, 836, 934, 939–40, 944, 946, 981Cambodia348camphor (commodity)47, 89Çanakkale (in Anatolia)639cannon47, 49, 67, 88, 99, 123, 129, 162, 171, 229, 247, 255, 275, 291, 294, 306, 312, 476, 505Cape Town446, 448Carnelian mines130Caroline Islands534Carpenter, Frank887carpets (commodity)979Casale, Giancarlo27, 29, 33–4Çatalca798Catalonia795Catholic party (Netherlands)526Caucasian464Cavalrymen476Cavite (on Luzon island)529, 881Celebes518, 655, 706, 822Cemal Paşa955, 957Cemil Paşa (Ambassador in Paris)424–25Central Asia588Central Europe516Central Powers632Ceram (island)526Cevad Paşa (Grand Vizier)344, 708, 710Cevher Abdullah Ağa691Ceylon47–8, 67, 188, 559Chakrabongse Bhuvanadh (Siamese Prince)382–83, 386, 390, 392, 394–96, 400–05Chang Siam (in Thailand)348Charles II (King of England r. 1660–1685)29China10, 123, 348–49, 463, 493, 559, 573, 589, 620, 981, 988Chinese profiteers552–53Chingiz Han47Chirapravati Voradej (Siamese Prince)341, 386Cholera527, 661, 675–77, 687ChristianChristian Europe589Christian government527–28, 658, 835Christian sovereigns5Christianisation527Chulalongkorn (King of Siam r. 1868–1910)29, 328, 352n5, 381–87, 397–98cinchona (commodity)484, 547–48cinnamon (commodity)47, 130Circassian363, 855Cirebon (on Java)867, 482, 867, 979–80Civan Ilyas (Ottoman subject)796cloth (commodity)22–3, 89, 92, 95, 97, 278, 349, 527, 536, 552, 556, 739, 792, 796–97, 833, 928, 960, 963–64, 971, 977, 989cloves (commodity)47, 130Cobb, Francis29, 30coconut (commodity)169coconut trees (commodity)46coffee (commodity)130, 275, 484, 547–48, 961–62, 974–76, 979coffee beans (commodity)169Cojuangco, Margarita delos Reyes880, 881n8Colombia650Colombo384Constantine Phaulkon349ConstantinopleIstanbulCopper (commodity)56, 58–9, 67, 99–100, 130Cotabato (district of Moro Province)882, 893n56Cremer, Jacob Theodoor (Dutch Minister of Colonies)527Crete588, 798Crimea334n1, 385–86Crimean War386crystal (commodity)349Cuba530, 793–98Cuban volunteers530cumin seed (commodity)961Currie, Philip (British ambassador in Istanbul)804Dagestani Ahmed Efendi317Dahob791Dahomey (Kingdom of)497Damrong Rajanubhap (Siamese Prince, king’s half-brother 1862–1943)328, 335–39, 341–43, 351–55, 357, 359–63, 370, 377, 381–83, 385, 386n19, 387Danish East India Company11Dardanelles648–49, 798Darfur (sultanate of)15, 24Dâruşşafaka (Orphans’ School)700Datto Mandi907Daud bin al-Haj Sirah (from Aceh)970Daud (Syaikh, from Lung Tujuh)200Daud bin Ismail bin Mustafa Rumi (Shaykh Scholar)894Daud Efendi (Javanese student in Istanbul)716Dawud bin Tanun (from Aceh)670Davao882Daver Efendi (Adjutant Major)409Deir ez-Zor798Deli493, 600Denmark385Derviş Paşa283Desnitskaya, Yekaterina (Siamese Prince Chakrabonse’s wife)386Detention Camp958, 960, 964, 966–67, 969–70Devawongse Varoprakarn (Siamese Prince, Minister of Foreign and Internal Affairs)351–52Deykerhoff, Christoffel (Dutch General)503Dhofar720, 961, 805diamond (commodity)88, 130Dickinson, Jacob M. (U.S. Secretary of War)884Dikarun bin Janjah (from Aceh)669Diki-Diki (Panglima, hereditary chief of the island of North Ubian)928Diyarbekir (in Anatolia)798Doprenis985Dorsets (British regiment)972DutchDutch aggression502, 575Dutch Cabinet848–49Dutch Christians106, 258Dutch colonial rule90, 147, 153, 537, 777, 851Dutch colonies242, 246, 315, 318, 370, 419, 456, 462, 470–73, 476, 481–82, 486, 500, 506, 516, 541–42, 546, 548, 554n12, 557, 558n13, 562, 564, 566, 569–70, 574, 588, 612, 631, 758, 772, 774, 777, 781, 785, 786, 788–90, 810–11, 813, 824, 827, 834, 844–48, 862–64Dutch consulate101, 276, 559, 667–68, 672–73, 694, 698, 759, 764, 787, 801Dutch Embassy155–56, 168, 223–26, 228, 318–19, 368, 425, 539–40, 542, 607, 666, 682, 764, 766, 785, 787, 867, 969, 979–80, 993Dutch Government163, 165, 167, 174, 179–80, 184, 222, 229–31, 234–36, 238–40, 247, 249, 255, 258, 287, 294, 315, 369, 375–76, 419, 421, 424–25, 429, 433–34, 454, 456, 462, 466, 471, 483–86, 490, 493, 502–03, 506–08, 512, 516, 519, 528, 536, 538, 541, 559, 570, 576, 603–05, 608, 611, 624, 631, 706, 761, 772–73, 777, 781, 786–89, 810–11, 817, 821–22, 824–27, 832–35, 841, 847, 850–52, 862, 864, 871, 873, 980, 993Dutch infidels308Dutch invasion295, 306n100Dutch King306, 484, 567Dutch language471Dutch mail ships464Dutch National Assembly631Dutch Navy484, 566Dutch occupation287Dutch officials287, 466, 538, 868–69, 871–73Dutch oppression249n63, 252–53, 256–63, 318, 623, 835Dutch parliament523, 566, 570, 605, 725Dutch Post464Dutch Protestant512, 601Dutch scholars511Dutch settlers517Dutch soldiers535, 500, 503, 508, 535Dutchmen484East India Company11, 29, 429n8, 429n10East India Trade Company832, 484Eastern Ocean128, 168–69Eastern Telegram Company562Edirne (in Anatolia)797–98Egypt2, 48–9, 53–4, 57, 59–61, 63, 67, 71, 73–4, 78, 99, 133, 189, 564, 708–09, 712, 804, 855, 887, 987, 995Egypt (governor of)49, 54, 63, 71, 73, 78Egyptian Janissaries67, 464Eid al-Fitr619, 626, 629, 641elevatio10–15, 17, 31, 143, 155, 171, 174, 205, 250, 665Elizabethan England21Emin Bey (Ottoman Consul General in Batavia)444, 607Emin Efendi (Lieutenant)409Encik Ismail (aide of Encik Mustafa)413–14Encik Mustafa (Minister of the Sultan of Johor)413–14English4, 6, 18, 27, 29–31, 33, 92–3, 129–30, 155n25, 186–89, 243–44, 288n81, 321, 328, 382–83, 386–87, 423, 429n10, 482, 494–96, 556, 561–62, 616, 623, 632, 634, 636, 760–61, 877–78, 890–91, 893–95, 897–98, 902n73, 909, 912, 962, 971, 994Entente States660Equator77, 128, 168–69, 552Ertuğrul Fırkateyni (Ottoman frigate)14, 243–44, 248–50, 252–53, 256, 258–64, 275, 372, 488, 578–84, 588Erzurum (in Anatolia)798Ethiopia3, 19, 662Ethiopian documents14Euphrates River958Europe186, 188, 194, 288, 328, 332, 349, 363, 384, 390, 411–12, 419, 441, 475, 482–84, 493, 516–17, 558, 589, 786, 788, 832, 835, 897EuropeanEuropean civilisation589European Markets990European powers4, 30, 82, 469European States114, 139, 158Europeans5, 10, 242, 349, 375, 382, 418, 456, 471, 481–82, 484–85, 492, 509, 516, 528, 541, 552–53, 556, 636, 657, 660, 769–80, 786–87, 810–11, 817, 824, 826, 835, 842–44, 847Eutong Meliki653Facundo Mandi (Datu Sama-Spanish mestizo and influential leader of Zamboanga)884Faik Paşa408Fakih Kerinci670Fakih Tunku Kerinci671Far East321, 446, 471, 483, 496, 588Fatah Kerinci (Mualim)671Fatıma İsmet875–76Fatima (daughter of the Prophet)266, 275, 701Fazlullah Paşa (Sayyid)77Feindel, C. (German Consul General in Singapore)460Fekete, Ludwing20–21Fener Baghtché [i.e. Fenerbahçe]968Ferman3Fethi Bey (Ottomn Diplomat)439Feyzullah Bey (Director of the translation office of the Ministry of War)417Finley, John P. (governor of Zamboanga in Philippines)877, 878n4, 881n10, 882–90, 892–93, 896–97, 899, 909–10, 912–14, 926–53Firearms268, 349Fîrûz Ağa neighbourhood (in Tophane)278, 282Fishing46, 307florin (Dutch curency)435–36, 512, 557, 560–61, 566–67, 643–44, 646, 648–49, 826, 980–81France22, 91–2, 186–87, 195, 349, 385, 387, 463, 493, 496–97, 516, 632, 634, 642Franco-Siamese War384Frankish lands68Franks46, 68, 356Fraser Street994French4, 6, 20, 84, 89, 91, 92–3, 95, 100, 106, 108, 129–30, 164, 171, 174, 180, 248, 288, 349, 384–85, 418, 419n1, 440, 471, 496–97, 511, 526, 559, 564, 612–13, 615, 636, 644, 654, 673, 700n1, 704–6, 721, 739–41, 744–46, 761, 772n1, 776n2, 780, 822, 844, 961, 982French Indochina384fruit tree seeds (commodity)983fruit trees (commodity)275Fuad Paşa419furs (commodity)349Galata278–79Galatasaray Imperial School700n1, 710, 733, 737–39, 741–43, 746, 748–49Galib Bey (Ottoman Consul General in Batavia)432–34, 436, 439–41, 585, 801, 868Gallipoli peninsula639Galvani, Antonio (Paper producer in Pordenone)92Gary, Henry (East India Company servant)29Gascoyne-Cecil, Robert (Lord Salisbury) 437–38gee (commodity)961General Staff Academy (in St Petersburg)386Geneva464, 958George (Prince of Greece and Denmark)359GermanGerman Cabinet593, 596German Capitalists493German Consul413, 459–60, 633, 643, 871German engineers and technicians385German Red Cross642–44Ghalib al-Kathiri (Emir of Hadramawt)774Ghazi16, 76, 195, 242, 258, 291, 294, 296, 303–04, 323, 639–40, 714, 798, 805, 811Gilan22Girvan, William890, 893, 897, 908, 912, 914glass (commodity)349Gogo (Datu)928Gold5, 12, 22, 48, 66, 73, 88, 92, 130, 275, 560gold dust (commodity)130Gonder (in Ethiopia)14Governor-General (of Dutch Indies)7, 14, 318–19, 811De Graaf (the director of foreign affairs)554Greek5, 76, 79n1, 349, 985, 987Greek community990Greek Orthodox School543Grey, Edward (British Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1892–1895)496Gujarat47, 50Gulf of Siam348Gum (commodity)23, 130Gundam Shah (Sultan of Muko-Muko r. 1728–1752)428–29Habashi family812Habib Abdurrahman al-Zahir (Sayyid, Hadrami, minister and envoy of Aceh)8, 9, 14, 17, 19, 195, 198, 202, 204–08, 211–219, 222, 229, 233, 240, 243, 276, 502, 610al-Haddad family812, 817al-Hadi al-Ghalib (Imam of Sanaa)4n9Hadi bin Iwad (Arab in Batavia)827Hadi bin Salih bin Talib (Arab in Batavia)827Hadith (traditions of the prophet)896, 910Hadramawt317, 512, 712, 760, 769, 773–74, 792, 805, 810, 815–18, 834, 867–68HadramiHadrami authorship258Hadrami envoys2, 14Hadrami immigration769Hadramis258, 369, 370, 373–76, 769, 771–73, 769, 793, 798, 800–02, 805–09, 811–12, 816, 813, 824, 826, 828, 849, 868Hafız Osman Calligraphy617al-Hajarayn (in Yemen)816Haji Abdul Rahman bin Malim Air Alang671hajj (pilgrimage)2, 211, 268, 426, 518, 526–27, 572–73, 577, 661, 759, 937–38Hajjis258, 418, 527, 661, 697–98Halil Bey (Ottoman Foreign Minister)564, 566, 648, 650Halim Djavid (Captain)977Halkalı Zirâʿat Mektebi (Halkalı Agriculture School)700, 731, 737–38Hamid Efendi (Sayyid)445, 447Hamzah Kerinci (Sayyid)670Hanafi school44n4, 129Hannema, Sjoerd (Dutch Secretary-General for Foreign Affairs)461Harida (in Yemen)810Harput798Harrison, Francis B. (Governor General of Philippines)887–89, 899Harun al-Rashid698Harun bin Abdul Rahman Asyi669al-Hasa834Hasan bin Ahmad (from Aceh)670Hasan bin Ibrahim (Jawa resident of Mecca)679Hasan bin Muhammad Salih Asyi669Hasan Hüsnü Paşa (Minister of the Navy)258, 579, 584Hasan Tahsin Binbaşı (Ottoman emissary to Burma)186, 194Hashemite clan171Hashim (Shaykh, uncle of Mahmud Daud Shah)283Hashim Abdullah Efendi (Javanese student in Istanbul)711Hashim Jalilul Alam Akamuddin (Seri Paduka Bawah Duli Yang Dipertuan Sultan of Brunei, r. 1885–1906)319, 322–24Hasyim (Teuku, Regent of Aceh)19, 287–89, 295havayi (siege cannons)49al-Hawr805, 816Hawrah (in Yemen)810Hegira622Helfferich, Karl Theodor (German Finance Minister)643Hendrik (Prince, husband of the Queen Wilhemina)651Herbert, Patricia185Herring (merchant in Sumatra)590–91, 593–97Hewett, Godfrey (British consul in Brunei)319–21Hidayatullah Shah (Sutan of Muko-Muko r. 1816–1832)429n9HijazHijaz (governor of)442–43, 678–80, 697–98, 750Hijrayn (in Yemen)810Hikayat Aceh321, 322n116Hikayat Iskandar Zulkarnain5Hikayat Johor363Hikmet bin Moustapha (Ottoman prisoner of war at Thayetmyo)959Hilal (Turkish newspaper)970Hindu306, 835Hindustani637, 962Hira (the cave)664hisalbend (commodity)47Hızırzâde Aziz Efendi (Sayyid from Baghdad)430–31, 434Holland99, 102, 276, 419, 516–17, 567, 695, 758, 811, 834–35, 844Holy Shrines16, 44, 76, 93, 99, 105–06, 143, 662, 805horses49, 51, 55–6, 58–9, 62, 67, 476House of Chakri382, 384n14, 393–94House of Osman522, 599, 628House of the Prophet205, 242Hudaydah684–85, 687–88, 761, 984Hukm (tribe)184–85Hungarian5, 564, 643Hungary384Husain (al-Hajj, Second vizier of Taha Saifuddin)163Husain bin Alah (from Aceh)669Husain bin Ali (notable of Aceh)670Husain bin Umar (from Aceh)670Husayn (Sayyid)151al-Husayn al-Yamani al-Jadidi (from Surabaya)873Husayn bin Muhsin al-Attas (Sayyid)817Husayn Efendi (Sayyid, envoy of Riau)149hussars386, 476Hüsameddin Efendi bin Şerif821–22Hüseyin (Acehnese envoy to Istanbul)72Hüseyin Paşa (Governor of Hijaz)180Hyderabad804Hymans, Martin (consul of the Grand Duchy of Baden in Semarang)424, 425Hyogo (Japanese port)584Ibbang (from Zamboanga)908Ibrahim (Imam from Zamboanga)907Ibrahim (Sayyid, secretary of the Islamic school in Bangkok)615–16Ibrahim Al Masyhur Ibni Almarhum Sultan Abu Bakar Al-Khalil Ibrahim Shah (Sultan of Johor r. 1895–1959)411–14, 449n17–50Ibrahim al-Khulusi bin Wuddin665Ibrahim Kerinci (Mualim)671Idi (on the northeast coast of Aceh)276al-Idris (tomb of, saint in Jakarta)602Idris bin Abdul Rauf (from Aceh)671Idrus Alawi Efendi (Javanese student in Istanbull)711Ilkhanid chancery3Illana Bay879Imam al-Shafiʿi97Imam Muda (Seri, Acehnese minister)202, 204–05, 207Imperial Dockyard162, 688Imperial Ship246Imperial Treasury125, 133, 139, 341, 402–404IndiaIndian Buddhist312Indian cotton (commodity)46Indian Islands239, 315, 318, 375–76, 47–72, 481–486, 488, 505–06, 511, 517, 520, 548, 558, 566, 588–89, 592, 600, 627, 706, 736, 763, 785, 816–17, 832, 851Indian Muslims582, 611, 647Indian Ocean1, 27, 168, 184, 188, 287, 426, 483, 516, 582, 677, 683–85, 687Indies45, 51, 474, 484, 536, 582, 599, 821Indios879Indo-China620Indochina Bank632Indonesia12n31, 26n62, 240, 248, 295, 512, 523, 539, 545, 563, 580, 590, 665, 805, 812, 813, 818, 828, 894, 979Ioannia798Iranun879Iraq16, 44, 143, 667, 834Irrawaddy River960Isabela (in northern Luzon)881Ish (island)286Iskandar Muda (Sultan of Aceh r. 1607–1636)23, 29n71, 295, 303, 306, 321–22Iskandar Zulkarnain5, 322IslamicIslamic chanceries3Islamic courts756Islamic Endowments158Islamic languages187Islamic law91, 173, 896Islamic policy659Islamic reformists902Islamic revivalist ideas370Islamic schools541, 658Islamic unity149, 573Islamic world14, 20, 22, 24, 247, 519, 588, 599, 647, 714, 817, 836, 900–01Islamic zeal155, 659Ismaʿil bin Abdallah al-Khalidi (Shaykh)106, 665Ismail Bey (Commissioner for Serbia)439Ismail Efendi (Shaykh)7, 135, 147Ismail Kerinsyi671Istanbul1, 3–4, 6, 9, 11–5, 18, 20, 29–31, 33, 61, 69n27, 71, 75–6, 81, 88, 91, 95, 97, 100–01, 105–10, 114, 119, 143, 147, 153, 156, 162, 165, 167–68, 184, 187, 189, 194–95, 211–12, 223–26, 228, 238, 243, 248–49, 252, 255, 264, 275, 277, 282, 287–88, 295, 305–08, 318–21, 324, 328–29, 333–35, 337–39, 363, 367–71, 377, 381–83, 386, 403, 405, 414–16, 418, 427, 434, 463–64, 466–68, 490, 573, 584, 592, 607, 613, 649, 666, 700, 703, 706–08, 710–12, 714–17, 720–21, 723, 725, 727, 735–36, 741, 769, 785–86, 820, 844, 852, 853, 872, 875–78n4, 885–88, 892n53, 900–01n71, 934, 958–60, 965–69, 973, 975–76, 989ItalianItalian paper92Italian parliament985Italy186, 188, 330–32, 384, 464, 984Ivan IV (Russian Tsar r. 1547–1584) 30–01Iwad bin Umar al-Qatifi al-Himyari (governor of Hijrayn)810Izmit (in Anatolia)798Izzet (son of Haidar, Turkish prisoner-of-war in Thayetmyo)973İbrahim Bey (Director of the Ottoman Foreign Ministry Translation Office)408İbrahim Celil Bey (vice-undersecretary of Ottoman General Directorate of Political affairs)764, 767İçel (in Anatolia)765, 768İkdâm (newspaper)872infantry battalions476invocatio10–11, 20, 28–29İsa Meslul Ağa (Warder)689, 691Jabal Asad (mountain)816Jabal Qamar (mountain)816Jabbi908Jacobs Hymans Company425Jafar bin Amr bin Said827Jahangir (Mughal emperor)17Jakat (Consul General in Batavia)559Jamal al-Din (Shaykh)704, 707Jamal al-Layl al-Alawi265–66Jamal ul-Kiram II (Sultan of Sulu 1894–1936)893n55, 897–98Jamaluddin bin Baik670Jambi1–2, 6–9, 11, 13, 22, 24, 153–57, 161n26–65, 167James I (King of England r. 1603–1625)17, 23, 29n71Japan14, 167, 243, 248, 275, 493, 582, 584, 589, 844Japanese people589Jasbi family812Jauhar Zillul-Shah275Java88, 90–91, 100, 102, 105, 115, 128, 142, 147, 149, 184, 246–47, 255, 313, 384n16, 424–25, 427, 430, 433–34, 453–55, 482–84, 491, 516, 518, 522, 526–27, 537, 542n9, 547, 548, 551–553, 555, 558–62, 564, 567, 573–74, 579–80, 588, 612–14, 616, 618, 635, 637, 653, 700n1–04, 706–08, 712, 714, 716, 717–18, 721, 723–732, 734–44, 746–49, 760–764, 766, 768–69, 791–92, 800–02, 804, 810–11, 816–17, 819–20, 822, 832–35, 837, 839, 854, 864, 866–68, 871, 873–75, 980, 981–82, 992Java coffee484Java, muslims of255, 258–64, 614–615, 618, 624, 627, 646–47, 716, 722, 726–27, 736, 765Java, people of77, 258, 456, 482, 484–85, 518, 527, 552, 556, 558, 592, 623, 646, 651, 675, 800, 821, 874Java, pilgrims from666, 675, 682, 694, 696, 698, 759Javanese language469, 472Javanese epics2, 258Javanese Rajas615Java-bode (newspaper)555, 612, 654Jawa80–81, 90, 107, 109Jawa Muslims242Jawa pilgrims661–63, 677, 680, 683, 692, 694, 875Jeddah48–50, 58, 67, 108, 113–14, 180, 240, 268, 276–77, 471n2, 511–12, 666–68, 672–74, 678–79, 681–82, 685, 687, 694–97, 699, 758–59, 764, 801–03, 871, 873Jeddah (governor of)59, 74, 107–09, 114–16, 662, 681Jepara region491Jerusalem798, 956Jesuits881Jews835, 961jihad99, 101, 106, 558, 634, 638, 956jizya (poll tax)810Johor2, 16, 247, 328, 363–67, 411–14, 449–50, 636Johor medals414Jolo (island)443, 879, 881n10Journal Du Rotterdam607Jouslain, M. (French consul in Batavia)440, 706–07al-Junaid family817Juramentado937Juwana491Kaaba167, 662, 664, 694al-Kaf family817Kafir (i.e infidel)319Kamil BeyMehmed Kamil BeyKamran (island)661, 685Kandung (Hatib from Zamboanga)908Kapitan Taradju908Karabıyık Reis70Karalis (Doctor at Kamaran quarantine)689Karamanlıoğlu Abdurrahman (Vizier in Gujarat)50Karbala834Kareans383, 387Karenni387n23Karens (Karen communities in Eastern Siam)387Kari Kerinci671Kashgar219Kastamonu (in Anatolia)798, 989–91Kastellorizo Island987Kasyi Kerinci (Khatib)671Kathiri family812Kedah1–2, 6–9, 11, 13–16, 19, 22–24, 75, 77–79, 384n15Kedah (Sultan of)7n18, 75–77, 79–81, 370Kelantan12, 384n15Kengtung387n23kepala surat (i.e letter heading)9, 92, 249Kerinci (Imam)671Kerinci (Khatib)671Keumala283, 287n75–89Key islands526Khalifa2, 811Khanate of the Crimea10Khedival Company685Khidir (Prophet)5Khilafa173, 176khutba27–28, 195, 600, 640King Abud5Kinwun Min-gyi U Gaung (Chief Minister 1822–1908)186, 187n38–189KiSwahili24Kitab Subh al-aʿasha fi sinaʿat al-insha3kitab terasul (guides to letter-writing)8, 18, 22Klang247Koca Nişancı Bey66Kohaydan, Henri (First scribe)691Kolodziejczyk, Daniel31Konstantinos Mousouros Bey (Ottoman diplomat)426Konya (city in Anatolia)798Kos70Kosovo798Kostaki Karaca Paşa (Ottoman Foreign Minister)419, 421, 776–77Kota Keumala (in Aceh)287, 289–91, 294–95Kozan (in Adana)765, 768Kulais907Kurd Kethüda70Kurdoğlu Hızır (Admiral and governor in Alexandria in Egypt)52–56, 68kuruş (i.e piaster, Ottoman currency)552, 617, 667Kut965Kutaraja (Banda Aceh)486Kut-el-Amara970–71Kuwasa Shaykh (?) Ahmad (Datu)907Kuyper, Abraham (Leader of Dutch Protestant party)526Kütükoğlu, Mübahat22Lake Lanao879Lake Mohonk Conference885Laksamana Akil908Lambourn, Elizabeth27–28, 33–34Lanao (in Moro Province)878–79, 882, 893n56, 899Lancers476Lands below the Winds45, 47, 49Langgars526Lankutah bin Lamburuh (from Aceh) 669Lanna kingdom387n22Lao Chiang (the region of Chiang Mai/Northern Thailand)387Lao Kao (the Lao in Northeastern Thailand/Isan)387Laos348, 383, 387lapis lazuli (commodity)995Latin5–6n15, 31, 886n32, 907–08, 983Layla Hamale Sultan (daughter of Sultan Gundam Shah)428Leipzig593Leo XIII (Pope)534Lesbos Island987Limbang319–20, 325Lincoln, Abraham884, 927lingua franca5, 31lira (Ottoman currency)269, 403–04, 484, 617, 688, 692, 699, 714, 739, 839, 955, 966, 987–88Livadiya (in Crimea)334–36, 385London Straits Convention386Lord Beaconsfield496Lord ClarendonVilliers, George William FrederickLord CromerBaring, EvelynLord LansdownePetty-Fitzmaurice, HenryLord SalisburyGascoyne-Cecil, RobertLouis Phillipe I (King of France r. 1830–48)84n6Louis XIV (King of France r. 1643–1715)349Luang Sunthorn Kosa (Official at the Department of Legal Advice at the Siamese Foreign Ministry)341Luang Wichit Worasart (Minister of Siamese Prince Shira)341, 354Lund (Missionary)928Lutfi (Ottoman envoy to Aceh)27, 30, 34, 47–51, 55, 57, 67Luzon (in Philippines)529, 879, 881, 895, 898–99Lütfullah Antaki (teacher at the Greek Orthodox School in Scandrona)543Maʿlumat (newspaper)539, 541–42, 615Maʿmûretü’l-azîz (Elazığ in Anatolia)617–18Maʿruf al-Karkhi (Sufi shaykh)24–25, 94, 106Madras804Madrid474–75, 528–31, 534, 794–96, 798, 985Madura312, 816Maghreb816, 879mag-sabil937Maguindanao879Maha Chakrakri (Order)384, 386, 390Al Maha (On the Arabian peninsula)184Maha Min Hla Kyaw Htin186Maharaja105, 198, 202, 204, 219Maharaja Diraja (Ruler of Minangkabau)97Mahmud bin Abdulkadir768Mahmud Gawan (Mughal author of Manazir al-Inshaʾ)4Mahmud II (Ottoman Sultan r. 1808–1839)4n9, 13, 88, 90, 106, 155, 664Mahmud Malfar Shah (Sultan of Muko-Muko)428Mahmud Muhtar Paşa (Ottoman Ambassador in Berlin)460Majallah Ahkam Johor363al-Majdaha (in Yemen)805, 816Majul, Cesar879Makassar105, 706, 822Mahkota AlamIskandar MudaMalacca67n26, 128, 246–47, 348–49, 372–73, 375, 377, 482, 493, 506Malacca Straits506MalayMalay archipelago5, 20Malay books623Malay epics2Malay kingdoms1, 4, 320, 369, 384Malay language249, 469, 490, 623Malay norms322Malay peninsula75, 80n2, 142, 328Malay rulers4, 319Malay world1–2, 9, 12, 23, 31, 80n2, 425n4, 889, 891, 893–94Malaya165, 384n15, 425Malayan women518Malays142, 383, 387, 518Maldives46Malezyan Efendi (doctor at the Hudaydah quarantine)685, 687Maluku312, 492, 833Mamluk chancery3, 21Mandalay (Historical Capital of Burma)187–89n48Mandi (Datu, from Zamboanga)884, 907, 928mangrove (commodity)169Manila320, 456–57, 571, 650, 879, 887–88, 891n51, 989, 991Manila Bay320Mansur (descendant of Badr Abu Tuwayraq al-Kathiri)810Mansur (Emir of Hadramawt)774De Manterola, Vincente (Spanish Admiral)795Marʿi bin Muhammad bin Talib827Maranao879, 901Marawiʿa264, 282, 894n57Margosa Tubig (in Zamboanga)897Maria Theresa dollars100, 105Mariana534Marsden, William7Marshall Islands534Martini (rifle)276Masʿa (in Mecca)573Mashaleha (tribe)184–85Mataram Empire482Mawlana Ḥakim Yusufi4Mawlid (Poem describing the birth of the prophet)628Mazid Abdullah al-Maʿmuri (Descendant of the Caliph Umar)871McArthur, M.S.H. (British consul in Brunei)320–21McKinley, William (US President 1897–1901)934Mecca2, 4n9, 9, 12, 14–15, 17, 44, 46–47, 61–62, 67, 88, 92, 100, 106, 114–17, 124, 147, 149, 151, 167, 171, 179, 181, 183–85, 195, 197, 204, 211, 216–17, 268, 274–75, 288, 291, 294, 317, 369, 427, 429, 443, 486, 502, 511, 512, 526–27, 536, 556, 573, 576, 601n9, 604, 623, 629, 661, 664, 676, 678–80, 682, 695–99, 701–04, 750, 758–61, 787, 798, 800–02, 841, 851, 854, 867, 875, 882, 885n25, 887, 895, 898, 900–01Two Holy Shrines and Two SanctuariesMecelle363Mecidi medal151–52, 313, 399, 436–37, 474, 490, 578, 592–93, 595, 596, 597, 616, 628, 737, 747, 887, 953Meclis-i Vâlâ120–21, 123–24, 126–27, 130–31, 132, 139, 141Medina2, 15, 44, 80, 88, 92, 117–18, 268, 274–75, 311n107, 325, 443, 459, 573, 661, 694, 696, 699, 701, 750, 759, 761, 763–66, 768Two Holy Shrines and Two SanctuariesMehmed Ebusirem Ağa (Warder)691Mehmed Esad (Chargé d’affaires at The Hague)876Mehmed Kamil Bey (Ottoman Consul General in Batavia)451–53, 519, 613, 735Mehmed Kemal Ağa (Warder)691Mehmed Rasim Efendi (Ottoman Consul General in Batavia)841Mehmed Raşid (Ottoman Consul General in Batavia)845Mehmed Said (Ottoman Foreign Minister)944Mehmed Şemdin Efendi (Lieutenant)409Mehmed Tahir (Sayyid, publisher and chief editor of the newspapers al-Maʿlumat and Servet)613Mehmed Tevfik (Es-Sayyid, Director of Consular Affairs)736Mehmed V (Ottoman Sultan r. 1909–1918) 877Meier (Austrian Consul in Batavia)591Meiji Emperor243Mekong349, 384Mekteb-i Hukûk-ı Şahane (Imperial School of Law)700n1, 749Mekteb-i Mülkiye-i Şahane (Imperial Civil Service School)700Mekteb-i Sultani (Imperial School)700, 738, 745Ménage, Victor4n8, 10–11, 13Mendenyazah (Burmese asst. secretary)194Mesopotamia965–66, 970, 978Messageries Maritimes Company615, 719, 723–24Meşhed Ahmed674Meulaboh173, 176Meyiz Bey (Ottoman Consul General in Barcelona)452Middle East1, 661, 900Midori, Kawashima877, 902, 909, 930Mihraja (Shaykh)283Mimu (Imam from Zamboanga)908Min Htin Yaza187Mina573Minangkaba8, 88, 90, 97, 99, 105Minangkabau (ruler of)88, 100Mindanao25, 878–80, 882, 886n32–90, 893, 895, 898–99, 901, 914Mindon (King of Burma 1853–1878)29, 185–89Misamis880missionaries552–54, 589, 658–59, 879Mocha46, 180, 984modernisation384–86, 700n1Mojokerto (on Java)542Moluccas Islands7, 482, 832Monastir798Mongkut (Rama IV, King of Siam r. 1851–1868)387n23, 414n24Moniteur Oriental (newspaper)607Monotheist78, 99, 168, 170, 233, 242, 246, 602, 817Monthon system384Moro Amat (from Zamboanga)908Moro Hilario (from Zamboanga)908Morocco4, 15, 23, 573Moros878n4–79, 881n10–86, 896–98, 906n82, 908n88, 913, 927–28, 930Moro Wars879Moscow386Moskides (Doctor at Kamaran quarantine)691Mosque of Abraham (in Mecca)573Mosul798Mount Lebanon796, 798Mozambique24Muʿtazilis659Mughal chancery3Mughal India4n6Mughal tughras92Mughals4, 187Muhamad bin Awn (Sharif)171, 174Muhammad (Datu, from Zamboanga)908Muhammad (Prophet)44, 46, 50, 76, 87, 93, 95, 102, 106, 153, 171, 205, 240, 266, 274, 311n107, 324, 454, 482, 517, 588, 592, 599–00, 628n19, 658, 664, 701, 714, 762, 771, 805, 812, 818, 832, 894, 896, 910, 912–14, 949Muhammad bin Abdullah al-Zabidi665Muhammad bin Hajat (from Aceh)670Muhammad bin Husain (from Aceh)670Muhammad bin Muhammad Amin (from Aceh)669Muhammad bin Said (from Aceh)670Muhammad Abdullah Efendi (Javanese student in Istanbul)711Muhammad Abid bin Sulaiman671Muhammad al-Fiqhiyya266Muhammad Ali (Haji, from Cut Badar) 200Muhammad Ali bin Abdullah al-Syaikh al-Sha(?)665Muhammad Ali Paşa (governor of Egypt)78Muhammad al-Saqqaf (Sayyid, doctor and nephew of Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor)364Muhammad Amin bin Muhammad Said (from Aceh)200, 670Muhammad Arif (Al-hajj)907Muhammad Arsyad (Syaikh, a Bugis from Wajo)665Muhammad Asadullah266Muhammad Azhari bin al-hajj Abdullah704Muhammad b. Hindu Shah Nakhchiwani (Jalayirid writer)21Muhammad bin Abdullah Efendi712Muhammad bin Ahmad Ba Junaid (Shaykh, Hadrami)168, 171, 174, 179Muhammad bin Aydarus al-Bahr (Sayyid)868Muhammad bin Hasan Babhir (Shaykh)811Muhammad bin Saqqaf Efendi (Sayyid)802Muhammad bin Sultan Yusuf (Sharif, Sultan of Pontianak)317Muhammad Fakhruddin (Sultan of Johor r. 1821–41)153Muhammad Ghauth (Hajji, son of Abdul Rahim, Acehnese envoy to Istanbul)9, 14, 19, 90–94, 101, 106, 118–20, 126, 128, 222, 229, 295, 303, 307, 469Muhammad Hasib Paşa (Sayyid, Governor of Hijaz)14, 97, 97–98, 107–09, 113, 115–17, 661–63, 665, 774Muhammad Ibrahim (Minister of Johor)414Muhammad Id bin Saʾid (From Palembang)665Muhammad Nur (From Zamboanga)908Muhammad Rashid Rida900n69Muhammad Said Efendi (Local dignitary in Naban)621Muhammad Salih bin Abdul Rahim (one of the ulema of Aceh)198, 670Muhammad Salih bin Muhammad Murid al-Rawi al-Samman664–65Muhammad Salih Asyi669–70Muhammad Saman bin Ali (from Aceh)12n32, 670Muhammad Shah (from Asahan)12, 93, 95Muhammad Shahab (Sayyid)840Muhammad Sinjan (shaykh in Rabita)283Muhammad Tahir bin Syaikh Abdul Karim672Muhammad Wajih Zayd al-Kilani Efendi (Sayyid, the Shaykh al-Islam of the Philippines)886, 900, 954–55Muhammad Yunus bin Abdul Rahman al-Khalidi12Muhammad Zainal Abidin (Sultan of Tembusai r. 1887–1916)14, 243, 248, 250–52, 255, 258, 368–69Muhammadan religion76, 102, 197, 230, 268, 294, 320, 486, 714, 885–86, 913Muharrem Alikaki (Ottoman citizen in Philedelphia)650Muhsin Ali Efendi (Javanese student in Istanbul)711Muhsin Efendi (Javanese student in Istanbul)734Muhyiddin Bey (Doctor Captain at Kamaran quarantine)691mujahids602al-Mukalla (in Yemen)180, 184–85, 805, 810, 816Munawwar al-Saqqaf (Sayyid)839Murad III (Ottoman Sultan r. 1574–1591) 30–31Musa bin Nyak Putih (from Aceh)672Muscat (Imam of)7, 14, 24MuslimMuslim children446, 616, 713, 726, 736, 834Muslim clothes536Muslim communities589, 601Muslim fishermen294Muslim soldiers554, 632, 634, 636Muslim sovereigns23, 249, 255, 307Muslim women519, 874Muslims in Southeast Asia2, 571Muslims of Zamboanga25Mustafa bin Hussan975Mustafa bin Hamza Reis71Mustafa Çavuş (messenger accompanying Acehnese embassy to home)52–53, 55, 57, 62–63, 68, 72, 74Mustafa Paşa (Governor of Yemen)124–25, 138–39Mustafa Salim (Deputy of the Governor, and Provincial Treasurer of Hijaz)217Mustafa Şükrü (Member of the Committee of Religious Examinations)620–21mustard (commodity)961mutawalli (governor)170münşeats (compilations of official documents)3mütemayiz (rank in Ottoman civil officialdom)434Naban620Nabi Sulaiman322Nagasaki (Japanese port)584Najd834Najran805, 815Nasır Bey (Descendant of Sharif Abdulmuttalib Paşa)804Nasir al-Din Shah (of Persia)328naskh (script)7Natal99, 105Necib Hacı Efendi (Ottoman Consul in Manila)456–57Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij Bank649Nei-myo Min Htin Thurein (Burmese envoy)187Neratja (newspaper)569Netherlands156, 158, 162, 195, 385, 418, 424, 429n10, 558, 567, 582, 706, 776, 958New York650, 955New-Guinea516, 518, 534Ngabehi Kerinci671Nganda Kerinci (Mualim)671Nganta Kerinci (Khatib)671Nias159–61Nicholas Aleksandrovich385–86n20Nicholas II (Emperor of Russia r. 1894–1917)385–86Nieuwe Courant (newspaper)654Nieuwe Rotterdamse Courant (newspaper)611Nisab895Noradounghian Efendi (Ottoman Armenian statesman)631Norfolks (British regiment)972Nyak Kam (Haji, from Teluk Nga in Aceh)198Nyawung (Imam from Zamboanga)908Obolensky, Ivan Mikhailovic (Russian Prince)334oil (commodity)169, 569–70Olçanski (Doctor at Kamaran quarantine)691Omar al-Attas (Javanese student in Istanbul)711, 733–35, 745–46, 748–49onion (commodity)961Orientals541, 769Orthodox Christian church385Osman Alawi (Sayyid, Mufti of Java)626, 628Osman b. el-Mükerrem es-Seyyid Mehmed Zeyn er-Rodosî [Zain al-Qudsi?] el-Medenî (Es-Seyyid)80Osman bin Abdullah el-Attas (Javanese student in Istanbul)711Osman Emin Paşa (Commander of the Ertuğrul Frigate)250, 252, 264Osman Nuri Paşa (Governor of Hijaz)511, 678–79Osman Zeki Bey575Osmani (Medal)400–01, 414–15OttomanOttoman alphabet books615, 617Ottoman Army527, 641, 961Ottoman attitude700Ottoman Bank396, 403–04Ottoman banner101, 229, 582Ottoman chancery4, 10, 15, 23, 31–2, 78–9Ottoman citizenship418, 730, 751, 753, 756, 758, 769, 777, 785–87, 818, 836–37, 871Ottoman consul(ates)264, 295, 316, 333, 370, 418–20, 440, 462, 465, 468, 532, 566, 578, 637, 650, 956, 989Ottoman craftsmen and merchants446Ottoman dignitaries377, 405, 415–16Ottoman diplomatics1, 3–4, 20, 31Ottoman dynasty15–6, 143, 170, 200, 661Ottoman epistles7, 29, 31, 91–2, 295, 322Ottoman flag114, 155, 195, 228, 256, 317, 582, 588, 653, 674Ottoman Government2, 22, 24, 75–77, 119, 130, 132, 139, 153, 167–68, 229, 264, 287, 418–19, 434, 463–64, 469, 474, 557, 559, 583, 666–68, 769, 773, 797, 821, 841, 959, 964–69, 972–73, 979Ottoman identity card730, 787, 841, 847, 854–55Ottoman law363Ottoman medals167, 232Ottoman military schools266Ottoman Nationality Law776Ottoman navy67, 72, 161, 246, 582, 684, 687Ottoman parliament502Ottoman Press575, 617–18, 621–22Ottoman printing houses571, 621–22Ottoman prisoners of war958, 960–61, 963, 965, 967–71, 973, 975, 977Ottoman School (in Cape Town)446Ottoman seals17Ottoman seamen980Ottoman subjects418, 434, 446, 456, 459–60, 557, 643, 769, 772, 776, 778, 781, 793–96, 798, 811, 827, 835, 842–43, 849, 866, 872, 874, 979Ottoman suzerainty19, 153, 170, 184, 195–96, 199Ottoman warriors294Ottoman women873–74Ottoman-Greek war598–99Özay, Mehmet894Pacific Ocean534Padang99, 105, 129, 771Paden Woon (Burmese Secretary)194Padishah of Portugal46Padishah of Rum46Pagans129, 881n10, 883n17Pagar Ruyung (capital of Minangkabau)97, 105Page Corps386Pahang247Pahud, Charles Ferdinand527–28Pakhangyi Myosa Min-gyi Min Thado Min-gyi Maha Min Hla Sithu (Burmese minister)186Palau534Palawan (island)878Palazzo Quirinal381Palembang (in Southeast Sumatra)22, 86, 90, 99, 105, 129, 291, 320–21, 526, 603–04, 665, 840–41Palkasa Gubatun (From Zamboanga)908palm tree983Panas (Doctor at Kamaran quarantine)690pan-Islamism418, 571, 607, 859para (ottoman currency)552, 617, 981, 988Pariaman (port)99, 105, 173Paris89, 188, 377, 396, 424–25Paris conference (1916)564Paris Treaty (1898)880Pasai5n12Pasisir Barat Shah (Sultan of Muko-Muko 1752–1798)428pearls (commodity)701, 987–88, 995Pedir283Pekojan (Arab quarter in Batavia)839Pelenk-i Derya (Ottoman torpedo gunboat)162Penang7n18, 75–6, 384n16, 493, 634, 674pencil (commodity)92, 288, 977pepper (commodity)47, 89, 95, 97, 130, 168, 275, 349, 961Perak2, 636Pershing, John (governor of the Moro Province)884PersianPersian epistles7Persian Gulf187, 958Persian monarch328Persian script187Persians15, 44, 102Pertev Efendi (Governor of Massawa)184–85Peterhof Palace385Petty-Fitzmaurice, Henry (Lord Lansdowne)624, 888, 981Pezenî Bey (Consul General at Syros)452Philadelphia650Philippines25, 443, 474–75, 528–31, 534, 793, 796–98, 821–22, 877–83, 885–91, 894, 899–01, 933–40, 944, 946–48, 951, 953–56, 983Phra Suriyanuwat (Siamese Charge d’affaires in Berlin)341, 354Phraya Thewet Wongwiwat (Director of the Siamese Royal stables)341, 354, 399Piaster133, 158–59, 404, 430, 433–34, 436, 442, 447, 449, 453, 552, 561, 617–18, 648, 651, 678, 687–88, 736–37, 642–43, 957, 981, 987–88pilgrims45, 48–9, 92–3, 99, 124, 139, 173, 275–76, 485, 518, 526–27, 533, 556, 573, 661–64, 666–68, 672–85, 687–88, 692, 694–96, 700, 759–60, 789, 800–01, 875, 887Piraeus359, 362Po Cut Haji bin Abdul Rahim202Poland22, 31–2Polem Cut Banta (Panglima, head of the XXIImukim)20Poles4, 92Pontianak12, 105, 816Port Said464, 771Porter, Venetia26Portugal22, 53, 55, 385Portuguese4–5, 24n59, 33, 38, 48–9, 52, 54, 321, 476, 482–83, 516, 832Poseidon (Lloyd Company’s steamboat)803pounds (British currency)560, 803, 994–95precious gems (commodity)47Prince of Wales429Prompong (Siamese Prince)341, 354Prostestant Church518Pulangi River879Pulau Pinang78Punjab634Qadi27, 255, 258, 288Qaitbay (Mamluk Sultan r. 1468–1496)21Qajars4al-Qalqashandī (15th century Egyptian scholar)3Qasim bin Abd al-Rahman bin Hussein al-Qadri Jamal al-Layl al-Alawi (Sharif, Sultan of Pontianak)266Qurʾan45, 153, 282, 541, 552, 571, 574, 590–93, 595–97, 612–18, 621–22, 630–31, 664, 672, 805n5, 817, 886, 895–96, 910, 938, 950Quraysh660Qushashiyya district (in Mecca)573al-Qatn (in Yemen)810, 816rafida659Raja AliAli bin Emir JaʿfarRaja Keumala283Raja Rum2, 88, 321Rakhine (Arakanese)187Rakhine State187Rangoon188, 349n3, 458–59, 637, 958, 960, 963, 966, 968, 994Rasim Ali (Ottoman prisoner-of-war in Thayetmyo)973–74Rasulid (Ruler of Yemen)27Raşid Paşa (Minister of Foreign Affairs) 238Rattanakosinsok382Reʾfet Bey (Ottoman consul in Batavia) 457–58, 466–68, 557, 645–46, 648, 653, 852real (Spanish currency)443Reat, Samuel C. (US Consul in Ragoon)960Red Crescent Society632, 624–48, 650, 964Red Sea89n13, 189, 264, 275, 278, 282n74, 286–87, 463, 661, 676, 983, 985Reispas786, 810Rhodes61, 70, 74Riau1, 6–9, 11, 13–15, 19, 23–4, 142–43, 145, 147–53, 247, 248n59, 249, 306rice (commodity)130, 168, 275, 349, 485, 517, 522, 561, 961De Richelieu, Andreas Du Plessis (Siamese minister of Navy)341Ridwani oath706Rıfkı Bey (Ottoman Consulin Batavia)441, 582–83Rifle99, 255, 276rigging drills (commodity)255riqʿa script7De Rivera, Fernando Primo (Field Marshal, Governor of Philippines)531Riyu Kerinci671Rıza Efendi (First Lieutenant)417Rıza Paşa (Ottoman Minister of War)417Rockhill, William W. (U.S. Minister in Istanbul)886Rogers, P. D. (Secretary of the Moro Province)884–85Rokan Kiri River252Roman Empire2Romanian government457Rooseboom, W. (Governor-General of the Dutch Indies 1899–1904)319rope (commodity)46n8, 47, 307, 974–77, 989–91Ropt, Ernest (second scribe at Kamaran quarintine)691rosary (commodity)977Rotterdam421, 666Rum2, 5, 46, 88–90, 97, 187, 291Rum (sultan of)Raja RumRumelia835, 845Rûmî311, 509, 625, 894Rupiah810–11Ruqayya Hanum (Circassian slave-girl)363Russia30, 328, 330–32, 339, 383–86, 390, 396, 463, 564, 859Russian czar22Russian Muslims858Russian subjects858Russian Transport Company408Russian war ships386n20Russians4, 564Russian-Siamese Declaration of Jurisdiction, Trade and Navigation385Sabda288Sabit Ahmed Ağa (Warder)691Sabri (son of Emin, Ottoman prisoner-of-war in Thayetmyo)973Saddan Elephant (formal titles of the Burmese monarch)186Sadık Beliğ Efendi (Ottoman Consul General in Batavia)443–44, 450–51Sadık Bey (Adjutant Major)409Safa512Safavids4Safiyya Hatun (Sayyida Sharif, daughter of Sharif Sayyid Abdurrahman bin Husayn bin Ahmad al-Alawi (Sultan of Pontianak)266Sagasta, Práxedes Mateo (Spanish Prime Minister)529–30Saha (Panglima, from Zamboanga)907Sahl (Son of Sayyid Fazıl Paşa)836Sahl bin Abdullah (Sayyid)840Saiʾun (town)816Said al-Sharʿi827Said Baghdilah (Shaykh)840Said bin Hamid Abid (Shaykh)826–27Said Efendi118, 621, 717, 740Said Halim Paşa (Ottoman Foreign Minister)460–61, 465, 557, 646, 851Said Paşa (Grand Vizier)287Saint George414Saint Michael414Sakaluran (Datu from Zamboanga)907, 928Sakili, Abraham891n48, 902, 909Salani (Panglima, from Zamboanga)908Salim (Hatib from Zamboanga)907Salim (Shafiʿi Sayyid, in Yemen)161Salim bin Abdülhamid (descendant of the Caliph Umar)871Salim bin Ahmad al-Sarwa791Saliman (Imam from Zamboanga)907Salman Efendi (Javanese student in Istanbul)717Salonica798salt (commodity)961Salween (mountain)349Sama879–81, 884, 890, 895, 898Samadi (ship name)47Sambas (port)105Sâmi Efendi (Sefâizâde Hâfız)623, 875Samos798Samuri (Ruler of Calicut)48Sanaa805Imam of Sanaa4n9Sandeman, A. (Officer at Thayetmyo detention Camp)974–77Sangbud (Maharaja)907Sanitary Corps961Santiago530Santili Jikirani907al-Saqqaf (Sayyid)615, 839al-Saqqaf family669, 812, 817Sarawak320, 816Sarekat Islam548, 551, 553–55, 567–69Sattiya Luhino907Sayhun805Sayhut (port in Yemen)816sayyids78, 242n58, 317, 512, 533, 600, 659, 721, 771, 774, 792, 805, 810, 812, 816–18, 834–35Sazonov, Sergey (Russian Foreign Minister 1910–16)858n9Schaepman, H.J.A.M. (Chatolic priest and politician 1844–1903)607Schmidt, Jan700School of Military Science268Scouts476Sea of China348Seeds (commodity)982–83Seifullah Bey (Lieutenant)963Sekar Kerinci (Mualim)671Selim I (Ottoman Sultan r. 1512–1520)99, 102, 222, 229, 274–77Selim II Khan (Ottoman Sultan r. 1566–1574)99, 102, 105, 119, 123, 129Semarang423–25, 492, 739, 810, 817Semaun bin Zaid (from Aceh)669Serâser (commodity)22Serbia439Serbian5Server Ağa (Warder)692Servet (newspaper)612–13Setia Ulama (Seri, Acehnese Commander)214Setkya Yin-byan (royal vessel)188Sevastopol333–34, 337, 403–04Shafiʿi imam604Shafiʿi school (of Islam)46, 517, 604Shahada12, 889, 895, 902n72Shahbandar14, 249, 255, 258Shaiba972, 975Shakib Arslan900Shams al-Maʿarif26Shanghai584Shaqr (in Yemen)816sharīʿa (Islamic law)76, 143, 197, 518, 706, 780, 812, 931Sharif of Mecca4n9, 14–5, 61–2, 171–72, 174–75, 195, 443n14Sharifat (company)875shayka (siege cannons)49Shaykh al-Azhar701–04Shaykh al-Islam113–14, 344–45, 620–23, 695, 756, 874, 877, 886, 899, 900, 935, 937–41, 944, 946–47, 954–56Shaykh Jamal al-Din al-Qadiri (Sayyid)707Shaykh of Jawa (Shaykh)147, 680al-Shihab family817Shibam (in Yemen)810, 816al-Shihr (in Yemen)180, 184–85, 805, 810, 816Siam75, 147, 246–48, 256, 328, 346–50, 369, 382, 384–87, 496–97, 543–46, 616SiameseSiamese delegation339–40, 399, 400Siamese royal family328Siamese stones995Siamese waters987Sidoarjo (On Java)542, 820Silk22–3, 47, 92, 644silk cloth95, 97Silsilah raja-raja Berunai (Genealogical account of the rulers of Brunei)322Silver22, 48Simana (son of Shalem, prisoner-of-war in Thayetmyo)973Sinan Paşa (governor of Yemen)99–100, 102, 105, 123, 129, 229Singapore14, 165, 167, 246–49, 255, 258, 265–66, 275, 319–22, 324, 372, 384, 411–14, 418, 422–43, 426–27, 429, 431, 437–38, 445–53, 453, 459–60, 462, 465, 468, 488, 490, 506, 508–10, 557, 562, 580, 615, 619–20, 628–29, 632, 634–38, 667, 674, 720, 801–02, 804, 810, 841, 871, 887, 980–81, 987Sivas (in Anatolia)798Snouck Hurgronje, C.288, 294, 308, 510–11, 519, 535–36, 601, 604n11, 700soap (commodity)963, 977Sokullu Mehmed Pasha27Solo517Somali984Somali Arabs518Soubhi Bey (prisoner of war at Thayetmyo)959–60, 963Southeast Asia1–2, 6–7, 11, 15–6, 19, 23–7, 30, 75, 168, 243–44, 319–20, 328, 384, 418, 469, 571, 661, 769, 958, 979Southeast Asian envoys3, 8Southeast Asian Muslims243, 256–57, 571, 642Spain22, 385, 443, 475, 530–31, 533–34, 793, 880, 892n53, 985Spaniards879–881, 898SpanishSpanish armies475Spanish colonies483, 794–95, 798Spanish Government530, 534, 793–94, 796, 798Spanish troops474–75Spanish-American War880spinning (yarn)46St. Petersburg386, 390, 403, 408, 411, 439, 855, 857–58Stanley, Edward Henry (British Foreign Minister)422Stemfoort, J.W.503Stimson, Henry L. (US Secretary of War)885–86Stockholm440, 563, 578, 788Straus, Oscar S.885, 934De Sturler, Jacques Edouard (b.1855)470Sudan5, 14Suez (port of)53, 67Suez Canal188, 384sugar (commodity)130, 168, 349, 484, 561, 961, 995sugarcane (commodity)484Sukabumi569Sulaiman bin Jal (?) (of Aceh)670Sulaiman Sharif Alauddin (Sultan of Patani, r. 1890–1899)369, 370, 372–73Sulawesi516, 538Süleyman I (Ottoman Sultan r. 1512–1566)99, 195Süleyman Paşa Khan575Sulu442–43, 878–80, 882, 885n25–94, 897–99, 901–01, 914Sumerpur (in Burma)958, 968Sunda Islands102, 516, 582, 584Sundanese472, 518Sunnah518Surabaya425, 553, 646, 810, 817, 833, 867–69, 871, 873Surain (Hatib from Zamboanga)907Surat29, 288Surigao880Suriyanuwat, Phraya341, 354, 399Süreyya Paşa (Chief secretary of the Ottoman Sultan)331, 337, 474, 578, 580, 598Suwayri816Sweden11n29, 13, 385, 958Swedish collections23Swedish Embassy973, 978Swedish milk561Swedish Minister973, 978Swettenham, Frank (Consul General in Singapore)321Switzerland384Sword16, 44, 49, 76, 102, 129, 143, 171, 207, 229, 255, 276–77, 307, 313, 812, 818Syria762–63, 798Syrian Tripoli543, 545Szigetvar68Şahin-i Derya (Ottoman cruiser)162Şakir Paşa408Şems Efendi (legal consultant)434Taft, William (US President 1909–1913)885–86Taha (Prophet Muhammad)102Taha bin Harun (from Aceh)670Taha bin Ahmad al-Haddad (Sayyid)817Taha Saifuddin (Sultan of Jambi r. 1855–1903)153–155, 159–61, 163, 167Tahir Efendi (First secretary at Kamaran quaratine)691Tahsin Paşa (Chief secretary of the Ottoman Sultan)166Taj al-Alam Saifyyat al-Din (Sultanah of Aceh 1641–1675)29Takhir (Imam from Zamboanga)908Takil Alemshah (Sultan of Muko-Muko)428Taksin (Somdet Phra Chao Taksin Maharat 1734–1782)349Talʾat (Chargé d’affaires of the Imperial Embassy at The Hague)462, 466, 557Taliʾa (imperial steamboat)358Taluksangay881, 885, 888, 890–92, 895, 901, 907n82, 910–11, 913, 926–29, 931, 937, 949–50Taluksangay Mosque893, 899, 938Tambuyung (Datu from Zamboanga)907Tamiang168, 173Tamim805Tan, Samuel878, 882n11, 890–91Tanîn (newspaper)872tarakata (royal decree)288Tarhan, Abdulhak Hamid (Ottoman Ambassador to The Hague)502Tarim (town)810, 816tariqa706Tartar23Tauhid893–95Taupan (Panglima, Chief of the Balangingi Sama)881, 906Tausug879, 889–97, 902, 907, 909, 918–20Tausug language25, 878, 890, 896–98tea (commodity)484, 547–48, 961Tebing-Tinggi526Telegram529, 246, 283, 330–34, 336–38, 351–52, 359–61, 364, 366–67, 381, 397–98, 450, 464, 476, 496, 500, 529–30, 545, 562, 567, 578–79, 619, 629–30, 632, 639–40, 646, 674, 685, 688, 696–97, 718, 720, 768, 901, 837, 844, 847, 873, 934, 947, 978, 984–85Tembusai6, 248, 250, 252, 255, 258Tembusai (sultan of)9, 248n59, 252, 368Tenakaluk bin Balik (from Aceh)669Tenasserim387n23Terengganu429Terumon (town)174Teuku Abas bin Teuku Haji Ahmad Lam Badar198Teuku DjohanTeuku UmarTeuku Imam Lam Kerak198Teuku Imam Silang202Teuku Jerung Lam Pajang khadam raja Aceh198Teuku Muhammad Arifi427–29Teuku Muhammad Napit[?] Bubun200Teuku Nyak Abdullah Lam Siul (Treasurer of Aceh)198Teuku Nyak Muhammad Leung Bata (the keeper of the youths of Aceh)198Teuku Pasaraya bin Seri Imam Muda (Commander of the Twenty Six)204Teuku Umar (Toekoe Djohan)500, 502–03, 505, 507, 520–22Tevfik (Ottoman Ambassador in Berlin)330Textiles792, 979, 989Thai aristocracy386Thai language382–83, 387Thai royal family386Thailand129n21, 382, 384n14, 387, 571, 620n16;SiamThayetmyo (in Burma)958–60, 964–66, 968–74, 978The Hague239, 419, 421, 430, 433–34, 455–56, 460, 462–64, 466, 498–500, 502–03, 505, 508, 512, 519, 523, 525, 540, 552, 556–57, 567, 569–70, 578, 580–582, 584, 603, 605, 607, 631, 639–41, 649, 651, 654, 725–26, 776, 785–86, 788–90, 801, 820–21, 828, 847–52, 860–62, 864, 867, 875–76Thibaw (King of Burma r. 1878–1885)189thuluth (script)14–15Tibang (Palingma, Acehnese minister)295, 306Tiblani (Panglima, from Zamboanga)907Tiku Pariaman173Timbaung908Timur207, 276n73Tjondet Batoe Ounfar653Torno, Nicolo (Venetian Doge)21Townshend, Charles Vere Ferrers970–71Trabzon (city in Anatolia)798Tranquebar (in south India)11Tripoli (in Libya)543, 545, 647, 798Tripolitania631Tuah bin Jim (from Aceh)670Tughra11, 14, 17, 32, 92Tuhfat al-Nafis143Tuneshki (Shaykh)277, 283Turhan Paşa408Turkey30, 189, 194, 468, 877n1, 967TurkishTurkish documents468Turkish flag188, 194, 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