Facsimiles, Illustrations and Maps

in Ottoman Law of War and Peace
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Facsimiles, Illustrations and Maps

1 Muhammad al-Shaybani (d. 189 AH/805), Kitab al-Siyar al-Kabir, page from Table of content (from the Turkish translation made by Mehmed Ayntabi, Șerh al-Siyar al-Kabir, Istanbul, 1241 AH /1825, cild I, p. 2) 17

2 Ibrahim al-Halebi (d. 956 AH/1549), Mülteka el-Ebhür / Confluence of Seas, page from the chapter Kitab al-Siyar (from the Turkish commented translation of Mehmed Mevkufati, Șerh-i Mülteka el-Ebhür / Comments to the Confluence of Seas, I, Istanbul, 1254 AH/1838–1839, p. 329) 18

3 Fetvas issued by șeyh ül-Islam Abdallah Efendi al-Yenișehir (d. 1156 AH/1743), gathered in the chapter Kitab al-Siyar of Behcet el-fetava (from the manuscript Fetava-yi Abdullah Efendi al-Yenișehir, Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Oriental Collection, Török Qu.18, f. 56) 19

4 Müfti – gravure made in 1687 by Andreas Matthaüs Wofgand (1660–1736) (Graphic Art Collection Abbey – Wikipedia. Public Domain) 20

5 Demetrius Cantemir, The History of the Growth and Decay of the Othman Empire. Written Originally in Latin. Translated into English by N. Tindal, London, 1734 22

6 Ignace Mouradgea d’Ohsson, Tableau général de l’Empire Othoman, IV / 2nd Part, Paris, 1791 23

7 Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror and his army during the siege of Constantinople (1453) – outside fresco (c. 1532) attributed to Toma of Suceava, from Moldovița Monastery, Romania (personal photo) 123

8 Vlad III Țepeș (The Impaler), Voivode of Wallachia (1456–1462, 1476) – Portrait by an unidentified artist from Ambras Castle (c. 1560), a copy of an original made during his life time (Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien, Gemäldegalerie; Wikipedia. Public Domain) 123

9 Nișan-ı hümayun enacted on 5 Receb 860 AH/ 9 June 1456 by Mehmed II, confirming the peace concluded with voivode Petru Aron of Moldavia and guaranteeing safe commercial activities in Ottoman territories (AGAD, t. 2, no. 3; Guboglu, Paleografia, doc. 3 and facismile 3) 124

10 Stephen the Great (1457–1504), Bogdan III the Blind (1504–1517) and Petru Rareș (1527–1538; 1541–1546), voivodes of Moldavia – inside fresco from Dobrovăț Monastery, painted in 1527–1531, Romania (personal photo) 124

11 Articles du traicté faict en l’année Mil six cens quatre, entre Henri le Grand Roy de France, & de Navarre, Et Sultan Amat Empereur des Turcs. Par l’entremise de Messire François Savary, seigneur de Brèves, Paris, 1615 (title page of the bilingual edition, in Ottoman and French, of the Capitulations granted by Sultan Ahmed I to King Henry IV of France in 1604) 182

12 Defter (Register) including imperial charters (‘ahdname-yi hümayun) granted by Mehmed IV (1648–1687) to eight European states: France (Françe), England (Ingiltere), The Nederlands (Nederlanda), Austria (Roma Imparotoru), Russia (Mosku), Venice (Venedik), Ragusa (Dubrovnik), Poland (Leh kıralı) (TKSMA, Defter 7018, f. 1; MOL, mf. Turkey, r. 10131) 183

13 Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent (1520–1566) (from Demetrius Cantemir, The History of the Growth and Decay of the Othman Empire. Written Originally in Latin. Translated into English by N. Tindal, London, 1734) 256

14 Mühimme Defterleri with imperial orders (hüküm) to the voivodes of Wallachia (Eflak) and Moldavia (Boǧdan) (5 Numaralı Mühimme Defteri, 973/1565–1566 <Tıpkıbasım>, Ankara, 1994, doc. 1393, 1394) 257

15 Portrait of Michael the Brave, voivode of Wallachia (1593–1601) made in 1601 by the Flemish engraver Aegidius Sadeler II (1570–1629) (Nicolae Iorga, Domni români după portrete şi fresce contemporane, Sibiu, 1930; Wikipedia. Public Domain) 258

16 Berat-ı hümayun (imperial diploma) granted by Ahmed I to Prince Istvan Bocskai of Transylvania in 1604 (MOL, Budapest, Török iratok, R. 315, no. 33; Sándor Papp, Die Verleihungs-, Bekräftigungs- und Vertragsurkunden der Osmanen für Ungarn und Siebenbürgen: Eine quellenkritische Untersuchung, Vienna, 2003, p. 391) 259

17 Portrait of Gábor (Gabriel) Bethlen, prince of Transylvania (1613–1629) (engraving from Theatrum Europaeum, Band 1, Franfurt <Main>, 1662; Wikipedia. Public Domain) 259

18 Portrait of Dimitrie Cantemir (1673–1723), scholar; voivode of Moldavia between 1710–1711 (from Demetrius Cantemir, The History of the Growth and Decay of the Othman Empire, Written Originally in Latin. Translated into English by N. Tindal, London, 1734) 260

19 Portrait of Constantin Brâncoveanu, voivode of Wallachia (1688–1714) and his four sons, all being executed at Istanbul in 1714 (from Anton Maria del Chiaro, Istoria delle moderne revoluzioni della Valachia, Venezia, 1718) 261

20 Hüküm (Order) of Ahmed III to mübașir Mustafa of eva’il-i Rebi ül-evvel 1714 / 17–26 March 1714, including also the legal opinion (fetva) which legitimated the execution of voivode Constantin Brâncoveanu of Wallachia (BOA, Ibnülemin Tasnifi, Hariciye, no. 1114; Veliman, Documente turcești, doc. 11 and facs. 3) 262

21 Portrait of Grigore II Ghica, four times voivode of Moldavia (1726–1733; 1735–1739; 1739–1741; 1747–1748) and two times in Wallachia (1733–1735; 1748–1752) (N. Iorga, Domni români după portrete şi fresce contemporane, Sibiu, 1930) 263

22 Turcicii Imperii Descriptio from Jodocus Hondius, Gerardi Mercatoris Atlas sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi et Fabricati Figura, Amsterdam, 1606 350

23 Map of Northwestern Lands of the Ottoman Empire at mid-Seventeenth Century (offered by Gábor Kárman) 351

24 Turkey in Europe – Map printed in Percival Barlow, The General History of Europe. The European Atlas, London, 1791 352