Indexaboriginal officials,tusiapprenticeship172, 181, 321, 487, 491Badong 巴東, district and city171, 172, 206, 270bagan 巴竿, also 朳杆, boat type116–118, 125, 128, 129Baishuijiang 白水江, river in Zhenxiong281, 358, 427, 430, 465beifu 背夫 (porter, also bay-fu)24–9, 29, 42n, 149, 189, 193, 246, 272, 282–3, 300–4, 307–8, 312–8, 327, 320–34, 348, 362, 376, 437–41, 466–73, 482, 486–94, 498, 500, 505–8, 512Beijing2–3, 22, 29, 38, 138, 207, 268, 272, 280, 360, 368, 397, 400Beijing mints3, 41, 63, 331–3, 336, 486Beipanjiang 北盤江, river in Yunnan and Guangxi280Bijie 畢節, city and district280, 306, 341–3, 359, 439, 441, 468, 499boatbuilding94, 97, 126, 129–130, 136, 233–5, 250, 485boatmanshuishouboatman societyriver society144, 157, 160, 183, 185, 196–8, 221–3, 229, 490body technology183, 267, 273, 315, 321–322, 457, 486–487bow helmsmantougongbow sweepshaobroker (also transport broker)hanghuBurma campaign194, 336, 479Cai Shishen 蔡世沈411, 414, 422, 424–425Cai Zhirong 蔡志榮225, 227Caofanggou 槽坊溝, village225, 228–30, 234, 488caravan boss (also jiaohu 脚戶)307–8, 440, 477–9, 481, 490–1caravan tradegeneral26, 149loads301, 304n, 309, 311, 329–30, 471, 559economics498–509horse, mabang, mafu for the packhorse and -mule caravans of the Southwestcentral China36, 39, 59, 241n, 275–6Changlu 廠路 (mine road)372, 375, 394–6Chaoyin Temple 潮音寺, Chongqing189Chayuangou 茶園溝 in northern Zhenxiong402, 404–5Chengdu 成都9, 29, 32, 36–8, 106, 108, 253, 259Chen Hongmou 陳宏謀333Chen Mingshen 陳明申181–2chezhan 車站 (cart stage)376, 474Chishuihe 赤水河, river in Guizhou and Sichuan67n, 280, 285, 348–51, 359, 370, 397, 430, 439, 441Chitan 叱灘 rapid235, 252, 253Chongqing2, 12, 32, 36, 42, 54–5, 64, 72, 79–81, 88–9, 93–5, 98, 106–10, 116, 126, 128, 130–2, 139, 153–63, 171–2, 186–92, 194–206, 210–4, 217, 220, 223–4, 234, 239, 257, 260, 263–6, 307, 314, 342, 441, 495, 496, 502, 504, 509Chuanhu 船戶 (also chuanjia 船家, boat owner, captain)144, 146, 166, 216, 239Chushuidong 出水洞 in Daguan281, 315, 340, 406–9Chuxiong 楚雄 prefecture305, 461, 463copperadministration (also tongzheng 銅政)2–3, 8, 51n, 332–336, 458cash2–3, 9, 203, 452, 474mining2–3, 46, 47–9, 51–2, 306, 332, 335–8, 412, 432, 464, 469–70production quota51n, 337, 347, 427, 439nstore (tongdian 銅店)334, 455transport quota41, 333, 336–7, 340–1, 439n, 441, 462, 470–1, 475, 498of Yunnan2–3, 46–9, 51–2, 330–9mint metal transport systemcotton20–1, 40–2, 50, 79–80, 121, 150, 267, 301–6, 450–1, 485, 496–7, 510Cui Naiyong 崔乃鏞350, 375–6, 393, 396, 424cult, religious (also ritual)39, 94, 187–96, 205–6, 229River God sacrifice, shao shenfuChaoyin Temple, Chongqing189Daduhe 大渡河, river in Sichuan282, 286Daguan 大關, city and sub-prefecture281, 286, 294, 343, 344, 349n, 357n, 391, 406–8, 430, 467Daguanhe 大關河, river in Yunnan281, 286, 293–4, 296, 344, 406, 408, 432, 439Daguannao 大關堖294, 296–7, 402Daibu 待補376, 424Dajianlu 打箭爐 (also Garzê, Kangding 康定)282, 323Dali 大理, city and prefecture34, 50, 275, 279, 282, 286Dali 大理, kingdom38, 46Daninghe 大寧河, river in Sichuan55, 77, 81, 111nDaqiaohe 大橋河, lower Sayuhe in Zhaotong 洒渔河294Dashuigou 大水溝, brook in Huize409–411, 413Davies, Henry274, 309Dazhai 大寨, in Qiaojia409, 422, 425deforestation231–4, 248, 250, 268, 354, 357, 395, 404–5Dezejiang 德澤江, a section of the Niulanjiang419, 423–4Ding Baozhen 丁寳楨67n, 259DisentanglerjianwanDongchuan 東川 prefecture45, 47, 48, 51, 272n, 277, 279, 286n, 294, 302, 306, 321, 335–8, 340–6, 349–350, 359, 361, 366, 371, 372, 374–6, 385, 388, 391, 393, 396, 398–401, 413–4, 422, 424, 440, 449, 453, 461–2, 465, 470, 474–81, 484, 499, 501Donghu 東湖, central district of Yichang prefecture220, 259nDongting hu 洞庭湖, in Hunan58, 64, 139Dongyangzi 東洋子 rapids92, 132n, 211, 215, 237, 240, 242Doushaguan 豆沙關281, 286, 340–2, 344, 345, 356, 358, 379n, 439, 441, 508Shimenguandrummer166–167, 172–4Du Wenxiu 杜文秀50eastern China7, 17, 20, 39–41, 45, 51, 90, 98, 109, 132, 279, 281, 283, 305, 331, 422, 435, 448, 449, 466, 472, 484–5, 497E’ertaiOrtaiEn’an 恩安, central district of Zhaotong prefecture349n, 401n, 466Erhai 洱海湖 lake325Fang Xiangying 方像瑛102, 106, 108–9, 111, 125, 168, 235Feilaishi 飛來石 in Weining379–389, 382–3Fengjie 奉節, central district of Kuizhou prefecture54, 60, 62, 72, 76, 92n, 101–2, 105, 171n, 181, 211, 236, 249n, 257KuizhouFengxiang xia 風箱峽Qutang xiaFenhe 汾河, river in Shanxi30, 138ferry25, 193, 242, 285–6, 291, 341, 348, 361, 362, 370, 399–402, 404, 408, 412, 422–4, 426, 428–32, 435, 493, 453fishing146, 183, 220, 267Franck, Harry284, 302, 314, 318–22freighter (also freight carrier, freight boat)24–8, 73, 95–8, 107–9, 126, 131–132, 136, 156, 161, 165, 200, 206–8, 220fuel10, 22, 233, 248, 404Fuguancun 副官村 (also Shuifu 水富)391, 433Fuji 福集 zinc mines336–7, 339, 342–3, 441, 468n, 499, 501Fujian 福建 province6, 111n, 146, 187, 241nFujiang 涪江, river in Sichuan153Fukang’an 福康安467, 470–1, 473Ganjiang 贛江, river in Jiangxi139, 397Gaoxian 高縣, city and district349, 351, 358, 359, 441, 444, 462Gekuihe 戈魁河Luozehe 洛澤河gong 工 (daily labour cost per man)26, 198gongtou 工頭 (headman of a team of workers or artisans)175grain transport system (also state grain transport system, tributary grain)5, 7, 20–2, 138, 146, 152, 187, 397Grand Canal2, 5, 7, 22, 29, 30, 69, 110, 138n, 146, 152n, 188, 254, 268, 397, 495, 502, 504, 506–9Guanjia 官價 (official price)21, 165, 193, 333, 440, 498Guanshi 管事 (director, elected leader of a local group)166–7, 172guild39, 94, 157, 187, 192–9, 218, 239, 291, 327, 413, 440, 488, 492–3, 502Guiyang 貴陽199, 272, 275, 277–83, 300, 348Guizhou 貴州2–3, 10–3, 17–9, 30, 32, 34, 44–7, 50–2, 55, 59, 67, 127, 138, 139, 172, 207, 272, 274–7, 279, 280, 283, 285, 300, 301, 303, 305, 306, 330–2, 336–9, 343, 346, 360, 370, 378, 396, 399, 401, 427, 440, 442–3, 448, 451, 465–8, 473–4, 480, 486–8, 498–501Guizhou 歸州, city and department59, 171, 225, 252, 488ZiguiHan Chinese17, 20, 34, 39, 41, 45, 305, 308, 427hanghu 行戶 (licensed transport broker)8, 148, 149, 158, 207, 306–8, 327, 477–9, 481, 490, 495, 511Hankou 漢口41, 58, 79–80, 110, 129, 132, 136, 153, 156–7, 171, 173, 181, 191, 203, 217, 220, 225, 243, 337, 438, 496–7Hanshui 漢水, river in Shaanxi and Hubei6, 58, 64, 105, 135–136, 148n, 243hawser (also bamboo tracking hawser, da 繵, huozhang 夥掌)1, 25, 73, 83–7, 90–1, 94, 99, 102–4, 106–7, 113, 118–20, 122, 166, 170, 173, 179, 181–2, 221, 237–8, 251, 493Hekou 河口 rapids on the Jinshajiang324, 353–4, 361, 369, 453helmsman (also bow and rudder helmsman, toutuo)68, 87–8, 91, 108, 111, 114–5, 131, 142, 156, 159, 162–74, 181, 189–190, 193, 208–14, 246, 254, 490–1tougong, tuogong, taigong, shaogong, bow pilotHengjiang 橫江, river in Yunnan and Sichuan67n, 281, 286–7, 289–90, 301, 322, 324–5, 343–5, 348–50, 352, 356–8, 382n, 394, 397, 406, 440–1, 465, 508Himalayas13, 29, 34–5, 54, 286, 321Honghe 紅河, river in Vietnam (also Song Hong)34, 275Hongwangshan 硔王山 massif in Dongchuan48, 321, 336–7, 371Horse (umbrella term covering all equids)packhorse25, 29, 52, 275, 289, 299, 301, 304, 308–9, 311–2, 322, 328–9, 334, 362, 378–9, 405, 411, 413, 438–9, 439, 441, 455, 466, 471, 498, 509, 511caravans19, 302, 328, 343, 378, 384, 455, 468, 509loads301, 304, 311, 329–30, 384, 467, 471breeding273, 451, 479, 486in Yi culture272mule, packhorseHuangling Temple 黃陵廟156, 187, 209, 211–2, 214Huangping 黃坪 (also Huangcaoping 黃草坪) in Yongshan345, 391–2, 432, 457, 498Huang Siyue 黃四岳473–5, 481Hubei 湖北1, 12–13, 32, 36, 39, 42, 51, 54, 59, 64, 79, 135, 138, 153, 172, 216, 229, 244, 246, 305, 337, 485, 487, 496–7Hubu 戶部 (Ministry of Revenue)69–71, 240, 329, 331Huili 會理, city and department277, 306, 411–3, 421–2, 486Huize 會澤, city and district9, 52, 281, 283, 293, 298, 340, 346, 371–372, 375, 386, 387, 389, 395, 412–4, 419, 421–5, 475, 486huozhang 夥掌 (hawser)119hawserImperial Customs79, 81, 99, 260, 497in-migration into the Southwest52, 155, 305, 485–7iron chain bridges25, 282, 285–91, 328, 387, 419, 421, 454–5Jiading 嘉定 (also Leshan)38, 108, 118, 164, 279, 282LeshanJialingjiang 嘉陵江, river in Sichuan36, 55, 133, 135, 153, 192, 195–6Jiangdi 江底 in Zhaotong284n, 286, 288–2, 341, 350, 386–7, 545Jiang Haiyi 江海移 (also 姜海移)293, 296, 402Jiang Shen 蔣深138Jiangxi 江西139, 242, 253, 291, 419, 466Jianshan 尖山350, 371–4, 376, 395–6jianwan 檢挽 (disentangling of the hawser, disentangler)85, 181, 221jiaohu 腳戶 (transporter, caravan boss)440, 477jiaqiu 夾秋 boat type127–9jiazhang 駕長 (boat owner, captain)168Jinchuan 金川 in western Sichuan40, 194, 462Jingdezhen 景德鎮 in Jiangxi300, 497jinggong 經公 (also 經工, cargo master)88, 166, 167, 172jingtong 京銅 (metropolitan copper)333, 336–41, 343–4, 385, 391–2, 438, 440, 442, 448, 453, 458, 465, 476, 479–80, 498Jingzhou 荊州 in Hubei103, 108, 153–54, 236Jinsha 金沙 silver-copper mines361, 432Jinshajiang 金沙江Jinshajiang project360n, 362, 366–367, 369–370, 397Jinshajiang quantu 金沙江全圖9, 360, 363–365, 369, 391n, 452–456, 478, 480valley15, 273n, 345, 369, 414, 432, 434jiushengchuan 救生船 (lifeboat)5, 19, 25, 76, 91, 93, 160, 162, 165, 205, 231–2, 242n, 249–62, 269, 453–4, 493, 511–5jixian 極險 (extremely dangerous), classification in rapids70, 212, 241, 366Kaihe 開河, river in Sichuan36kaishao 開梢 (also open-sweep)127–129Kangding 康定Dajianlukarst13, 16, 32, 34, 280, 283, 341, 359, 378, 427, 500Kedu 可渡 in Xuanwei283n, 378–380, 383, 474Keduhe 可渡河, river in Guizhou280, 285, 379–81, 383, 402, 473, 474nKongling xia 空舲峽Xiling xiaKuangshan 礦山 silver-zinc-lead mines335–6, 484–5kuazi 胯子 (upper Changjiang passenger boat)80–1, 86, 95, 101, 111–2, 115, 121, 161, 168, 205–6, 324Kuiguan 夔關 (Kuizhou customs)41, 79n, 109, 126–7, 128, 139, 211Kuixiang 奎鄉 in Yiliang341, 343, 345–6, 366, 389, 397–8, 405Kuizhou 夔州 city and prefecture41, 54, 79, 91–2, 101, 107–9, 126–7, 129, 139, 153, 181–2, 209, 211–2, 214, 223, 236, 249–50, 255–7, 259, 270FengjieKunming昆明 city2, 13, 47, 210, 272, 275, 279–80, 282, 285, 312, 318, 325, 331, 339–40, 366, 372, 385, 412, 415, 471Lancanjiang 瀾滄江 (Mekong)286landslide69, 73, 76, 92, 104, 234, 335, 409laoban 老板 (boss)88, 146, 147, 166, 191, 313Laoyatan 老鴉灘Yanjinlead (metal)2, 63, 82, 241, 263, 265, 267n, 300, 302–3, 331, 335–7, 450–1, 486Leibo 雷波, city and sub-prefecture273n, 350, 391, 432Lema 樂馬 silver copper mines51, 423Leshan 樂山 city38, 55, 107–8, 282Lianfeng 蓮峰 town345, 391–2, 432, 449YongshanLiangshan 涼山44n, 47, 273, 391Liao Ying 廖瑛414, 463Li Benzhong 李本忠225, 242–7, 249–50, 268–70, 434, 512lifeboat, lifeboat servicejiushengchuanLi Song 李嵩61Liu Cheng 劉城414, 419, 421, 423–5, 434Liuchonghe 六沖河, river in Guizhou280, 285Liu Handing 劉漢鼎401, 409, 411, 413–4, 417–9, 422–5, 434–5Liu Wengao 劉文誥360–1, 453Liu Xianting 劉獻廷117Li Xianjun 李賢俊242, 245Li Xun 黎恂127, 189, 206, 207, 211, 212, 214, 215, 266, 382nLi Zhengxin 李正心242–4Ludian 魯甸, city and sub-prefecture51, 340–1, 343, 345, 385, 389, 423Luoxingdu 羅星渡 (also Shangluo 上羅) in Gongxian341, 345, 347, 349, 358, 366n, 439, 452, 462, 466–7, 470–2, 498Luoxue 落雪 copper mines337, 464Luozehe 洛澤河 (also Gekuihe 戈魁河)293, 341, 389, 430Luzhou 瀘州 city36, 63, 69, 72, 126, 132, 156, 189–90, 191n, 203–4, 207, 210, 214, 266, 280, 332, 334, 339, 341, 343–46, 366, 442, 444, 446–447, 471, 512,mabang 馬幫 (packhorse and packmule caravans)5, 6, 289, 292, 299, 300–13, 327–8, 342–3, 384, 440–7, 453–5, 463–5, 469, 475–81, 486, 487, 490–4, 498, 543–6, 550–2, 555–6caravan trademafu 馬夫 (muleteer)301–2, 307–13, 455, 457, 486–7, 488–92, 550–2, 555–6caravan trade, mabangMagu 媽姑 zinc mines (also Maguhe 媽姑河)335–7, 339, 342–3, 441, 444, 468, 485, 499, 501Mangbu 芒部 Yi state (also Zhengxiong 鎮雄)45, 47, 427Maolu 茂麓 copper mines321Maquewei 麻雀尾 boat type80, 98–9masons204n, 225, 246, 291, 405, 410Mayang 麻陽, city and district80, 97, 128–19, 136, 138–9, 150, 486Mayangzi 麻陽子 boat type80–1, 86, 89–90, 97–100, 105, 110, 119, 125–6, 128–30, 132–4, 136, 138–42, 162, 268, 486Mazu 媽祖 cult187–188Menggu 蒙姑 in Qiaojia308n, 409–15, 419, 421–5metropolitan copperjingtongMexican dollar161, 201, 242Mianhuadi 棉花地 silver mines412, 421, 425Miao 苗32, 39, 44, 47, 51, 153–4, 156, 187, 224, 306, 308, 314, 423, 427, 486Miasmazhangqi 瘴氣Miliangdu 米糧渡 in Guizhou349, 359, 439military post and station (also xun 汛 and tang 塘)340, 400, 406, 408, 431Ming period4–5, 7–8, 38, 44–6, 59–61, 63, 97, 104–6, 109, 126, 141–142, 148, 217, 233, 235, 240, 242, 252–3, 262, 283, 335–336, 355, 435Ming-Qing transition17–8, 38, 47, 102, 109, 142, 253, 486Minjiang 岷江, river in Sichuan36, 54–5, 107, 164, 282, 361Minjiang 閩江, river in Fujian6, 111, 146mint metalsmint metal transport system2–3, 8, 20, 27, 41, 332–336, 347shipping of mint metals on the upper Changjiang (also copper convoy)63–4, 69, 72, 126–7, 129–32, 155–6, 158, 164, 167, 168, 171, 180, 206–16, 263, 267, 328shipping of mint metals on the Jinshajiang and the small rivers of Southern Sichuan (also tongchuan 銅船)329–48, 350–70carriage of mint metals out of the Southwest (also copper caravans)329–48, 336, 370–96, 398, 438–48, 460, 470–82, 486, 498–502, 505, 506state transport systems7, 20–2Mule6, 25–6, 272, 300, 307–14, 455horsemuleteermafuMuslim Chinese (also Hui 囘)18, 47, 50–1, 271Myanmar34–35, 275, 282–283, 286, 307, 378Nagu 那姑 in Huize409, 411–3, 415, 421Nanguanghe 南廣河, river in Sichuan67n, 345, 348–50, 352, 358–9, 394, 397, 441, 461, 465native chieftainstusinatural disaster51, 80, 154, 202, 268, 271natural obstacle269, 419navigability59, 268, 355, 358navigationchannels65, 85, 104, 231, 240, 361conditions64, 68–9, 72, 94n, 96, 206, 231, 240, 248, 250, 269, 344, 353, 355, 357, 369, 486, 502, 507, 512maps and handbooks73–5, 166technologies6, 18–9, 64, 81, 102, 144, 235–6, 398, 457Naxi 納溪 in Sichuan279–80, 444Needham, Joseph6, 81, 102, 136, 143Neo-Confucianism8, 60Nichols, Francis69, 149, 307Ningtai 寧台 copper mines337Ningyuan寧遠 (also Xichang)423Niugan mafei xia 牛肝馬肺峽Wu xia (Wu Gorge)Niujie 牛街 in Zhenxiong428, 430–31Niukou 牛口 rapids211, 243, 245, 248Niulanjiang 牛欄江, river in Yunnan281, 286, 290–91, 324, 341, 380, 385–7, 389, 424Norbert, Jacques161, 174northeastern Yunnan11, 13, 40, 42–4, 48, 50–51, 233, 274, 277, 283, 306, 312, 316, 326, 330, 332–3, 346–347, 378n, 401, 403, 427, 438, 440, 442, 445, 449, 452, 462, 464–5, 480, 484, 486–7, 493, 498–501, 511northern China305, 346, 506oar (also rao 橈, lu 櫓, jiang 槳)85, 87–9, 99, 103–9, 112–3, 120–1, 124–6, 129, 134, 168, 174–5, 179, 324, 356, 368oarsmanraofu, sailorsopium184, 214, 218, 220–1, 245, 304–5, 371, 449–51Ortai (also E’ertai)46–47, 138, 272, 328, 333, 347, 360, 361n, 366–367, 397, 413, 427n, 484overland carriage (also road transport)6, 13, 17, 22, 24–6, 29, 275, 332, 337, 343, 347–8, 359, 398, 479, 498, 509oxen272, 383, 385, 438, 458–60, 476, 478packhorsehorsepaktong (also baitong白銅)305, 411–2, 484Panthay rebellion18, 50, 52passenger boat61–2, 81, 86, 94–5, 107, 108, 111–2, 115, 151, 172–3, 180, 205–6kuazi 胯子permanent crew81, 88, 128, 155–6, 164–7, 172, 174–5, 183, 190, 205, 214, 224, 490, 504–5philanthropic infrastructure project158n, 244–5, 259, 403, 494pilot (also helmsman, taigong, tanshi)88–90, 116, 155–7, 160–6, 171, 179, 180, 186, 198, 214, 490helmsman, taigong, tanshiPingshan 屏山, city and district254n, 324, 345, 359, 361, 367, 368, 441Pingshanba 平善壩79, 216nplanking99, 110–1, 222, 387npole25, 65, 68, 98–100, 113–5, 118, 120, 122, 132, 147, 168, 180, 183, 313–4, 362, 453–7porcelain40, 50, 104, 300, 305, 450, 451, 497pork191, 199–201, 205–6, 210, 215porter, porteragebeifuprivate philanthropist19, 232, 237, 241, 250, 268–9, 376, 399, 402, 405, 426, 434–6qianfu 縴夫 (tracker)1, 73, 81–3, 85, 87, 103, 107, 120, 122, 126, 147, 150, 152–5, 167, 173n, 174–176, 179, 180, 182–6, 195, 196, 223, 320, 324, 490, 491, 523shuishouQianwei 犍爲, district and salt wells42, 461, 498, 560Qiaojia 巧家 town47n, 366, 368, 401, 411–4, 419, 422–5, 455Qinglong 青龍 rapids76, 92, 160, 234, 239n, 251Qingtan 青灘 rapids108Qingtoupu 箐頭舖 (also Jindoupu 金斗舖, in Weining379–80, 382–3qiu (boat, also qiuzi)98, 127–9, 132–3, 135–7, 141–3, 486Qujing 曲靖, city and prefecture47n, 302, 303, 325n, 419, 461, 462, 465, 467, 470, 474Qutang xia 瞿塘峽, first of the Three Gorges (also Fengxiang xia 風箱峽)55, 76–77, 91, 93–4, 160, 175, 178, 223, 236, 249–50, 257, 259raft24, 108rao 橈 (Sichuan oar)85, 99–100, 107, 109, 112, 125–6, 130, 132–3raofu 橈夫 (rowers, also oarsman)25, 85, 87, 90, 106–8, 111–4, 116, 120, 126, 147, 150, 154–5, 159, 175, 179–81, 203, 209, 228shuishouRao Mengming 饒夢銘462n, 466–8, 470rapid mastertanshi 灘師rice trade41, 202, 215, 485, 496ritualcult, River God sacrifice, shao shenfuRivershallow rivers24, 65, 104–5, 122, 135, 141, 220, 324–5, 509bank25, 59, 68, 85, 91, 120–2, 179, 182, 223, 246–8, 357, 362, 494bed13, 68–9, 72–3, 76, 104, 125, 233, 240, 246, 251shoals58, 65society144, 153–4, 157, 183, 185, 196–8, 222–30, 490–2River God sacrifice (ji jiang 祭江)187–189, 190–193, 209–12rockfall357, 398, 411–2, 416, 419, 421rowersraofurudder (also tuo 柁)1, 25, 68, 86–9, 99, 108–9, 111–6, 119, 121, 124, 157, 164–6, 168, 170–172, 174, 209, 210runner (also yamen runner)152, 189, 193, 204, 220, 246, 320, 452, 473–4, 499Sacrificecult, River God sacrifice, shao shenfusailorshuishou 水手salt42, 50–2, 79, 150, 154, 167, 181, 191, 208–210, 214, 216, 244, 300, 305, 314, 318–322, 324, 351, 368, 384, 442, 449–52, 455, 460, 467, 470, 472, 475, 480, 482, 498–9, 504, 510carrier98, 208, 359monopoly20, 460transport of67n, 245n, 304, 311n, 461–5Sarel, Henry182Sayuhe 洒渔河, river in Zhaotong281n, 294, 344, 406, 408sediment34, 231, 233, 315, 354, 409–10Shanbeituo 扇背沱, town in Chongqing190, 206, 210–2, 214–7shao 梢 (bow sweep)86–90, 109, 114, 116, 147, 162, 166–71, 174, 179, 180, 356shaogong 梢公 (bow sweep operator)147, 166shao shenfu 烧神福 (boat ritual)151, 187, 190–3, 205–6, 209–16Shashi 沙市 in Hubei102–103, 106, 107n, 227shenbozi 神駁子 boat type81, 111n, 161, 173n, 200Shen Congwen 沈從文136n, 149, 157, 158, 160, 198, 489Sheng Hongzhi 盛弘之76n, 236Shijiangfang 石匠房 in Huize410, 415, 419–20Shimenguan 石門關, in Yanjin281Doushaguanshippingtrade6, 9, 79–82, 94, 105–6, 125, 142, 144–52, 148–9, 156–60, 186, 193–5, 215, 217, 229guilds9, 158, 186–98, 488, 519shipwreck72, 92, 158–9, 220, 243, 252, 258, 263–5Shi Xiyong 史錫永119, 125, 182, 239Shi Yingqi 石應起405–406, 408–409, 434Shuicheng 水城336, 465, 499shuishou 水手 (sailor, hired boatman)88, 91, 120, 128, 144, 147, 151–3, 155–6, 159, 166, 170, 172, 174–5, 179–90, 195–205, 207–24, 254, 259, 356, 486–8, 490–2, 504–7qianfu, raofuSichuan Basin1, 3, 13, 32, 34, 36–9, 42, 44, 47, 52–5, 58, 61, 64, 231, 233, 271–2, 275–7, 281–2, 304–5, 321, 343, 346–7, 350, 355, 370, 399, 422, 457, 461, 484, 496, 503Sichuan boat (chuanchuan 川船, also Shuchuan 蜀船)9, 61n, 80n, 81, 87, 98–9, 102–3, 105–7, 110, 130, 132, 153, 168, 233, 455Sichuanese salt42, 52, 216, 461–3, 461, 470, 498, 560Sichuan oarrao 橈skipper (also boat owner, captain, banzhu 板主, laoban 老板)82, 86–8, 114–5, 123, 130–1, 136, 142, 144, 146, 148–160, 162, 166, 168, 171, 174, 186, 191, 193, 198–199, 202–203, 205–7, 217–20, 222–23, 229, 242, 246, 248, 269, 480–91, 496, 502smuggling180–1, 216, 221Song Yingxing 宋應星61, 101–3, 107southern Sichuan2, 43, 51, 67, 284, 322, 324, 326, 351, 356, 360, 427, 484, 502, 504, 506, 508southern Yunnan32, 50–1, 275, 283, 301, 327, 337, 466, 468southwestern Sichuan34, 42, 51, 153, 452steamboat72, 82, 94–95, 112storage facility (also dian 店)334, 339–40, 345, 359, 382, 442, 455straw sandals174, 184, 228, 314sugar40, 324, 412Suishi 碎石 rapids225, 231, 248taigong 太公 (pilot)165–8, 171Taiping tianguo 太平天國 (Taiping Heavenly Kingdom)18, 43, 51, 202, 244, 301taiwan 擡挽 (disentangling of the hawser, disentangler)85, 181, 221Tambora eruption17, 50, 62n, 482Tangdan 湯丹 copper mines336, 339–40, 343, 372, 375–6, 395–6, 400n, 463–4, 469n, 484–5Tangjiatuo 唐家沱217, 263tanglangtou 螳螂頭 (mantis head), boat type127–8, 130, 132Tangtang 倘塘, town and mines301, 378n, 380–381, 474ntanshi 灘師 (rapid masters), pilots of the Xintan160, 162–4pilottaxation63, 145, 442, 468tea26, 40, 181, 191, 210, 293, 300, 305, 311, 318, 321, 323, 327, 383, 402, 404, 414, 422, 449–51, 482, 493tea stall26, 327, 404, 414, 422, 493Three Gorges (also Sanxia 三峽)5, 8, 12–4, 17, 36, 41, 52–55, 57, 59, 60, 64, 76, 77, 83, 95, 158, 160, 172, 199, 202, 204, 231, 234, 254, 269, 324, 484, 485, 489, 495, 497, 510Tibet40, 55, 282, 320tin2, 331tobacco220tongyou 桐油 (tung oil)81, 99, 157tougong 頭公 (also 頭工, bow helmsman)87–8, 159, 162–72, 209–10helmsmantoulao 頭老 (headman of the sailors)166, 175trackerqianfutuo 沱 (whirlpool)125whirlpooltuogong 柁公 (also 柁工, rudder helmsman)88, 165, 168Tuogu 拖姑 in Huize298–9, 386, 402tusi 土司44, 271, 371aboriginal officials, native chieftainsUpper Shiban rapids (Shang shiban tan 上石板灘), rapids on the Jinshajiang367–9Vegetation34, 225, 231, 233Vietnam35, 275Vigneron, Lucien191, 223waizhangguan 外掌管 (gear master)166, 173Wan Chengyin 萬承蔭249Wang Jian 汪鑑91–2, 250Wan Gongzhi 萬公治264Wang Taiyue 王太岳440, 447, 452, 458, 459Wan Rendao 萬人道264Wanxian 萬縣 (also Wanhsien and Wanzhou 萬州), city and district36, 52, 54, 55, 77, 118, 203, 239Wang Yun 王澐102, 106–8, 125waterline99, 110, 120, 131, 135watertight compartments99, 111Weining 威寧 (also Wusa 烏撒)16, 45, 47, 272, 276–81, 283–5, 299–304, 306, 308, 320, 322, 324, 327, 335–6, 339–43, 345–9, 354, 366, 370–1, 376–85, 398–9, 402, 430, 438–442, 448–53, 465–75, 477, 479–80, 484, 486, 489, 498–9, 502, 504western china95, 328wheelbarrow6, 25, 27–9whirlpool (also tuo 沱, xuan 漩)67–70, 72, 77, 87, 124–5, 179, 211, 240, 246White Lotus Rebellion17, 41–2, 152–3, 182, 194, 485Wilson, Ernest73, 75, 323Worcester, George68, 91, 97, 105, 116, 118, 133, 135–6, 139, 141, 159, 161, 165, 183, 202, 206, 237wuban 五板, boat type81, 113, 120–121, 128–9, 173n, 175, 260Wumeng 烏蒙 (also Zhaotong)45, 47, 272, 347, 427Wu Sangui 吳三桂38–9, 45–6, 106Wu Shouzhong 吳守忠59–60Wushui 潕水, river in Hunan279, 348nWusong ling 蜈蚣岭 rapids366Wushan 巫山, city and district55, 77, 92n, 240n, 249n, 260nWu xia (also Niugan mafei xia 牛肝馬肺峽), second of the Three Gorges55, 70Xiaochanghe 硝厰河 (also Xiaohe 硝河) in Huize385–7Xiaojiang 小江 in Huize and Xundian281, 312, 354, 359, 361, 366, 372, 375–6, 395, 409, 411, 413, 453Xiaojiangcun 小江村 (also Xiaojiangkou 小江口, Xiaojiangtang 小江塘) in Huize312, 372, 375–6, 395Xichang 西昌 (also Ninyuan), city and prefecture277–9, 282–3, 300, 422–3, 425Xie Minghuang 謝鳴篁9, 102, 110–1, 118, 125–6, 132–3, 162, 166, 168, 170, 173, 180, 182Xie Shichen 謝時臣61–2, 105Xietan 洩灘 (also Yetan 葉灘) rapids73–6, 108, 175–6, 183, 190, 205, 235, 248Xijiang 西江 river in southern China34, 275Xiling xia 西陵峽 (also Kongling xia)55, 59, 188, 190n, 211Xinkaitan 新開灘 rapids on Jinshajiang345, 349, 359, 361, 366, 454Xintan 新灘 (also New Rapids)59n, 73–5, 90, 102–6, 108, 126, 132, 155, 157, 160–2, 164–6, 183, 184, 208–9, 211–2, 214, 225, 234–5, 324, 490xuan 漩 (concave whirlpool)77, 125whirlpoolXuanwei 宣威, city and department280, 301, 306, 325, 342, 348, 377–85, 401, 424, 439, 441, 452, 466, 473–5, 477, 481, 499Xundian 尋甸, city and department283, 340–3, 345–6, 349, 370–2, 375–81, 383–5, 399, 424, 425, 439, 443, 452, 465, 471Xuyong 敍永, city and sub-prefecture64, 280, 355, 465YongningXuzhou 叙州 (also Yibin), city and prefecture36, 281, 361, 453, 461yahang 牙行 (licensed trading house)194yamen 衙門 clerks and runners189, 193–4, 204, 220, 452, 473Yanjin 鹽津 (also Yanjingdu 鹽井渡, Laoyatan 老鴉灘), city and district275, 279, 281, 284–7, 289, 292, 294, 301, 322, 324, 341, 343–4, 349–50, 356–8, 397, 401–2, 439, 441, 446, 508, 543, 548, 560–1Yan Ruyi 嚴如熤152–5, 186Yanyu 灔澦 rock76–78, 236yaolu 搖櫓 (fishtail oar)85–7, 90, 98–100, 102, 104–5, 108–9, 112, 119, 125, 126, 130, 132, 142, 167, 174, 179–180Yazhou 雅州 (also Ya’an 雅安), city38, 277–9, 282, 321, 322–3Yemachuan 野馬川 in Huize414–5, 423–4Yibin 宜賓, city36, 88–9, 164, 279, 281, 325, 353, 361, 453, 461, 509XuzhouYichang 宜昌 (also Ichang), city and prefecture12, 36, 54–5, 72, 77, 79–80, 89, 94–5, 98–9, 103, 106, 119–20, 130, 139, 153–4, 156–7, 163–4, 171, 189, 191, 200–2, 208–14, 216–7, 220, 240, 249, 256, 259, 495, 504, 509Yiche 以扯 (also 迆車) in Huize386, 387, 390Yiliang 彝良, city and district427–8, 430Yilihe 以禮河, river in Huize281, 375, 395–6, 413, 423–4Yinggezui 鸚哥嘴 in Huize409, 411, 415, 420Yining 義寧386–7, 389–91, 393, 414Yinjishan 尹繼善138Yinyang shan 陰陽山225, 227n, 249nYin Zhengxiang 尹正祥299, 340, 386, 409Yongning 永寧, city and department64, 207, 275, 279–80, 300–1, 312, 322, 332, 339–43, 346–7, 350, 354–5, 359–60, 385, 439, 441–2, 444, 453, 465, 468, 471, 504XuyongYongninghe 永寧河, river in Sichuan64, 280, 322, 324, 339, 350, 351, 354–7, 441, 563–8Yongshan 永善, city and district345, 347, 349–50, 361, 366, 371, 391–4, 398, 401, 404, 423, 426, 431–5, 449–50, 453, 466Yuanjiang 元江, river in Yunnan34, 275HongheYuanjiang 沅江64, 97, 136, 139, 149, 150, 152, 157–8, 160, 198, 275, 277, 279, 469, 489Yuanzhou 沅州, city and prefecture (also Zhijiang 芷江)139, 279Yunyang 雲陽, city and district76, 237yunyuan 運員 (transport official)189, 264, 382zhangqi 瘴氣miasmaZhang Qin 張崟61–3, 105Zhangwo 張窩 in Sichuan324, 343, 349, 356, 357, 441, 446Zhang Xianzhong 張獻忠38Zhang Yingchang 張應昌146Zhang Yunsui 張允隨333, 336, 360–2, 366, 397, 453Zhang Zengmin 張曾敏367–8zhangqi 瘴氣 (miasma)34, 271, 432Zhanyi 沾益, city and district45, 280, 281, 468Zhaotong 昭通, city and prefecture16, 43, 47, 50–2, 272, 277–9, 281, 283–6, 288–9, 292, 294, 298–303, 306, 308, 314–5, 319–20, 322, 324–5, 327–8, 334, 340–3, 345–7, 349, 358, 366, 379, 382, 386–7, 389, 391, 398, 401, 404–9, 412, 421–3, 427, 438, 445–6, 448–50, 461–2, 465–466, 471, 476, 478–81, 486, 489, 498–9, 502, 543, 545, 548–550, 555–6, 559–62Zhao Xichong 趙希充468Zhenjiang 鎮江148n, 254, 263, 515nZhenxiong 鎮雄, city and department45, 47, 50–51, 281, 340–41, 345, 347, 371, 398, 401–2, 404–5, 426–31, 435, 441, 449–52, 462, 465–73, 477, 480–2, 498–9, 559MangbuZhenyuan 鎮遠, city275, 279Zheweizi 折尾子 rapid211, 212, 214, 215Zhongjia 中家47Zhou Buzhou 周步洲243–5, 247, 249, 268, 434, 512Zhou Changqi 周昌期252, 253Zhu Xiangxian 朱像賢366Zigui 秭歸 city59, 73, 91, 171, 225, 226, 228, 252, 254, 484n, 488, 514Guizhou 歸州zincmining2, 47, 50, 312, 335, 427, 465, 468, 487convoys on the Changjiang9, 127, 131, 147, 171, 189–90, 207–8carriage out of Guizhou330, 337, 340, 342–3, 347–8, 359, 438, 465, 468, 487, 498–500zui 嘴 (beak)234–5, 246–9Zunyi 遵義 prefecture127, 359, 561, 562