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IndexAbrégé chronologique de l’histoire universelle de l’empire chinois27071Abromont, Claude240absolute monarchy/absolutism27, 36, 41Académie française240, 249, 267Académie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres3, 45, 216, 218, 227, 235, 240, 247, 249, 255, 271, 273Académie Royale des Sciences24244, 246Academy of Sciences, Paris227, 24244, 246, 267Academy of Sinology, Paris271Academy of St. Petersburg245accommodation, Jesuit15, 19, 48, 5051, 58Actes du colloque d’Aix-en-Provence229Actes du IIe colloque international de sinologie, Chantilly45, 255adaptation.48, 52, 236accommodationAdministrative Science Quarterly193Admiralty, Toulon226adventurism214adversary93, 106, 112, 138advocacy2023Aepinus, François-Ulrich-Théodore245Africa4, 11, 15agriculture23, 2728, 272Aix-en-Provence, France22630, 232, 243, 266Aix-la-Chapelle, France262alertness84Alexander the Great64, 171Alexei Mikhailovich (Tsar)16Allart, Jean234, 266alliances1012, 27, 90, 126almanacsAlmanach royal266Citizen’s Almanac (Éphémérides du citoyen)29Imperial Almanac262America4, 8, 11, 15Amiot, Florens22526Amiot, Jean François228Amiot, Jean-Joseph-Marie3, 8, 1011, 1415, 1718, 2023, 25, 3234, 3640, 4265, 67, 6973, 78101, 1046, 109, 11112, 11415, 11720, 128, 135, 137, 141, 149, 151, 153, 155, 157, 15961, 163, 16583, 185, 187207, 21011, 213, 216, 218, 22021, 22374.Bertin, Henrianniversary of emperor’s reign and261apostolic prefecture37, 202Art militaire3, 3233, 37, 3940, 43, 45, 47, 5053, 56, 58, 81, 16575, 17781, 18894, 19697, 199201, 2046, 21114, 216, 220, 223, 246, 255, 267, 27576Bertin, Henri and10, 14, 18, 3240, 42, 5153, 5658, 60, 166, 180, 2003, 21113, 216, 221, 22328, 24445, 248, 250, 25355, 25762, 26469, 27174brothers22526, 228Chinese exceptionalism193correspondance littéraire et des arts38Correspondance militaire211death of269Dissertation on Dances259Dissertation on the Music of the Chinese259education22930electricity, study of245, 262Éloge de la ville de Moukden3, 33, 45, 5152, 60, 256, 272family22529Jesuit expulsion/suppression and34, 10, 13, 31, 209L’histoire, origine et fabrication de la porcelaine en Chine273“Life of Confucius”246, 257, 262, 271Mencius and94, 170, 176, 181, 195201, 178, 183, 19196, 199200Messe des jésuites de Pékin224, 260as missionary-astrologer256music, Chinese and224, 23639, 24142, 25761, 267nephews of227persecution of Christians in China and261portrait of273science and242, 25354, 264, 266, 268, 27273sisters of228Sunzi3, 22, 43, 4547, 49, 51, 5359, 6163, 65, 67, 69, 7879, 81, 8387, 8991, 93101, 1045, 107, 109, 111, 114, 11617, 119, 135, 137, 141, 149, 15153, 15557, 159, 161, 163, 16567, 16971, 17375, 177, 179, 18183, 18791, 19397, 199201, 205, 218, 225, 255as Qian Deming236Amiot, Jean-Louis225, 227Amiot, Marguerite-Claire22728Amiot, Pierre-Jules-Roch22627, 230, 274Amyot, Alexandre227Amyot family22526Amyot, Pierre-André228, 269Amyot, Pierre-Jules-Roch.Amiot, Pierre-Jules-RochAmyot, Victor226Analects (Lunyu)170, 175, 18283anatomy69ancestors, honoring of99, 149, 15152, 256, 265Andromeda, constellation154angels236Anglo-French Relations, 1763–1770 (Ramsey)11animals9292, 96, 126, 128, 158Annales de Bretagne269Annales de la propagation de la foi252, 263Antiquity of China (Webb)25Antonelli, Leonardo Cardinal37, 253Année littéraire, Jesuit49, 204.correspondance littéraireaphorisms84, 99, 102, 21819of Emperor Maurice (Maizeroy)218strong and weak, empty and full105Théorie de la guerre and216Vegetius and219warfare as deception 兵者詭道也8384, 185Arabic247archery63Archives françaises de la Compagnie de Jésus, Vanves (afsi)22730, 233, 236, 245, 24950, 25354, 258, 260, 26671, 273Archives jésuites de la Province belge méridionale et du Luxembourg (abml)230, 245, 248, 268Archives of the Missions Étrangères de Paris, Fonds anciens (mep)236, 249, 251, 253, 259, 268Archives privées de la Famille Amyot (afa)226, 22829, 231, 233, 263, 266, 274Archivum historicum Societatis Iesu (ahsi)232, 245Archivum Romanum Societatis Iesu (arsi)230, 23234, 263Aristotle23Arles, France229, 232Armies and Warfare in Europe 1648–1789 (Childs)6“Army in the French Enlightenment” (Bien)5“Army Management” (jun zheng yue 軍政曰)114army/armies6, 10, 69, 7374, 76, 78, 82, 85, 87, 9097, 1001, 104, 1067, 10911, 11318, 12122, 12650, 152, 15560, 166, 171, 178, 18183, 187, 196, 203, 216, 229Arnaud, François24041Réflexions sur la musique en général et sur la musique française240Arras, France197Art de la guerre par principes et par règles (Puységur)7Art militaire/Art of War (Amiot)3, 3233, 37, 3940, 43, 45, 47, 5053, 56, 58, 81, 16575, 17781, 18894, 19697, 199201, 2046, 21114, 216, 220, 223, 246, 255, 267, 27576Art of War (Mair)62art13, 68, 16, 32, 4347, 5557, 5963, 6668, 7374, 87, 9799, 1024, 107, 111, 119, 12324, 134, 136, 146, 163, 16667, 16970, 17274, 177, 17981, 185, 189, 194, 2056, 211, 214, 21619, 221, 224, 23637, 239, 255, 266, 27273Chinese229, 27374“Article du Journal étranger24041, 262, 278, 296artillery7, 1516, 172artisans85, 232Artistes et de savants attachés au service de l’empereur38artists38, 40, 69, 79, 229, 261, 274Asia1, 15, 23, 61assimilation7astrologer143, 256astronomers199, 24244astronomy198, 230, 235, 24243, 257, 263Atlanticist propaganda35Attiret, Claude-François231Attiret, Jean-Denis231, 255, 268, 273Auriga, constellation246Aurora borealis244Austria213Avignon, France23031, 24344Avis (de Guignes)3, 52, 59Avis du traducteur (Amiot)59Babel, tower of20Backer, Alois de234Backer, Augustin234Baden, margrave of28Baker, Keith Michael3436, 211banner system, Manchu70banners, war110, 114, 153baptisms265barbarians78, 124, 168Barbier, Antoine-AlexandreDictionnaire des ouvrages anonymes206barons44, 67Bartoli, Joseph247n138Barrows, John238Bastille209battalion91, 107Batteux, Charles267bayonets203Beale, John22, 25Beccaria, Giambattista245Beijing, China14, 7, 10, 12, 1420, 3233, 35, 3738, 4445, 52, 71, 124, 165, 184, 189, 198, 202, 21112, 21415, 221, 22324, 226, 22829, 231, 23337, 24248, 25153, 25657, 26063, 26567, 26970, 27273Beitang, China7, 225, 235Belgium258beliefs19, 22, 26, 89, 180, 18889Benedict xiv (pope)235benevolence (ren 仁)22, 169, 19091, 19697, 201Bengesco, Georges256Benoist, Michel151, 242Berlin, Germany256, 271Bernard, Henri Bernard-Maître23031, 236, 248, 254, 268, 273“Catalogue des objets envoyés de Chine par les missionnaires...”254“Chinois (rites)”236“Deux chinois du xviiie siécle l’école des physiocrates français,”254Le Frère Attiret au service de K’ien-long (1739–1768)231, 273Bertin, Henri Léonard Jean-Baptiste1, 3, 5, 10, 1214, 16, 18, 2829, 3142, 5153, 5658, 60, 166, 180, 2003, 21116, 221, 22328, 24445, 248, 250, 25355, 25762, 26469, 27174.Amiotabsolute monarchy system and36, 41agriculture and28Amiot, Joseph and10, 14, 18, 3240, 42, 5153, 5658, 60, 166, 180, 2003, 21113, 216, 221, 22328, 24445, 248, 250, 25355, 25762, 26469, 27174bishopric or apostolic prefecture in Manchuria37, 202Chinese Jesuits (Ko and Yang) and31, 36Choiseul and10, 1213, 29, 32, 35correspondance littéraire and Art militaire3, 10, 3435, 3739, 5052, 165, 2024, 211, 214, 216, 254, 270as enlightened minister35, 41France’s economy and39French domestic politics and10Jesuits and10Langlès, Louis and267Madame de Pompadour and12, 27, 35physiocracy and28plébicisme littéraire4142Qianlong’s set of prints/engraving of military victories32resignation from post37Russia’s planned invasion of China and21213Seven Years’ War and213Sèvres porcelain industry and273Bertin, Louis-Augustin268Bertrand, Gabrielle228Besançon, France232, 241Beurdeley, Michel231, 255Beyerhaus, Gisbert256Bi, constellation15354Bible23Bibliotheca missionum (Streit)248, 266, 296Bibliotheca Sinica (Cordier)228, 248, 263, 266Bibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus (Sommervogel)232, 296Bibliothèque de l’Institut de France (bif)1, 14, 3132, 3839, 5153, 57, 166, 203, 21115, 221, 22628, 250, 26667Bignon, Armand-Jérôme45, 24950, 25760, 267, 27071Bilbao, Spain224bing (兵), war/warfare/soldiers/military78.Art of Warbingfa (兵法), military methodsSima62Sunzi43, 46, 61, 81.SunziWuzi43, 53, 170, 177, 188, 196, 205Biographie universelle des musiciens... (Fétis)258, 284Biologie médicale250, 286Biot, Jean-Baptiste244Birch, Thomas237birds, in warfare103, 12627bishoprics, Beijing202Blanchard, AnneDictionnaire des ingénieurs militaires…227, 277Blavet, Michel237, 239Blume, Friedrich230Bonner, John31Bonnet, Anne225Bonnet, Claude225Bonnet, Marie-Anne226Boodberg, Peter Alexis46borders, nine types of terrain137, 139, 146boredom, in war116Bourbon4, 910, 32, 232Bourgeois, François36, 39, 167, 169, 25354, 261, 263, 265, 271bourgeoisie34Boussel, Gabriel251Bouvet, Joachim20, 242Braun, Joseph-Adam“Observationes meteorologicae ab anno mdccxlix…”246Brest, France253Brewer, JohnThe Sinews of Power9bribed/bribery of troops119, 138, 192Britain912, 17, 27, 35, 49, 174, 212Brittany, France209Brix, Michel22425, 240, 25859, 262“Le ‘Supplément au Mémoire”224, 258, 259, 262“Une lettre inédite du Père Amiot à l’abbé Roussier”224bronze dish (luo)115brother, respect for older178Brotton, Jerry33Brucker, Joseph233, 272Brussels, Belgium232, 248, 258Bulletin de l’Université L’Aurore (bua)242, 254bull, papal12, 19, 151, 253Bulletin de l’Association Guillaume Budé227Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient248, 253Bulletin de la Société de Géographie de Lyon272Bulletin de la société historique et archéologique du Périgord26869Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society244Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies55Burke, EdmundObservations on a Late “State of the Nation”11Burke, Peter16, 48, 50bushel, unit of measure88Bussière, Georges26869Byzantine21719cabinet of curiosities261.Bertin, Henricadetadministrative/administrator227naval230Cadière, Jean-Baptiste22930Cadière, Marie-Catherine229Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits15, 40Cambridge Companion to Voltaire35Cambridge History of Ancient China181campaigns, military and religiousagainst the Jesuits/suppression of order10, 12, 251, 252against Spain and United Provinces17canticles, liturgical260“Cantilena Sinica signis Europeis expressa”237cantons46, 166Cao Cao (曹操)60Cao Gui144Capella, star246Carrez, Louis234, 253Cartier, Michel248, 254, 271cartography17Cassirer, Ernst2Castiglione, Giuseppe255Catalogus personarum et officiorum provinciae Lugdunensis233catalogus brevis 1738230Catholicism17, 41cavalry126cemetery, Jesuit251, 263censorship201ceremonies, Chinese15152ceremony, military oath152festival for elderly261chancellery, French226Changshan, mountain14445Chanteloup estate210chaos, in war132, 145chapel, Chinese-domestic151chariots85, 8788, 9293, 96, 12627, 140Charles ii (king)21, 25Charles iii (king)10, 13Chastel, Jean197Chatou, France262Chauvelin, Henri-Philippe13chemistry235Chen Hao (陳皞)62Cheng Tang163Chester, England25Cheung, Kai-chong49Chi You (barbarian king)124childhood, Chinese63, 229Childs, JohnArmies and Warfare in Europe 1648–17896Chin, Ann-ping199China/Chineseart273armies115, 127, 135authors15051, 54, 68, 98Buddhist17bushel88classical tradition21920classics173commentators51, 54, 68, 87culture5, 15, 19, 43, 54, 149, 16667, 17980, 240, 264dance225, 240, 262despotism216economy27, 32emperor25, 60, 62, 69, 168, 175, 211empire1, 16, 30, 83, 89, 123, 167, 235, 255, 262, 270, 274entertainments238, 259ethics195exceptionalism193generals36, 61, 161, 193Chinese Jesuits31, 36, 233intellectuals240language21, 24, 57, 236, 24748literaturemelodies/melodymilitary classicsmilitary culture32, 34, 49, 199, 250military exercises56military precepts70mission/Jesuit mission4, 12, 14, 1617, 20, 33, 50, 201, 203, 224, 23436, 242, 264music224, 23639, 24142, 25761, 267origin theories20, 246ounce88, 101philosophical tradition4pacifism23philosophy42, 176, 195physics80, 83, 188pound88priests34religion23, 80, 168, 271religious beliefs19, 22, 26, 189Rites Controversy19, 58, 176, 180, 23536scholars198society2122, 41, 89, 169, 205soldier173songs237strategy, war21, 194territorial expansion254tradition174, 176, 220troops61, 255values15warfare23, 57writers130Ching-Wah Lam224choir225Choiseul, duke of (Étienne-François)913, 29, 32, 35, 210Amiot, Joseph and policies of10Charles iii and10, 13dismissal and exile11, 210grain trade210Jesuit suppression in France and12Madame de Pompadour12, 35Mémoire historique sur la négociation de la France & de l’Angleterre10Pacte de famille11Peace of Paris11philosophes12Quesnay, François and29Chomon, H.233“Chou-king” (De Guignes)248Christianity38, 48, 100, 180, 18889, 224, 251Chu, Adrian268Cibot, Pierre Martial37, 242, 254, 257Cicero193classicism5Clément, Jacques197Clement xiv (pope)13, 202, 251Dominus ac Redemptor13, 2023, 251clergy209Colbert, Jean-Baptiste1718Colin, Lucas13, 167, 169, 218College de France247Collège Royal, France249collegesAix-en-Provence, France22630, 232, 243, 266in Arles, France232in Besançon232, 241de France/ Royal College247, 249German provinces179Louis-le-Grand, Paris12in Nîmes232in Toulon230Trinity College, Lyon230, 237in Vienna233naval in Marseille230, 243combat94, 115, 126, 129, 13132, 156, 21819combustible materials153comedy, sense of51Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques36commander-in-chief178commanders8, 23Commentaries (Caesar)6, 56, 68commentaries51, 5556, 6263, 68, 195, 240canonical62Manchu translations and51, 56studying of68Sunzi62Communion, sacrament of265Compagnie des Indes31, 36Compagnie Royale des Indes Orientale17.East India CompanyCompère, Marie-Madeleine230, 232composer236, 240, 258Compte rendu des constitutions des jésuites (de La Chalotais)13Comptes rendus par un magistrat et par Messieurs les gens du roi… (de Fleury)13concerts225, 238, 260concubines81confessions236, 265confessors252Confucianism15, 19, 26, 89, 175, 17778, 18082, 18990, 195, 198, 208, 256ConfucianAnalects182canon177, 190, 196, 198Classics16970, 17778, 198doctrine179ethos of government240ideal201tradition94, 18586, 196values23, 16970, 174, 210viewpoint271Confucianisms for a Changing World Cultural Order (Ames/Hershock)198Confucius17, 19, 22, 2526, 49, 66, 71, 166, 170, 17577, 181, 186, 188, 19598, 240, 246, 257, 262, 271Confucius sinarum philosophus (Couplet)17, 19, 49, 166, 176, 198congregations22829, 232, 234, 236, 253, 265children’s236, 265Holy Guardian Angels236Holy Congregation of the Propagation of the Faith18, 202, 253, 260Missions étrangères18, 202, 236conquest44, 160, 163, 168, 194, 212, 255, 260of Xinjiang44of Jinchuan260Manchu sinicization and168constellationsAuriga246Bi15354Capella246Ji15354Lyra246Yi15354Zhen15354constitutionalism, parliamentary12.GallicanismcontroversiesChinese Rites19, 58, 176literary250convent, Ursuline22829convoys88, 142Corbett, Julian S.9Cordier, Henri16, 33, 3640, 45, 202, 228, 245, 248, 253, 26366, 273Bibliotheca Sinica228, 248, 263, 266“Giuseppe Panzi peintre italien à Peking…”273La Chine en France au xviiie siècle45“Les correspondants de Bertin...”16, 245“Les Chinois de Turgot”33“La suppression de la Compagnie de Jésus…”36, 251, 253Cornelius, PaulLanguages in Seventeenth- and Early Eighteenth-Century Imaginary Voyages22Correspondance de Pékin (Gaubil)236correspondance littéraire13, 10, 3435, 3739, 5052, 165, 2024, 211, 214, 216, 254, 270Corsica227Corvisirer, André217Corvus, constellation154costumes, military255Cotte, LouisTraité de météorologie244coup13, 207coup d’état207Couplet, Philippe17, 17677Confucius sinarum philosophus7, 19, 49, 166, 176, 198courage64, 81, 86, 104, 114, 11920, 124, 127, 133, 139, 143, 171, 190Courant, Maurice45courtyards75, 134cowardice64, 133Cranmer-Byng, John Launcelot263crime135, 178, 197crossbow104cruelty, of rulers144, 196Cummins, James1415customs1920, 33, 39, 42, 6364, 66, 71, 82, 87, 14950, 168, 173, 256, 26365Cyclopes (Rameau)239da Rocha, Felix16Da Sima (大司馬), also Sima Rangju61Dictionnaire de l’Académie française (daf)51, 6566, 97, 188, 220Dai Zhen198200Mencius199200Siku quanshu199d’Alembert, Jean Le Rond2, 12, 177Damiens, Robert-François27, 197, 210dao (道), way7980, 82, 100, 18183, 18591, 195Daodejing79, 97, 18186Daoism182, 186, 18889, 271Daoshi271darkness, art of war in1023, 114Davin, Emmanuele227, 23031, 233“Les jésuites à Toulon…”230“Un éminent sinologue toulonnais...”227“Un sinologue éminent”233Davis, John49Daxue (Great Learning)17577, 196daylight, art of war in1023, 114deathin Daodejing79division of159, 192doctrine and79fighting till118loss of battle by general135original states earth represents81place of117as punishment for insubordination77, 129soldier who seek121as unworthiness120debauchery128, 148de Beauvau-Craon, Charles Juste210de Bernis, François-Joachim Cardinal37, 253de Bougainville, Jean-Pierre240de Bréquigny, Georges Oudard Feudrix250, 260, 262, 267decadence78de Caradeuc de La Chalotais, Louis-René13de Castries, Charles253deceit/deception84, 17980, 18586, 18889, 218de Chastenet Puységur, Jacques François Maxime78, 11, 45, 17172, 205, 209, 211, 21314, 220, 255de Cock, JosephDefuncti tertii saeculi Societatis Iesu 1740–1773232de Dainville, François232de Dainville, Maurice226de Espinha, José233defense/defensive16, 58, 98, 110, 142, 207, 21314de Fontaney, Jean18, 242de Ghelcke, Ronald HynderickLes Amyot22531, 266, 269de Grammont, Antoine-Pierre232de Grammont, Jean-Joseph16de Guibert, Jacques-Antoine-Hippolyte213, 216Essai général de tactique213de Guignes, Joseph3, 10, 17, 22, 37, 43, 45, 5253, 5960, 62, 165, 172, 174, 201, 216, 231, 24650, 25557, 267, 272Avis3, 52, 59“Chou-king”248Essai sur le moyen de parvenir à la lecture...248Dehergne, Joseph47, 226, 233, 242, 248, 25354, 257, 262, 27071, 273“Gaubil historien de l’astronomie chinoise”242“La correspondance littéraire”254“Les biens de la maison française de Pékin en 1776–1778”253Monumenta serica47, 253Répertoire des jésuites de Chine de 1552 à 1800226, 233, 273“Une grande collection”248, 254, 257, 262“Voyageurs chinois venus à Paris...”47de Laborde, Jean-BenjaminEssai sur la musique ancienne et moderne238De la Riviére, Pierre-Paul Le Mercier32, 238de La Tour de Gléné, Charles Jean-Baptiste Des Galois264Delatour, Louis-François263, 266Delattre, Pierre230, 233de L’Averdy, Clément Charles François13Delisle, Joseph-Nicolas24243, 267de Mailla, Joseph-Anne-Marie de Moyriac45, 255Histoire générale de la Chine ou Annales de cet empire259de Mattos, Manuel233de Maupeou, René-Nicolas-Charles-Augustin2089democracy41de Neuvialle, Jean Sylvain2de Pauw, Cornelius22, 5657, 2045, 25657, 259de Robien de Treullan, Pierre-Louis-Achille269de Rochemonteix, Camille2256, 236, 249, 264, 268, 274Derzhavin, Gavriil Romanovich246de Sacy, Jacques Silvestre227, 254, 268de Saint-Leu, Colonel Saint-Maurice45, 2056, 208, 255de Sartines, Antoine-Raymond14, 37, 253, 266de Saxe, Maurice11, 168, 170Description générale de la Chine... (Grosier)259Description géographique, historique... (Du Halde)235, 238desertion, army129, 155Deshauterayes, Michel-Ange André Leroux247, 28283de Souza, Polycarpe236desperation, enemy116d’Espié, François45despotism1213, 23, 27, 29, 34, 42, 206, 208, 216Despotisme de la Chine (Quesnay)26, 29, 32, 177, 200, 205des Robert, Joseph-Louis234, 268Desrobert, Joseph-Robert234, 236, 268Desvoyes, M.268, 272detachment, sending out of114de Tocqueville, Alexis31de Vaivre, Jean-Baptiste Guillemin266, 270de Vergennes, Charles253de Visdelou, Claude242di (帝), emperor64dialectics218Dictionnaire de biographie française (dbf)226, 231, 233Dictionnaire de l’Académie française (daf)51, 6566, 97, 188, 220Dictionnaire d’histoire et de géographie ecclésiastique230, 236Dictionnaire des ouvrages anonymes (Barbier)206Dictionnaire tartare-mantchou-françois (Langlès)267Diderot, Denis2, 177, 224, 256, 259Didier, BéatriceLa musique des Lumières Diderot224Didot, François-Ambroise3, 45, 2056, 209dignity, general’s119d’Incarville, Pierre-Noël Le Cheron242Dionis69diplomacy11disaster, military95discernment82disciples71, 175, 177.Zengzi/Zenzidiscretion, military27, 144, 155disease124, 128, 167disgrace, military44, 67, 199dishonor, military95, 133Dissertation on Dances (Amiot)259Dissertation on the Music of the Chinese (Amiot)259divination158divine law3031Doctrine, La (dao 道)13, 8081, 181, 18889doctrineof accommodation51Confucian179of lawful revolution201of mandate of heaven65, 161, 181, 196, 200Mencian197military81, 167, 211pacifist24parricidal13regicide19697, 199200, 210tactical8Doctrine of the Mean (Zhongyong)175, 182Dôle, France231Dominicans15, 180Dominus ac Redemptor (Clement xiv)13, 2023, 251Dortous de Mairan, Jean-Jacques246Doutes sur la dissertation de M. de Guignes (Deshauterayes)247dragons5657dragoons57, 268drunkenness128du Gad, Louis251Du Mu (杜牧)62, 100Du You (杜佑)62duality187Du Halde, Jean-Baptiste21, 235, 238, 249Dupont de Nemours, Pierre-Samuel29, 3233, 209Duras, duke of (Emmanuel-Félicité de Durfort)210dutiescapital70fraternal178natural30paternal210political4primary31dynastiesChou46Liu Song65Ming15, 23, 25, 65, 72, 168, 174, 201, 260Qing (also Manchu)168Shang (also Yin)163, 194, 196, 200Song41, 62Tang62Xia163, 189, 194, 19697, 2001Yin.ShangZhou6265, 163, 186, 189, 19496Dzungar255, 272Dzungaria272Earl of Macartney269Earle, Edward Meade1earth49, 79, 8083, 87, 9192, 98, 100, 102, 111, 125, 130, 137, 167, 182, 187earthworks92Eastern Han65eclipse246École française d’Extrême-Orient (efeo)59economyChinese27, 32French28natural27physiocratic28political20, 22, 27, 211Edict of Nantes17edictsQianlong32, 261Yongzheng72, 175education8, 14, 23, 31, 34, 47, 69, 71, 94, 171, 17677, 193, 198, 208, 237Elba, island of227electricity245, 262Elementa linguae Tartaricae (Verbiest)270Elman, Benjamin15, 170, 198200Éloge de la ville de Moukden (Qianlong)3, 33, 45, 5152, 60, 256, 272embankments103embassy, Lord Macartney263emblemsChinese263French176Eminent Chinese of the Chʻing Period (Hummel)72emotion, manipulation of49, 187, 217emperorsGuangwu65Jie200Kangxi19, 45, 63, 66, 6971, 73, 170, 23435, 254, 260, 270Maurice21718Ming198, 200Qianlong16, 3233, 4345, 151, 161, 167, 170, 199, 212, 231, 233, 252, 25456, 27174Wanli63Wu62, 6465Wudi6465Wuwang64, 163Yongzheng19, 40, 4344, 59, 61, 6970, 72, 175, 17781, 189, 2058, 255Zhòu19697, 199200Empire Gazettes262Encyclopédie27, 177, 238Encyclopédie méthodique: Musique (Ginguené)259enemies13, 78, 82, 8488, 9094, 96102, 10412, 11434, 13643, 14549, 15355, 15860, 16264, 167, 17981, 185, 19192, 194, 197, 210, 21820art of making104five main things to conquer your enemies79, 96energy (shi 勢)2England8, 22, 25, 212, 263, 269engraving32, 44, 27374Enlightenment2, 58, 1921, 23, 27, 32, 34, 37, 43, 49, 79, 16567, 169, 171, 18889, 195, 201, 2045, 21011, 21314, 225, 259, 261entertainment75Entick, JohnGeneral History of the Late War10envoys78, 150Ephémérides du citoyen (Les Éphémérides)28, 29, 32, 2056, 209epidemic229Epistlefor Charles ii (Webb)21, 25for Qianlong (Voltaire)256Epitoma rei militaris (Vegetius)172, 177, 219Épître au roi de la Chine... (Voltaire)256erudition, Chinese188, 256espionage12527, 15759, 162, 18384, 19192.yong jianEsprit, Jean-Baptiste229Essai général de tactique (de Guibert)213Essai sur la musique ancienne et moderne (de Laborde)238Essai sur le moyen de parvenir à la lecture... (de Guignes)248Essai sur les moeurs (Voltaire)20Essay on the History of Civil Society (Ferguson)19Essays on the history, sciences, arts, customs… (Ko and Amiot)33ethics34, 80, 82, 166, 169, 175, 17778, 180, 188, 193, 195, 198, 210, 217, 220ethnomusicology225, 261ethos, military conduct174, 190, 214Étiemble, RenéL’Europe chinoise254Les jésuites en Chine236Eurasia212Europe2, 47, 9, 11, 1417, 1922, 24, 2627, 33, 3738, 40, 45, 4850, 57, 87, 128, 155, 161, 178, 199201, 2078, 216, 22122, 224, 23435, 24445, 249, 25455, 258, 26162, 27071, 273evangelization15Evangelists18Evelyn, John25examens3, 43examinations, China23, 43, 16970, 173, 198civil23, 170military16970, 173fa (法), discipline, law81, 89Fabius Cunctator86fables65, 168, 201faculty, of mind218faith18, 28, 180, 196, 198Faivre, Antoine41fame187, 226famine256fanaticism41Fan ZidengShulin Wenyuantang (書林 文元堂)farmers27feet, unit of measure101, 105, 115.renFejér, József232Ferguson, Adam19festival, Chinese261Fétis, François-JosephBiographie universelle des musiciens...258fiefdoms138Fillole, Lucrèce225fire, fighting with78, 111, 114, 15356, 241fireworks24Fischer, Karl Adolf Franz232fisheries11flattery, military tactic119, 192fleet, commercial fishing11flightof armies, in battle133, 139of birds, in espionage127Florence, Italy273Florida, United States11Fo (Fu Xi/Noah)41food87, 95, 113, 11718, 124, 131, 142, 153, 265foreigners45, 78, 85, 145, 237forest, advantages11314, 116fortress71, 92, 139fortune72, 139, 143, 213, 215, 226Foure Bookes of Flavius Vegetius Renatus (Sadler)177Fourmont, Étienne24647Framery, Nicolas-Étienne259France4, 714, 1718, 21, 2732, 3438, 41, 43, 4547, 49, 54, 5860, 68, 70, 83, 100, 128, 166, 168, 17374, 176, 184, 197, 2005, 20714, 216, 218, 221, 224, 226, 228, 23031, 235, 23841, 24345, 247, 249, 25152, 254, 25657, 26066, 269, 27374fraternal duty178Frederick ii (king)27, 57, 256freedom14, 25, 41Fréron, Élie-Catherine4951, 58frugality217Fu Xi (Noah)41Fujian, China145, 268Fuxi (emperor)271galleys128Gallia (arsi)234Gallicanism12Gamma Andromedae243Gaodi (emperor)64Gaozu (emperor)64Gat, Azar57, 213, 21617Gaubil, Antoine17, 23334, 23637, 240, 24245, 270, 272Correspondance de Pékin 1722–1759236Chinese music and23637, 242Gazette de France240generals8, 43, 6566, 79, 82, 92, 9899, 120, 127, 144, 149, 151, 155, 15960, 162, 168, 170generalship, great189Geng Gan65Genoa, Italy273geography19, 80, 172, 198, 256, 272Gerbillon, François242Ghislain, Joseph253gifts255Ginguené, Pierre-Louis“Chinois (musique des)”259Girard, Jean-Baptiste229glory, military24, 79, 86, 89, 93, 96, 98, 134, 142, 149, 152, 15556, 158, 163, 187, 2078, 26465Gogeisl, Anton243gong, musical note102González, Tirso234Goree, island11governance43, 103government2, 8, 22, 24, 2831, 3334, 36, 4041, 44, 6365, 7071, 94, 120, 123, 135, 166, 16869, 171, 17475, 177, 180181, 186, 192, 2067, 21415governors70, 72, 113, 120, 192grain27, 33, 8788, 153, 210, 272Grammaire Tartare-Mandchou (Amiot)270Grand dictionnaire Ricci de la langue chinoise59, 93, 96, 183Great Wall213Greece196, 226grenadiers57, 212Gribovsky, Sofrony246Griffith, SamuelSun Tzu: The Art of War46, 55, 74, 81, 90, 95, 100, 105, 120Grmek, Mirko Drazen250, 273Grosier, Jean-Baptiste259Grosse, Friedrich der256gu xiao di zhi jian, da di zhi qin ye (故小敵之堅,大敵之擒)94Guangwu (emperor)65Guangzhou, China32, 39, 45, 204, 227, 233, 237, 266, 26869, 272guilds28, 34Guillemin de Vaivre, Jean-Baptiste266Guillot, Pierre237gunpowder24Guojian (king)109Guy, AlanOeconomy and Discipline203Guy, BasilFrench Image of China…20Guyue jingzhuan (Li Guangdi)240, 262Habermas, Jürgen9, 34half-victories136Hamy, Alfred274Han dynasty (Wendi)6364Eastern65Western65Han Xin6465.Tao DaojiHanfeizi181Hanlin, scholars239, 260Hanna, Robert269Hannibal24, 86Haoqiu zhuan49Harcourt, Anne Pierre (duke)210harpsichord236Hata, governor general of Ningutta7172Havana, Cuba11heaven53, 65, 7982, 98, 132, 137, 161, 18182, 18788, 196, 200, 211, 265Hegel, Friedrich271hegemon (ba 霸)148Heilongjiang province, China71Hellenism16Helman, Isidore-Stanislas273helmets87Helu (king)109heresy17Herodotus6, 196heroism194He Yanxi (何延錫)62hierarchy, natural law and30, 35, 170, 180, 202hieroglyphs246, 248Histoire de l’Académie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres218Histoire de Toulon (Lambert)233Histoire générale de la Chine ou Annales de cet empire (De Mailla)259Historical Essay..., An (Webb)2022, 24Hoefer, Jean Chrétien FerdinandNouvelle biographie universelle209, 287Holmes, SamuelJournal of Mr. Samuel Holmes268Homer6Hongwu (Taizu)65Honoré, Anne-Marguerite227, 245, 273Horace203horses, military57, 8788, 12728, 140, 145, 153hospital229hou (ten bushels)88Hsia, Ronnie Po-chiaA Jesuit in the Forbidden City193“The Catholic Mission and Translations in China, 1583–1700”16“The End of the Jesuit Mission in China”252“Twilight in the Imperial City”20hu, unit of measure88Huang Shi Gong63Huang Shi gong san lüe (黃石剬三略)61Huangdi (emperor)62, 12324, 167, 271Huard, Pierre25354, 26869, 27273Hugon, François232humanity (ren 仁)2, 2122, 100, 183, 190, 208, 210, 215, 217, 264Hummel, Arthur72Hunan, China78hunger, in war14243huogong (火攻), fire attack153Hydra, constellation154Hymne tartare-mandchou, chanté à l’occasion de la conquête... (Amiot)260hymns206, 260hypnosis272ideologies56, 16, 29, 218idleness111, 128, 148idolatry79, 188Ignatius of Loyola48ignorance82, 158, 204ilan-tchohai-kun96illness124, 253, 26263illustrations61, 63, 273immorality194Imperial Board of Astronomy, Beijing1516imperialBoard of Astronomy, Beijing1516court, Beijing15, 274examination, China43, 170orthodoxy198palace, Beijing202, 252India4, 11, 24, 50, 212IndiesEast240West4, 11industry31, 33, 92, 273infanticide257infidels18Institut de France1, 38, 211, 228, 274insurrection198intellectualsChinese237, 24041European50invasion19, 23, 65, 168, 2001, 212invention2324Israel195Jacob/Jacques (Yang Ya-Ko-Pe)236Jacobite21Jacquier, Antoine253Jansenism and Jansenists4, 10, 12, 19, 58, 197Jansenists and the Expulsion of the Jesuits from France (Van Kley)12javelins, weapon87, 104jealousies, among enemies160Jesuits25, 7, 1022, 2527, 3132, 3536, 40, 44, 4750, 54, 58, 98, 166, 169, 172, 176, 178, 180, 188, 190, 193, 195, 19799, 2023, 20910, 214, 216, 23035, 24148, 25153, 261, 263, 266, 269abolishment of1314, 251accommodation10, 15, 19, 22, 48, 5051, 58admiration of Chinese values/culture15as apologists178as assassins guilty of lèze-majesté210Chinese Jesuits (Ko and Yang)31, 36Chinese Rites and98, 151, 235Choiseul, duke of (Étienne-François) and32, 35, 210deportation from Macau251exile of French mission268expulsion from France34, 10, 13, 31, 209as intermediaries244, 269as map-makers16as mathematicians and scientists242suppression45, 1011, 1314, 19, 29, 3640, 188, 2023, 232, 25153, 261, 26465, 271tombs in China251, 263, 265wealth and jurisdiction of mission252Jews270Ji (箕), constellation154Ji (Tsi/Qi), kingdom73Jia Lin (賈林 )62, 95, 120jiān and jiàn, (間), division, interval/space157jiang (將 ), commander182Jiangnan, China74, 109Jiangsu, China145Jiangxi, China74Jie (emperor)200Jin dynasty65jin (金), metal115Jin, western65Jinchuan, China16, 260, 267Jing Yaoshi62jing, classics61Jingzhou, China78jiu bian (九變), nine variations117jiu di (九地), nine grounds137Ji Yun199Johnston, AlastairCultural Realism6, 174, 214Joly de Fleury, Jean-Omer13Joly de Maizeroy, Paul-Gédéon11, 216, 218Jones, Colin“Bourgeois Revolution Revivified…”169“The Great Chain of Buying: Medical Advertisement…”167The Great Nation: France from Louis xv to Napoleon13José I (king)251jue, musical note102Julia, DominiqueLes collèges français230, 232jun (軍), city91jun, thousands of men96junxing (軍形), dispositions97junzheng (軍爭), maneuvering111justice75, 100, 129, 134, 164, 190, 199Kaifeng Jews/synagogue270Kamchatka peninsula213Kang, Philippe-Stanislas47, 233Kangxi (emperor)19, 45, 63, 66, 6971, 73, 170, 23435, 254, 260, 270Kaon Chung (prince)273kaozheng198Keng-kan (Geng Gan 耿弇)65Khalkha255kiun (jun/ou-kun)91Knies, Karl28knight185Ko, Louis3134, 3639, 60, 211, 21314, 236, 254, 257.Yang, ÉtienneKratzenstein, Christian245Kuang, Geng (耿況)65lacquer260Lai Xi65lakes139Lambert, Gustave233Lamiot, Louis-Marie263lances103landowners28Langlès, LouisDictionnaire tartare-mantchou-françois267Journey to China and Tartary with Lord Macartney’s Embassy268“Tartar-Manchu Hymn, Sung on the Occasion...260, 267Languedoc, France209Laozi Daodejing zhu jiaoshi (老子道德經注校釋 )184Laroque, Gaspar Laurent232Lauras, Matthieu234, 248Lautour, A. M.226Laval, Maine269law26, 28, 3031, 34, 36, 41, 66, 70, 77, 81, 89, 100, 164, 207, 230, 265Lazare249Lazarite/s253, 260, 263, 269Lazarus, order of253Le Bon, Simon236, 249, 251, 268league, unit of measure11, 85, 107.lileather92Lebeau, Charles249Le Cheron d’Incarville, Pierre-Noël242Lecomte, Louis1921, 242legends196, 201“Fo” (Fu Xi)41of founder of Chinese empire123Huang Shi gong63Shiji144of Three Dynasties19697, 201, 211Xia dynasty163, 19697, 200Legier, Madame (Amiot, Marie-Victoire)269Le Gobien, Charles18Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm20, 23, 25leisure101, 264Lenoir, Yves3, 45, 22425, 238, 24041, 25859, 262, 273Leo vi (emperor)218Le Paige, Louis-Adrien35Leroux, Michel-Ange André45, 247, 267lesser places lethargic state, of army137lethargy111Lettre de Pékin, sur le génie de la langue chinoiseLettres édifiantes et curieuses (Le Gobien)18, 161, 234, 236, 244, 246, 270Lettre sur les caractères chinois24748“Lettre de Voltaire à Frédéric ii...” (Voltaire)256Lettres chinoises, indiennes et tartares... (Voltaire)256Leuven, Belgium230, 253Li Guangdi/Kuangti24041, 259li, unit of measure85, 107, 109, 112, 124, 157Liang dynasty6263liang (兩), unit of measure101Liaozi, one of six military classics6162libraries/library3, 7, 21, 29, 37, 172, 199, 204, 228, 235, 239, 266Lieou-ye-kin238“Life of Confucius” (Amiot)257, 262, 271lightning114.electricityLinguet, Simon-Nicolas-Henri210Lipsius, Justus172Lisbon, Portugal235, 251Li Shimin62literalism58literati15literature5, 32, 34, 45, 69, 196, 199, 243, 250, 266, 268Liu-ye-Kin (Lieou-ye-Kin)238Liu Song dynasty65Liutao/ Liu tao43, 6263, 205Li Weigong wendui (李衛剬問對)62Lloyd, Henry Humphrey Evans5, 8, 21213.LoydLo, Kii-Ming238Loewe178, 183, 192logic2, 18, 35, 39, 41, 58, 161, 172, 186, 188, 195, 209, 212, 232, 243logistics, military8Lombard, Étienne231London, United Kingdom6, 911, 13, 15, 20, 33, 45, 49, 57, 17677, 185, 196, 234, 237, 239, 24449, 266, 26869Longobardo, Nicolò260Lorient, France233Louis xiv (king)7, 17, 18, 176, 209, 234Louis xv (king)3, 7, 10, 13, 17, 27, 35, 197, 208, 210, 251Louis xvi (king)36, 2023, 253, 263Louisiana, United States11, 13Louvain, Belgium224, 254loyalty11, 95, 155, 162, 200Lucrèce, Louis–Raphaël269Loyd, English officer21213.Lloyd, Henry Humphrey EvansLu, kingdom7374, 144Lü Wang (tai Gong)Liutao63Lü Ya16364, 194 (旅), battalion91lu (櫓), chariots, covered cart93, town91Lugd (arsi)23334Lunyu (Analects)170, 175, 18283luo (鑼), bronze dish/gong11415Ly-koang-ty240Lyon, France41, 227, 230, 233, 237, 243, 272Lyra, constellation246Macartney, George204, 263, 26869Macau, China202, 233, 23637, 251, 266, 26869Machiavelli, Niccolò176Madras, India263Madrid, Spain11Maggs, Barbara WidenorRussia and “le Rêve Chinois”246, 254magistrates, France12, 124, 167magnanimity, of soldiers129magnetism242, 272Maine, France269management, of army37, 114, 161, 171Manchucommentators/interpolation180conquest44, 160, 163, 168, 194, 212, 255, 260court44, 260emperors70, 174hymns260, 267invasion/invaders19, 23kingdom168language67, 254, 26768, 270lords178manuscripts46revolution168Tartars256translations51versions/Art militaire172words54, 267Manchuria, China202Manchus, people168Mandarins16, 72, 150, 151, 210, 253d’armes170de lettres170of fifth rank261mandate of heaven65, 161, 181, 196, 200manifestoFréron’s4950Quesnay’s31, 20810Manila, Philippines11mannerof attacking/ defending141of Chinese169of commanding118customs and14950, 168, 263, 265good147of leading145of thinking47, 69manuscripts3, 45, 238, 258, 262map-making16maps272Marseille, France226, 229, 24344, 266marshal of France7marshals209Martini, Martino19, 168martyrs252Mass (liturgy)263mathematicians234, 242mathematics243Maurice (emperor)21718Maverick, LewisChina: A Model for Europe27Mead, Edward1meanness129, 182measurements100, 244.hu, li, renmeat128mechanics245medal261Medicine, Paris Faculty of45, 272medicine27, 40, 66, 245, 272medicines, Chinese272meditation187Mei Yaochen (梅 堯臣)62Meihua Fleur de Prunus ensemble22425Mekong, river272melancholy, of troops124Mellet, comte de26869melodies102, 23739, 246, 259.musicMémoires concernant l’histoire... (Amiot)19, 33, 43, 46, 172, 176, 18889, 196, 199, 2045, 23637, 23942, 24548, 250, 25455, 25762, 267, 27071, 273Mencius66, 94, 170, 176, 181, 186, 195201, 178, 183, 19196Amiot, Joseph and94, 170, 176, 181, 195201, 178, 183, 19196, 199200Mengzi170, 176Mengzi ziyi shuzheng (Dai Zhen)198200Mengshi (孟 氏)62mercantilism36Mercury, planet24244, 246“Mercurius in sole observatus…” (Hallerstein)244meridian71, 24344merit66, 16970, 215Merrick, Jeffrey13Mesmer, Franz Anton26869, 272Messe des jésuites de Pékin (Amiot)224, 260metal87, 111, 115meteorology244.astronomyMiao, minority group271Mien, kingdom272militarism27military art1, 4445, 57, 59, 67, 7374, 87, 103, 124, 134, 136, 167, 170, 214militaryachievements/self-glorification44, 65, 151art1, 4445, 57, 59, 67, 7374, 87, 103, 124, 134, 136, 167, 170, 214of governing troops103of healing124, 167of making changes119of making enemies104of military intelligence107of proximity47, 111authors205, 255classics, Byzantine217classics, Chinese4345, 61, 63, 67, 74, 170, 175, 179commander218conduct178doctrines, France211culture, Chinese16, 32, 44, 175, 19495dress/costume43, 255Enlightenment58, 79, 165, 171, 205, 210, 21314examinations16970, 173exercises/training43, 5657, 7475, 77, 255failures196forces30, 96, 175institutions173, 213laws and disciplinary rules17274oaths152officers209operations/affairs8, 142punishment77rank43, 170readers55, 172reformers5science66, 20910skills169spirit5strategy/methods39, 43, 255supplies118tactics8, 16, 117, 166, 213, 21720technology26texts and treatises6, 44, 5051, 68, 70, 114, 174, 21718theory56, 33, 55, 174, 185, 205, 211, 214, 21617, 220tradition6weapons/instruments43, 75, 79, 86, 103, 11226, 153, 166, 203Milsky, Françoise“Les souscripteurs de l’histoire…”45, 255, 261, 273Ming6, 1415, 23, 25, 41, 44, 65, 70, 72, 168, 174, 198, 2001, 240, 253, 260, 26869court15dynasty23, 25, 65, 168, 174, 201, 260emperors65, 198, 200Mirabeau, marquis of2728misfortune14, 64, 79, 8687, 122, 132, 142, 167mission, French Jesuit2, 45, 12, 14, 1618, 20, 33, 3539, 4750, 189, 2014, 206, 211, 215, 225, 23336, 242, 246, 25154, 26466, 27071, 274missionaries1819, 26, 36, 38, 4041, 43, 48, 50, 57, 203, 206, 215, 224, 23536, 242, 244, 24748, 25254, 261, 26466, 27071, 273Missions étrangères18, 202, 236, 249, 251, 253, 259, 268modernization16modesty217Mohist text181monarchy4, 25, 27, 29, 3536, 41, 176, 209, 211, 252, 271money85, 113, 128, 151, 153, 15859, 161, 235, 267Mongolia167, 213Mongols41, 254Montecuccoli, Raimondo172Montesquieu26, 206, 216, 235Monumenta serica (Dehergne)47, 253morality20, 40, 80, 181, 188Moreau, Jacob-Nicolas10, 3536Mortimer, Cromwell237Morton, Charles24748motivation3, 38, 68, 74, 200, 242, 264mou gong (謀攻), offensive strategy90Mouly, M.263mountain56, 105, 11314, 11617, 12223, 131, 138, 14445, 148Mourgues, Charles226Mozi24, 181, 197Mukden, China33, 202, 267Murphy, Arthur50Muscovites270music120, 172, 192, 22425, 233, 23642, 25662, 267, 274musicians224, 237, 260mutiny120, 192mythology271Nanjing, China202nationalism12navalcadets230college243seminary229navies155navigation239navy11, 155, 227, 253, 266Needham, John Turberville24748Ningutta, China71Nöel, FrançoisSinensis imperii libri classici sex199200Normandy, France209Novissima Sinica23obedience13, 63observatories37, 235, 24243, 278Oirat lands272.DzungariaO’Malley, John1415, 20, 48, 193, 197Orphelin de la Chine (Voltaire)50Othello46Ottoman empire33, 213pacifism21, 23, 167Padroado, of Portugal1718, 234pagoda210Panzi, Giuseppe263papacy18papalbulls12, 19, 151, 203encyclical12Parennin, Dominique69Paris, Joseph253Paris, France1, 34, 7, 1013, 1821, 2728, 3137, 4345, 47, 52, 59, 88, 97, 165, 172, 17677, 202, 2056, 20811, 216, 218, 22438, 24042, 24445, 24749, 25161, 263, 26668, 27174Parent, Melchior-François37, 211, 226, 228Patras, Greece226patriotism41peace45, 9, 11, 71, 84, 91, 93, 109, 126, 134, 151, 156, 159, 161, 164, 175, 2023, 265pedagogy237Pedrini, Teodoríco225, 238, 260Peking, China168, 204, 259, 273Pereira, Tomas263Pereyra, André238Périgord39, 265Perkins, Merle21Perronet, M.227Petersburg, Russia21213, 24446, 26667, 270Peyrefitte, Alain263, 26869Pezenas, Esprit243, 266Pfister, Louis233, 235, 248, 266, 26869philanthropy201Philip v (king)232Philippines4philology198200philosopher1, 20, 23, 31, 66, 71, 166, 170, 175, 177, 182, 18586, 235, 256, 271philosophy4142, 58, 171, 17677, 188, 217, 21920, 230, 232, 246, 271physics80, 83, 188, 235, 24243, 245, 262physiocracy2628, 208physiology27Picard, Alphonse225Picard, François224, 238, 255, 26061, 273Sanjiao wenxian224Picard, René231pinyin59, 62, 88Pitt, William910Pius viiSollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum203plague229Plato23Plutarch8poems44, 232, 256poetry49Poland21214Polybius6polygamy257Pombal, marquis of251Pompadour, Madame de12, 27, 35porcelain31, 254, 273Portugal4, 12, 1718, 202, 251pottery273Poupardin, René267poverty87, 207Prague, Czech Republic199prejudices5758, 64, 170, 2089pride84, 261priest12, 46, 23233, 264, 268prisoners8889prisons251Pritchard, Earl204prohibitions16, 113Propaganda Fide37propaganda, French35Provence, France21, 22630, 232, 243, 251, 264, 266, 269Prussia11, 27, 57, 256punishment44, 63, 67, 77, 82, 89, 100, 121, 129, 134, 148, 160, 187, 197, 199, 201, 215Puységur, marquis of.de Chastenet Puységur, Jacques François MaximePythagoras259Pythagoreanism257Qi6163, 73, 80, 83, 94, 242, 248Qian Deming.Amiot, Joseph-MarieQianlong (emperor)16, 3233, 4345, 151, 161, 167, 170, 199, 212, 231, 233, 252, 25456, 27174Qin dynasty24, 63, 181Qing dynasty14, 16, 44, 59, 70, 16768, 170, 19798, 200, 21213, 240, 253Quan Zuwang198Quérard, Joseph Marie205Quesnay, François10, 2634, 200, 2056, 20810Despotisme de la Chine26, 29, 32, 177, 200, 205manifesto31, 20810Tableau économique28Traité de la monarchie2830Traité des fièvres continues27Rameau, Jean-Philippe237, 23941, 259Ramsey, John FraserAnglo-French Relations...11ratio, combatants123Raux, Nicolas-Joseph229, 253, 263, 26970, 27374Ravaillac, François197Razumovsky, Cyril245, 267realism6, 174, 214Realpolitik10, 23, 174, 216rebellion65, 89rebels149, 161, 16364, 194, 201Recherches philosophiques (de Pauw)5657, 2045, 25657recidivism203redoubts92.fortressRéflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses (Turgot)3233Réflexions sur la musique en général et sur la musique française… (Arnaud)240regicide19697, 199200, 210Reichwein, Adolf57Rémusat, Abel271ren (仁), benevolence22, 94, 101, 169, 19091, 195, 201ren, unit of measure101Renaissance33, 193Répertoire des jésuites de Chine de 1552 à 1800 (Dehergene)226, 233, 273Retz, Franz233revolutionChinese65, 94, 163, 168, 195, 197, 2001, 210French45, 12, 21, 29, 31, 3334, 41, 167, 195, 20012, 217, 219, 227, 266, 269Polish212scientific40social29rhetoric24, 56, 94, 19394, 232Ricci, Matteo15, 48rice88, 256, 265Richmann, Georg Wilhelm245Riquetti, Victor28Rites Controversy19, 58, 176, 180, 23536rituals, China44, 196, 236, 262Rivière, Joseph32, 23031Robbins, Helen269Robien de Treulian, Pierre-Louis-Achille269Roch, Pierre-Jules22628, 230, 274Romanization, French system59Rome, Italy12, 17, 37, 202, 219, 226, 232, 242, 247, 253, 270Rousseau, Jacques224, 238, 259Roussier, Pierre-Joseph224, 24041, 25759, 267Roussillon, France227Rouvres-sur-Aube, France225Rowbotham, Arnold H.“China in the Esprit des lois: Montesquieu and Mgr. Foucquet”26Missionary and Mandarin16, 253Russia21214, 242, 246, 254Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith18, 202, 253, 260Sagittarius, constellation153Saillant, Charles Jacques247, 27273Saint-Hélier (Jersey)269Saint Maurice de Saint Leu45, 2056, 208, 214, 255sainthood195salaries, troops and officers128, 157Salins, Switzerland233Sallier, Claude24950, 267Sanjiao wenxian (Picard)224san jun (三軍), three armies/military forces96Sardinia247satire230, 257Sawyer, RalphSeven Military Classics63, 74, 105, 179“Warfare Is the Way of Deception”185scabbard212Schall von Bell, Adam1516Scheck, Catherine231, 255Scheurleer, Henri238scholarship3, 11, 31, 219schools8, 30, 181science5, 7, 1517, 2728, 30, 45, 47, 5859, 66, 71, 106, 165, 17181, 18889, 2045, 20811, 21620, 242, 25354, 264, 266, 268, 27273scientia magna (Daxue)17577, 196Scott, Hamish Marshall1013, 35seafaring226.naviesseamen11sect, Tao-ze271self-abnegation28seminary36, 22930, 23233Serre, Marie Anne225Seven Years’ War4, 69, 11, 20, 27, 100, 155, 209, 213Sèvres porcelain31, 273Shandong, China7374, 14445, 268Shang dynasty163, 186, 189, 19597, 199201Shang Yang181shang, musical note102Shao Yong271Shaoxing, China109Shaughnessy, Edward181, 187, 196Shengjing fu (Qianlong)256Shengyue jing pu260Shenyang, China202shi (士), knight/scholar-official185shi, of Tian Rangju (田穰苴)61shields3031, 56, 87, 92, 255shiji (始計), estimates78Shiji (Sima Qian)144Shizu (emperor)6465shoufu (首輔), grand secretary72Shuairan (率然), type of snake14445Shunzhi (emperor)65Siao223Siberia, Russia212sickness, of army117, 12324, 139, 142sieges7, 1516, 86, 92, 118, 122, 138, 158, 160Siku quanshu (Dai Zhen)199silk238silver85, 261Silvestre de Sacy, Jacques227Sima Bingfa62Sima Rangju (司馬穰苴)6162Simafa255Sinensis imperii libri classici sex (Nöel)199200sinology22, 43, 242sinophilia1920, 31, 216, 235sinophobia1920, 206, 254Sishu175.Lunyu, Mengzi, and Zhongyongskill, military24, 75, 89, 103, 115, 133, 157, 169, 191, 218, 249skirmishes112Smith, Adam27Society of Jesus.JesuitsSollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum (Pius vii)203Sommervogel, CarlosBibliothèque de la Compagnie de Jésus232, 248, 254Song dynasty41, 62songs, Chinese237, 239Sorbonne, University of the20soul, Chinese idea of54Sounou178Spain4, 1011, 13, 17, 232, 251Speelman, Patrick46, 8, 213sphygmology, Chinese272Spring and Autumn Annals of Wu and Yue74Standaert, Nicolas“Article du Journal étranger…”24041, 262“Chinese Christians…”251“Jesuit Corporate Culture as Shaped by the Chinese”15“Jesuits in China”1516“Ritual Dances and Their Visual Representations”240“Le rôle de l’autre dans l’expérience missionnaire…”242standard/flag88, 127, 15859Starkey, ArmstrongWar in the Age of Enlightenment...6starvation127, 139Statman, Alexander44, 189, 272Stellar Mansions, Chinese154Strategicon (Maurice)217strategy, military12, 4, 78, 1516, 21, 24, 34, 36, 39, 43, 4950, 65, 78, 80, 94, 99, 119, 168, 172, 177, 18687, 189, 194, 201, 205, 211, 214, 21620, 236, 255.tacticssuan102Suard, Jean Baptiste Antoine24041Sujo Lan273Sun, Master185Sunzi13, 22, 43, 4547, 49, 51, 5359, 6163, 6567, 69, 71, 7379, 81, 8387, 8991, 93101, 1035, 107, 109, 111, 113, 11517, 119, 12123, 125, 127, 12931, 133, 135, 137, 139, 141, 14345, 147, 149, 15155, 15759, 161, 163, 16567, 16971, 17375, 177, 179, 18191, 19397, 199201, 205, 21819, 225, 255Sun Wu61Sunzi (master Sun)13, 22, 43, 4547, 49, 51, 5359, 6163, 6567, 69, 71, 7379, 81, 8387, 8991, 93101, 1035, 107, 109, 111, 113, 11517, 119, 12123, 125, 127, 12931, 133, 135, 137, 139, 141, 14345, 147, 149, 15155, 15759, 161, 163, 16567, 16971, 17375, 177, 179, 18191, 19397, 199201, 205, 21819, 225, 255superstition79, 188sword77, 86, 93, 120, 142, 160, 212synagogue270Tableau économique (Quesnay and Mirabeau)28tactics, military8, 16, 117, 166, 213, 21720Taigong61, 163Taizong, emperor62Taizong, military classic61Taizu6465Taktiká (Leo)21718Tan Daoji6465Tang dynasty62Tao-ze, sect271tao, Taoism and Taoist182, 185, 271.daoTartar8, 2425, 44, 4647, 5152, 5556, 6570, 73, 96, 105, 107, 149, 168, 174, 201, 252, 256, 260, 26768, 270Tartar-Manchu4647, 55, 65, 6770, 73, 168, 174, 201, 260, 26768, 270Tartary235, 256, 268taxes and taxation9, 2728, 34Tchang-cheou72Tchen, YsiaLa musique chinoise en France au xviiie siècle224, 238, 240, 25860technology1516, 26temperature, military strategy115temple, Chinese256terrain, military strategy125, 13034, 13637, 139, 141, 146Terwecoren, Édouard231theater1, 4, 49theology20, 55, 66, 188, 197, 230theory, military56, 33, 55, 174, 185, 205, 211, 214, 21617, 220Thucydides6Tian (田)61Tian Rangju (田穰苴)61tian (天), heaven, weather/seasons8081, 182tianxia (天下), all under heaven, the world55, 84, 149Tibet167, 215timidity, in action100, 129, 133tolerance15, 58, 242topography, military tactic and strategy80.terrainTordesillas treaty17Torghuts212, 271Toulon, France22530, 23233, 237, 263, 266Toulouse, France229Tourgouths.TorghutsTournu, Jean-Antoine232traders39, 212tragedies, entertainment.theaterChinese50Jesuit179Traité de la monarchie (Quesnay)2830Traité de météorologie (Cotte)244Traité des fièvres continues (Quesnay)27Traité historique et dogmatique (Faivre)41traitors16364, 194, 196transportation85TreatiesPacte de famille1011Peace of Paris11of Tordesillas17tributaries, of China24950tributary, governing of113Trinity College, Lyon230, 237triumphs99, 128, 150, 158troops8, 44, 61, 6667, 7173, 75, 77, 82, 8486, 9293, 95, 97104, 10818, 120, 122, 124, 12830, 13239, 14143, 14548, 151, 15558, 169, 177, 181, 193, 207, 21213, 227, 255trustworthiness44, 67, 148, 190, 204Turandot (Puccini)238Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques10, 3234, 36Turin, Italy24547Turkestan272.Dzungariatyrannicide210.regicideUnigenitus (Clement xi)12, 19unityChinese161, 176troops84, 141Ursulines22829, 263, 269, 274valor24, 64, 74, 81, 86, 104, 113, 115, 120, 122, 133, 143, 145, 171, 190Van Kley, EdwinJansenists and the Expulsion of the Jesuits from France12“News from China”19, 168“Plots and Rumors of Plots”197Vauban (Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban)7Vegetius Renatusaphorisms and219Epitoma rei militaris172, 177, 219Verbiest, Ferdinand1617, 253, 270Verevkin, Mikhail Ivanovich246Verhaeren, Hubert37, 214Versailles, France34, 39, 202victory53, 82, 8485, 92, 9697, 99101, 108, 110, 112, 118, 124, 126, 134, 14647, 155, 158, 161, 181, 18587, 189, 191, 193, 219, 260Vienna, Austria11Villeflix, ship233vindictiveness10virtue1, 22, 28, 32, 42, 70, 8283, 94, 97, 161, 163, 186, 19091, 19495, 215cardinal190moral164, 194Visconti, Ignazio234Volga, river212VoltaireÉpître au roi de la Chine...256Essai sur les moeurs20von Clausewitz, Carl185von Hallerstein, Augustin24344“Mercurius in sole observatus …”244von Weber, Carl Maria23839wagons85, 88, 127, 153Waldron, Arthur186Waley-Cohen, Joanna“China and Western Technology... ”1516“Commemorating War”44“Militarization of Culture... ”167Wang Xi (王晳)62wang (王), king64, 148Wanli (emperor)63warfare68, 2324, 44, 57, 61, 84, 89, 96, 149, 17173, 175, 177, 18182, 18586, 18889, 192, 195, 206, 210, 217warriors43, 6364, 66, 70, 99, 103, 110, 124, 141, 146, 167, 171, 255Way (Dao)79, 8182, 97, 181183, 185186, 189weaponry112weapons43, 75, 79, 8586, 103, 113, 126, 153, 166, 203weather8081, 107, 115, 117, 126, 142, 153, 244Webb, JohnAntiquity of China25Historical Essay/ Essay2026, 36, 65, 166, 214Wei dynasty62Wei Liaozi (慰繚子)6162Wei Wudi zhu Sunzi62Weigong, title62Wendi (emperor)6465Wendui62Wilkins, John25Wilkinson, EndymionChinese History1, 88, 101, 175, 19899wisdom65, 68, 81, 84, 122, 159, 16263, 168, 183, 187, 190, 201, 218, 249Wittenberg, Germany245Wolff, Christian23women75, 7778, 86, 120, 192, 210Wong, Ming25354, 26869, 27273“La science et la technologie chinoises”25354, 27273“Mesmer en Chine…”26869, 272“Pierre-Louis-Achille…”269worship265Wu (emperor)62, 6465Wu Han65Wu, kingdom7374, 79, 109, 14445, 169Wu (prince)199wu (伍), company91wu (吾), my109wu wei er wu bu wei (無為而無不為), nothing is done but/and nothing is left undone186Wudi (emperor)6465Wujing, military classics61Wuwang (emperor)64, 163Wuzi bingfa43, 53, 170, 177, 188, 196, 205Xanten, canon of256Xenophon6, 216Xia dynasty163, 189, 194, 19697, 2001xiao, flute260xing (形), physical form97xing jun (行軍), marching122Xinjiang, China44, 167Xuan (king)94Xuanyuan (king)12324.HuangdiYang, Étienne3134., 3639, 60, 211, 21316, 236, 254Ko, Louisyang, principle of80, 83, 188.yinYangtze, river272Yi (翼), constellation15354Yi Yin16364, 194yi, unit of measure101Yin dynasty163, 194Yin, Xia minister197yin, principle of80, 83yong jian (用間), the use of spies/division157.espionageYongzheng (emperor)19, 40, 4344, 59, 61, 6970, 72, 175, 17781, 189, 2058, 255Yu Liaozi62yu (御) drive a chariot/administer/cover9697yu, musical note102Yue, kingdom74, 109, 145yue, musical instrument260yun-lo, musical instrument261Zai yu (prince)260Zeiher, Johann Ernst245, 267Zengzi71, 175, 177Zhang Liang63Zhang Yu (張預)62, 9495Zhang Tingyu72Zhejiang, China74, 109, 14445Zhen, constellation15354zhi, musical note102zhong, unit of measure88Zhongyong175, 182Zhou dynasty6265, 163, 186, 189, 19496Zhòu (emperor)19697, 199200Zhu Yuanzhang198, 200zhu (主), sovereign82zhu (銖), unit of measure101Zhuan Zhu144Zhuolu (Zhuozhou)124zu, hundred inhabitants91Zunghar212.Dzungariazuo zhan (作戰), doing battle/waging war85

The Mandate of Heaven

Strategy, Revolution, and the First European Translation of Sunzi’s Art of War (1772)

Series:

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