Figure A
Figure A

Puiga barrow group. View from the South

Figure B
Figure B

High mound on the left bank of Tsna River near village Zhelezniak. View from the North

Photo by Inna V. Islanova
Figure C
Figure C

Handmade pottery from the barrows: 1, 2 – Shikhino barrow group, barrow 2; 3 – Shikhino barrow group, barrow 1; 4 – Ivan’kovo (Chamnka) barrow group, barrow 19

Figure D
Figure D

The finds of non-ferrous metal from the barrow: 1 – the fragment of female head attire; 2 – belt plaque; 3 – buckle; 4, 5 – plaques of the female head attire; 6 – fragment of neck-ring

Figure E
Figure E

The finds of non-ferrous metal from the barrow: 1 – cross-shaped plaque from the horse tack; 2, 4–6 – shell-shaped plaques; 3 – mount with rivet; 7 – belt mount

Figure F
Figure F

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 2. The Western part of the under-floor pit with the remains of fireplace. View from the North

Photo by Inna V. Islanova
Figure G
Figure G

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 12. The down part in the virgin soil. View from Northeast

Photo be Inna V. Islanova
Figure H
Figure H

The finds from the settlement and burial site of Yurievskaia Gorka. 1–3 – facetted glass beads; 4 – clay bead; 5 – the fragment of the bracelet with widened ends; 6, 7 – rods for melting; 8 – mosaic bead; 9 – bottle-shaped pendant; 10 – triangular pendant; 11, 12 – buckles; 13 – suspension bracket with pendants; 1–4,8 – glass; 5–7, 9–11, 13 – non-ferrous metal; 12 – iron

Photo be Inna V. Islanova
Figure 1
Figure 1

The region under investigation

Figure 2
Figure 2

Strongholds and settlements of the Early Iron Age: a – strongholds, b – settlements, 1 – Lovnitsa; 2, 3 – Bologoe; 4 – Podol 1; 5 – Kaftinskii Gorodok; 6 – Borki; 7 – Kazikino; 8 – Kurovo 2; 9 – Yur’evskaia Gorka; 10 – Troitsa 1; 11 – Garusovo 2; 12 – Ryadok; 13 – Luben’kino 1; 14 – Yakhnovo; 15 – Varvarina Gora; 16 – Glybi 2; 17 – Ovsische 1; 18 – Shitovichi

Figure 3
Figure 3

The fragments of vessels with a textile surface

Figure 4
Figure 4

The finds from the settlements of Early D’iakovo culture

Figure 5
Figure 5

Ceramics of the stronghold of Varvarina Gora (according to Vladimir A. Burov)

Figure 6
Figure 6

The finds from stronghold of Varvarina Gora (according to Vladimir A. Burov) 1, 2 – non-ferrous metal; 3, 6–10 – iron; 4, 5 – clay. 1 – can-shaped bronze mount; 2 – pendant; 3 – arrow tip; 4, 5 – D’iakovo-type clay weights; 6 – sickle; 7 – flint steel; 8, 9 – knives

Figure 7
Figure 7

Three areas of concentration of the Pskov long barrows

Figure 8
Figure 8

Early Middle Ages settlements and burial sites. The numbering of sites corresponds to the numbering in . a – burial site; b – clusters of burial sites; c – burial site of unclear cultural affiliation; d – clusters of burial sites of unclear cultural affiliation; e – stronghold of the culture of Pskov long barrows; f – settlement of the culture of Pskov long barrows; g – settlement of another cultural group; h – settlement of unclear cultural affiliation; i – flat cremation graves of the culture of Pskov long barrows; j – flat cremation graves of another cultural group; k – the boundaries of areas.

Figure 9
Figure 9

A – Puiga archaeological complex, B – Diagilevo archaeological complex, a – marshland area, b – high barrow of the culture of Pskov long barrows, c – barrows of the culture of Pskov long barrows, d – settlement, e – barrowss of unclear cultural affiliation

Figure 10
Figure 10

A – Ovsische archaeological complex, B – Karzovo-Shikhino archaeological complex

Figure 11
Figure 11

Puiga burial site 1: a – a late pit; b – barrow; c – investigated barrow

Figure 12
Figure 12

Puiga archaeological complex: a – barrows, b – settlement 1 – burial site; 2 – high barrow; 3 – settlement

Figure 13
Figure 13

Ivan’kovo 1, 2, 3 burial sites (according to Alexander Kh. Repman): a – barrows; B – barrows, excavated by Alexander Kh. Repman

Figure 14
Figure 14

Garusovo 1 (Mlyovsky Bor 1) burial site: a – barrows; b – barrows, excavated by Maria V. Fekhner; c – cremated bones of destroyed burial

Figure 15
Figure 15

Shikhino burial site (by Alexander Kh. Repman): a – barrows; b – barrows, excavated by Maria V. Fekhner; c – late non-grave pits

Figure 16
Figure 16

Northern part of Shitovichi burial site: a – barrows, b – excavated barrows

Figure 17
Figure 17

Ovsische burial site: a – boundaries of the settlement 1; b – boundaries of settlement 2; c – excavation areas; d – fireplace; e – excavated barrow

Figure 18
Figure 18

Barrow 11 of the Ovsische 1 burial site: a – layer of coals with ash, b – layer of ash, c – stones, d – pottery in the burial pit, e – bones, f – layer of coals with ash in the mound sections, g – coals, h – yellow sand, i – turf, j – brown sand, k – dark brown sand, l – grey brown sand, m – dark grey sand, n – yellow brown sand, o – calcined sand

Figure 19
Figure 19

Sections of the barrow 11 of the Ovsische 1 burial site. Symbols in figure 18

Figure 20
Figure 20

Podol burial complex 1. Plan of the base level and sections. a – burial, b – turf, c – transferred turf, d – dark brown sand, e – dark grey sand with ash, f – orange sand, g – black sand with coal, h – yellow sand, i – stones

Figure 21
Figure 21

Podol burial complex (according to Igor N. Tchernykh): 1 – a piece of red ochre, 2 – skull bones, 3 – handmade vessel and its fragments, 4 – a fragment of ladle for pouring molten metal, 5 – a broken metal object, a – grey sand with ash, b – dark sand with ash and bones

Figure 22
Figure 22

Diagram of the section of barrow 16 of Shikhino burial site and reconstruction of its structure: 1 – west fill, 2 – east fill, 3 – fill.

Figure 23
Figure 23

Section of the elongated barrow 9 of the Ivan’kovo (Chamka) burial site (according to Alexander Kh. Repman): a – brown sand, b – grey sand, c – dark grey sand, d – calcined sand, e – coals, f – yellow sand, g – red sand with pebbles, h – red sand

Figure 24
Figure 24

Mednaia Gora burial and ritual complex: 2, 3, 6, 7, 37 – pit numbers; a – approximate boundaries; b – pits of ritual complex; c – pits belonging to the barrow 1; d – pits dug up before the construction of barrows; e – burial pit; f – stones; g – cross-sections; h – yellow sand, i – stones

Figure 25
Figure 25

Cross-section in North – South direction and cross-sections of pits: a – brown sand, b – grey sand, c – dark grey sand, d – calcined sand, e – coals, f – yellow sand, g – red sand with pebbles, h – red sand, i – turf

Figure 26
Figure 26

Mednaia Gora. Burial in the barrow 1: A – the fragments of the vessel; b – stones; c – burned wood; d – layer saturated with carbon; e – cluster of cremated bones

Figure 27
Figure 27

Cross-sections of the barrows of the basin of Upper Msta River: A, B – barrow group 1; C – barrow group 2; a – burnt bones; b – buried turf; C – layer saturated with carbon

Figure 28
Figure 28

Barrow 11 of Shikhino burial site (according to Maria V. Fekhner). For layer symbols, see fig. 18. Finds: 1 – beads; 2 – fragments of bronze bracelets; 3 – urn; 2, 7 – stones; 5 – iron knife; 6 – bronze ring

Figure 29
Figure 29

Barrow 27 of Shikhino burial site (according to Maria V. Fekhner). For layer symbols, see fig. 18. 1 – pottery, 2 – iron knife, 3 – iron rod

Figure 30
Figure 30

Barrow 28 of Shikhino burial site (according to Maria V. Fekhner). For layer symbols, see fig. 18. 1 – bronze ring, 2 – pottery, 3 – glass beads

Figure 31
Figure 31

Remains of wooden construction in the barrows of Shikhino burial site (according to Maria V. Fekhner): 1 – barrow 16, sectors I and II, depth – 60–95 cm; 2 – barrow 16, sectors IV and VI, depth – 45–60 cm; 3 – barrow 26, 4 – barrow 22; a – coals; b – burned wood; c – the accumulation of burnt bones; d – pottery

Figure 32
Figure 32

Barrow 1 of Parshukovo 3 burial site (according to Rostislav L. Rosenfeldt); a – sand; b – coals; c – burnt wood; d – stone and burnt bones

Figure 33
Figure 33

Barrow 2 of Parshukovo 3 burial site (according to Rostislav L. Rosenfeldt): a – pit numbers (in plan and near sections); b – sand; c – coals; d – pit; e – virgin soil

Figure 34
Figure 34

Barrow 60 of Shitovichi burial site: 1 – ground grave, a – turf, b – brown sand, c – brown-yellow sand, d – grey sand, e – yellow-grey sand, f – brown-grey sand, g – yellow sand, h – white sand, i – coals, j – dark humused sand, k – burnt bones, l – coal spots, m – items, n – stones

Figure 35
Figure 35

Sections of barrow 60 of Shitovichi burial site. For symbols, see fig. 34

Figure 36
Figure 36

Burial of Shitovichi burial site: 1 – fragments of the upper part of vessel, 2 – fragments of the lower part of vessel

Figure 37
Figure 37

Norfino burial site: a – excavation areas

Figure 38
Figure 38

Norfino burial site. Burial 1: a – boundaries of burnt bones areas, b – transferred sand and forest soil, c – black sand, d – ceramic accumulation, e – transferred sand, f – yellow sand, g – pottery, h – brown-yellow sand, i – fragments of urn, j – yellow-grey sand, k – grey sand, l – burnt bones, m – forest soil

Figure 39
Figure 39

Strongholds of the culture of the Pskov long barrows in the clusters of burial sites and settlements: a – settlement, b – burial site, c – several burial sites, d – strongholds; 1 – Yakhnovo, 2 – Varvarina Gora, 3 – Lovnitsa, 4 – Borki, 5 – Pochep (Semiki), 6 – Diagilevo, 7 – Puiga

Figure 40
Figure 40

Finds of on the strongholds of Varvarina Gora of the culture of Pskov long barrows (according to Vladimir A. Burov): 1 – iron knife; 2 -14 clay spindle whorl and fragments of spindle whorl

Figure 41
Figure 41

Pottery of the strongholds of Varvarina Gora of the culture of Pskov long barrows (according to Vladimir A. Burov)

Figure 42
Figure 42

Pottery of the culture of Pskov long barrows: 4–4, 7–10 – stronghold Lovnitsa; 5 – stronghold Borki; 6 – Barrow Zovnitsa

Figure 43
Figure 43

Schemes of the complexes “settlement – burial site”: a – settlement, b – burial site, 1 – Pochep – Garusovo (Mlyovskii Bor), 2 – Ust’e, 3 – Kuznechkovo, 4 – Bogatkovo, 5 – Dubniki, 6 – Karzovo

Figure 44
Figure 44

Gorodok 1 settlement and Mednaia Gora complex (situation plan by Vladimir A. Burov): 1 – Mednaia Gora, a – boundaries of the settlement, b – excavation area

Figure 45
Figure 45

Gorodok 1 settlement. Excavations in the southern part: 1–8 – building numbers, P – production area, a – pit, b – pit spots, c – location of the remains of buildings

Figure 46
Figure 46

Gorodok 1 settlement. Excavations in the central part. For symbols, see fig.45

Figure 47
Figure 47

Gorodok 1 settlement. Excavations in the northern part. For symbols, see fig. 45

Figure 48
Figure 48

Gorodok 1 settlement. Building 1. a – pit, b – humused spot, c – coal spot

Figure 49
Figure 49

Gorodok 1 settlement. Finds from building 1: 1–9 – pottery; 10 – iron; 11, 13 – clay; 12, 14 – non-ferrous metal (according to Vladimir A. Burov)

Figure 50
Figure 50

Gorodok 1 settlement. Building 2: a – grey brown loam, b – dark grey loam, c – brown loam, d – yellow loam, e – white loam, f – light grey loam, g – black loam, h – dark brown loam, i – calcined layer, j – ash, k – coal, l – turf

Figure 51
Figure 51

Gorodok 1 settlement. Finds from building 2: 1–3 – clay; 4, 5 – fragments of crucible; 6 – iron; 7–21 – pottery

Figure 52
Figure 52

Gorodok 1 settlement. Buildings 3 and 4

Figure 53
Figure 53

Gorodok 1 settlement. Pottery in the buildings 3 and 4

Figure 54
Figure 54

Gorodok 1 settlement. Finds from buildings 3 and 4: 1 – iron; 2 – non-ferrous metal; 3, 4 – fragments of clay ladle for pouring molten metal; 5 – nozzle fragment?; 6 – whetstone; 7 – the fragment of crucible

Figure 55
Figure 55

Gorodok 1 settlement. Building 5. Plan of pits and cross-section (according to Vladimir A. Burov)

Figure 56
Figure 56

Gorodok 1 settlement. Pottery from building 5

Figure 57
Figure 57

Gorodok 1 settlement. Pottery from building 5

Figure 58
Figure 58

Gorodok 1 settlement. Equipment from building 5: 1–6 – clay; 7, 8 – iron

Figure 59
Figure 59

Gorodok 1 settlement. Burial 6

Figure 60
Figure 60

Gorodok 1 settlement. Finds from building 6: 1–5 – pottery; 6, 7 – iron

Figure 61
Figure 61

Gorodok 1 settlement. Buildings 7 and 8: a – cluster of burned stones in building 7; b – cluster of burned stones in building 8; c – burned wood in building 8; d – humused spot in the building 7

Figure 62
Figure 62

Gorodok 1 settlement. Finds from building 7: 1–10 – pottery; 11, 12 – clay spindles whorl

Figure 63
Figure 63

Gorodok 1 settlement. “Production complex”

Figure 64
Figure 64

Gorodok 1 settlement. Findings from the “production area”: 1–5 – pottery; 6, 7 – iron; 8 – clay

Figure 65
Figure 65

Glybi 2 settlement. Plan by Igor N. Tchernykh: a – boundaries of the settlement; b – excavation area

Figure 66
Figure 66

Glybi 2 settlement. Finds: 1–10 – pottery; 11 – clay sinker; 12 – bronze chisel

Figure 67
Figure 67

Ovsishche 1 settlement: 1 – excavation area of 1998; 2 – findings; 3, 4 – stratigraphy of the excavation: a – fragments of clay object; b – clay spindle whorl; c – fragments of clay ladle for pouring molten metal; d – grey-brown sand; e – sand; f – black sand with carbon; g – dark grey sand; h – orange sand of virgin soil

Figure 68
Figure 68

Pottery of the Ovsische 1 settlement

Figure 69
Figure 69

Classification of pottery of the North-West of the Russian Plain of the 5th–8th centuries (according to Nikolai V. Lopatin)

Figure 70
Figure 70

Pottery of Gorodok 1 settlement. Type 7

Figure 71
Figure 71

Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement: 1,3,5,7–12 – type 10; 2–5 – type 7; 6 – type 8

Figure 72
Figure 72

Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement: 1–8 – form 1; 9, 10 – form 2; 11, 12 – type 8

Figure 73
Figure 73

Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement. Type 8

Figure 74
Figure 74

Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement: 1–4 – type 8; 7–9 – form 3; 5, 6 – type 11; 10 – the type is uncertain

Figure 75
Figure 75

Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement. Type 10

Figure 76
Figure 76

Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement. Type 11

Figure 77
Figure 77

Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement. Type 11

Figure 78
Figure 78

Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement. Type 11

Figure 79
Figure 79

Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement: 1,2 – form 4; 3 – form M; 4, 5, 12 – form P4; 6–9 – form Р1

Figure 80
Figure 80

Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement. Form 2

Figure 81
Figure 81

Pottery of the Gorodok 1 settlement. Form 2

Figure 82
Figure 82

Finds from burial site Ovsische 1: 1–7 – pottery from barrow 11; 8 – pottery from the robber pit on the barrow 9; 9 – bronze ring from the burial of barrow 11; 10 – the fragment iron knife from the coal layer of the base of the barrow 11

Figure 83
Figure 83

Pottery and bronze ring from Mednaia Gora burial and ritual complex

Figure 84
Figure 84

Pottery from the barrow 10 of Puiga burial site

Figure 85
Figure 85

Pottery from burial sites: 1 – flat grave Lipovitsa (Borki); 2 – burial 1 of the flat cemetery of Norfino

Figure 86
Figure 86

Pottery and items from the barrow 60 and the flat grave of Shitovichi burial site: 1, 2 – pottery from the ditch of the barrow; 3–9 – fragments of things from flat grave; 10 – vessel covering the top of the urn; 11 – handmade urn from the flat grave; 3,7,8 – fragment of bronze spiral (?) bracelet; 5, 6 – bronze spiral

Figure 87
Figure 87

Items from the barrow of Bogatkovo 2 burial site: 1 – bronze rod; 2–4 – handmade vessels

Figure 88
Figure 88

Pottery from the barrow 17 of Ivankovo (Chamka) burial site

Figure 89
Figure 89

Pottery from the barrow 19 of Ivankovo (Chamka) burial site

Figure 90
Figure 90

Finds from the barrows of Ivankovo (Chamka) burial site: 1 – the barrow number is unknown; 2 – handmade pottery from the barrow 3; 3 – bronze object from the barrow 3; 4 – bone handle from the barrow 9

Figure 91
Figure 91

Pottery from the barrow 2 of Yablon’ka 3 burial site: 1 – drawing by Yuriy A. Kobozev

Figure 92
Figure 92

Finds from the barrow 2 of the Yablon’ka 3 burial site: 1–7 – non-ferrous metal plaques; 9 – melted glass bead

Figure 93
Figure 93

Pottery from Shikhino burial site: 1 – barrow 1; 2 – barrow 6; 3,4 – barrow 2

Figure 94
Figure 94

Finds from the barrow 1 of Shikhino burial site: 1–11, 13 – layer with cremated bones; 12, 14 – upper fill; 1, 5–9 – non-ferrous metal; 2–4 – non-ferrous metal and iron; 10, 12, 13 – iron; 11, 14 – clay

Figure 95
Figure 95

Finds from the barrow 16 of Shikhino burial site: 1, 2 – non-ferrous metal; 3, 7–9 – clay; 4–6 – iron

Figure 96
Figure 96

Finds from Shikhino burial site: A – barrow 13: 1 – burial urn; 2,3 – iron, B – barrow 24: 4 – clay disk (?); 5 – non-ferrous metal

Figure 97
Figure 97

Finds from the barrow 17 of Shikhino burial site: 1, 2, 4, 5 – non-ferrous metal; 3 – iron; 6, 7 – ceramics

Figure 98
Figure 98

Finds from the barrow 25 of Shikhino burial site: 1–6, 8 – non-ferrous metal; 7, 9–11 – iron

Figure 99
Figure 99

Finds from the barrows of Shikhino burial site: a – barrow 27; b – barrow 20; c – barrow 28; 1–5 – iron; 6 – non-ferrous metal

Figure 100
Figure 100

Finds from the barrows of the Garusovo (Mlyovsky Bor 1) and Diagilevo (Ryzhakovo) burial sites: Mlyovsky Bor 1: A – barrow 5, B – barrow 2, C – barrow 1, D – barrow 23, E – barrow 20; Dyagilevo: F – barrow 17; 1–14 – non-ferrous metal, 15, 16 – bone

Figure 101
Figure 101

Finds from the barrows of Berezino burial site: A – barrow 8; B – barrow 10; 1–3, 5, 8, 9 – non-ferrous metal; 4, 6 – glass; 7 – iron; 10 – ceramics

Figure 102
Figure 102

Podol burial site: 1 – burial 2; 2 – burial 3; 3 – embankment; 4 – outside the barrow; 6 – soil from the modern pit; 1 – non-ferrous metal; 2 – bone; 3, 4 – ceramics; 5, 7 – iron

Figure 103
Figure 103

Findings from the flat grave of Podol burial site: 1 – upper part of vessel from flat grave, lower part – from barrow fill; 3 – clay spindles whorl; 4 – clay ladle for pouring molten metal

Figure 104
Figure 104

Finds from the barrow 20 of Puiga burial site: 1 – ceramics; 2,3 – iron buckles

Figure 105
Figure 105

Finds from Early Middle Ages sites: 1.13,20,21 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 2 – Berezino burial site, barrow 8; 3 – Podol burial site, flatd grave; 4 – Shikhino burial site, barrow 28; 5 – Kuzhenkino burial site, barrow (without number); 6 – Beriozovsky Riadok burial site, barrow 5; 7, 7a, 8, 15–18 – Shikhino burial site, barrow 1; 9, 10, 14 – Mlyovskii Bor 1 burial site, barrow 20; 12 – Shitovichi burial site, ground burial; 19 – Mlyovskii Bor 1 burial site, barrow 23; 1–10, 12–14, 17–23 – non-ferrous metal; 11, 15, 16 – iron rod wrapped with bronze wire. 1–6, 18 – holders and its fragments for the head attire; 7, 7a, 11, 15,16 – neck-ring fragment; 8, 19 – tubes; 12, 13 – spirals; 17 – head attire; 20, 21 – pendants

Figure 106
Figure 106

Finds made of non-ferrous metal from the Early Middle Ages monuments: 1, 2 – Shikhino, barrow 16; 3, 4, 11 – Shikhino, barrow 17; 5–9 – Shitovichi, ground burial, 10 – Shikhino, barrow 26; 12 – Shihino, barrow 30; 1, 2, 4–11 – the fragment of bracelet; 12 – neck-ring fragment

Figure 107
Figure 107

Finds from early Middle Ages sites: 1 – Shikhino, barrow 17; 2 – Mednaia Gora, ditch of the barrow 1; 3, 14, 15 – Berezino, barrow 8; 4 – Mlyovsky Bor 1, barrow 20; 6 – Podol, flat grave; 8 – Ryzhakovo, barrow 17; 9 – Ovsische, barrow 11; 10, 12, 16, 19 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 17 – Ivankovo (Chamka), barrow 9; 18 – Shikhino, barrow 28; 20–22 – Yablonka 3, barrow 2; 23 – Diagilevo (Ryzhakovo), barrow 17; 1–6, 9 – non-ferrous metal; 7, 8, 17, 23 – bone; 10, 11, 14–16, 18, 20–22 – glass; 12, 13, 19 – clay. 1–6, 9 – rings and fragments; 7, 8 – fragments of combs; 10–16, 18–22 – beads; 17 – handle

Figure 108
Figure 108

Finds from Early Middle Ages sites: 1 – Mlyovskii Bor 1, barrow 1; 2 – Mlyovskii Bor 1, barrow 2; 3, 4 – Puiga 1, barrow 20; 5 – Shikhino, barrow 25; 6 – Shikhino, barrow 13; 7 – Shikhino, barrow 30; 8 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 9 – Shikhino, barrow 16; 10,12,13 – Shikhino, barrow 1; 11 – Podol, burial ground; 1,2,5, 10,13 – non-ferrous metal; 3,4, 7–9, 11,12 – iron; 1–10, 12,13 – buckles and their parts; 11 – rod

Figure 109
Figure 109

Finds from early Middle Ages sites: 1–3 – Mlyovskii Bor 1, barrow 3; 4 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 5–7 – Mlyovskii Bor 1, barrow 5; 8 – Shikhino, barrow 16; 9 – Shikhino, barrow 25; 10, 13 – Berezino, barrow 8; 11 – Shikhino, barrow 25; 12 – Shikhino, barrow 1; 14, 15 – Beriozovskii Riadok, barrow 5; 16–18 – Yablon’ka 3, barrow 2; 1–7, 10–18 – non-ferrous metal; 8 – iron, 4, 8 – plaques; 5, 9, 12, 13 – holders; 6, 7, 17, 18 – shell-shaped plaques; 11 – metal plaque; 14, 16 – plaques with umbo; 10, 15 – plaques

Figure 110
Figure 110

Iron knives from the Early Middle Ages sites: 1–5 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 6–9 – Kuzhenkino burial site

Figure 111
Figure 111

Iron knives from the early Middle Ages sites: 1 – Beriozovskii Riadok, barrow 5; 2 – Shikhino, barrow 17; 3 – Shikhino, barrow 16; 4 – Shikhino, barrow 28; 5 – Shikhino, barrow 30; 6 – Berezino, barrow 8; 7 – Shikhino, barrow 27

Figure 112
Figure 112

Chisel-shaped flint-steels from early Middle Ages burial sites: 1 – Shikhino, barrow 27; 2,3 – Shikhino, barrow 25; 4 – Kuzhenkino

Figure 113
Figure 113

Iron objects from the early Middle Ages sites: 2–5,7,9 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 1 – Podol burial site; 8 – Shikhino burial site, barrow 1; 1, 4–9 – awls; 2 – the fragment of an axe blade; 3 – fishing hook

Figure 114
Figure 114

Iron objects from early Middle Ages sites: 1 – iron horse comb from the barrow 25 of Shikhino burial site; 2 – sickle from the Gorodok 1 settlement

Figure 115
Figure 115

Clay objects from the Early Middle Ages sites: 1–4, 7.8 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 5 – Ovsische 1 settlement; 9 – burial ground Podol. 1 – casting mold; 2–9 – fragments of clay ladle

Figure 116
Figure 116

Clay spindle whorls from early Middle Ages sites: 1–23.26 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 25 – Ovsische 1 settlement; 24 – flat grave Podol

Figure 117
Figure 117

Clay spindle whorls from early Middle Ages sites: 1–3, 5–20, 22 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 4 – Shikhino burial site, barrow 16; 21 – Boldyrevo locality

Figure 118
Figure 118

Clay spindle whorls from early Middle Ages sites: 1 – Gorodok 1 settlement; 2–4 – Glybi 2 settlement; 5 – Shikhino burial site, barrow 1

Figure 119
Figure 119

Yurievskaia Gorka. Stronghold, settlement and burial site: a – settlement; B – flat graves; c – excavation area

Figure 120
Figure 120

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Western excavations: 1–9 – numbering of buildings; a – pits in the virgin soil; b – pits from pillars

Figure 121
Figure 121

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. East excavations: 10–26 – numbering of buildings

Figure 122
Figure 122

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Central excavations: 27–31 – building numbering

Figure 123
Figure 123

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 1. A – pits in the virgin soil; B – humused spots; C – contours of stone clusters; D – contours of ceramic clusters

Figure 124
Figure 124

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from buildings: a – building 5; b – building 2; c – building 1

Figure 125
Figure 125

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 2

Figure 126
Figure 126

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 3

Figure 127
Figure 127

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 4

Figure 128
Figure 128

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 5

Figure 129
Figure 129

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 6

Figure 130
Figure 130

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 13

Figure 131
Figure 131

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 7

Figure 132
Figure 132

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from building 7

Figure 133
Figure 133

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 10

Figure 134
Figure 134

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 11

Figure 135
Figure 135

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from c buildings. a – building 29; b – building 11

Figure 136
Figure 136

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 12: a – brown sand; b – grey sand; c – sand with carbon; d – black sand; e – turf; f – coals; g – ashes; h – white sand; J – yellow sand; k – stones; l – accumulation of small stones; m – coal spots; n – a cluster of pottery

Figure 137
Figure 137

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from building 12

Figure 138
Figure 138

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from building 12

Figure 139
Figure 139

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 14

Figure 140
Figure 140

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from building 14

Figure 141
Figure 141

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 17

Figure 142
Figure 142

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from buildings: a – building 17; b – building 19

Figure 143
Figure 143

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 19

Figure 144
Figure 144

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Production building N

Figure 145
Figure 145

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 20

Figure 146
Figure 146

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Buildings 21 and 21a

Figure 147
Figure 147

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Buildings 22 and 23

Figure 148
Figure 148

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 24

Figure 149
Figure 149

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 25

Figure 150
Figure 150

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 26

Figure 151
Figure 151

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Finds from buildings 28 and 28a

Figure 152
Figure 152

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 29

Figure 153
Figure 153

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 30

Figure 154
Figure 154

Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Building 31

Figure 155
Figure 155

Pottery of the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–5, 10–13 – form 2; 6, 7 – form 5; 8, 9, 15, 18 – type 7; 14 – Form 1

Figure 156
Figure 156

Pottery of the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Type 7

Figure 157
Figure 157

Pottery of the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement. Type 10

Figure 158
Figure 158

Pottery of the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1, 12–17 – P1 form; 2, 6, 7, 9 – form 4; 3, 4 – form 1; 5 – form 1; 11 – form Р2

Figure 159
Figure 159

Pottery of the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1, 4, 5 – type 9; 2, 3 – type 8

Figure 160
Figure 160

Pottery of the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–3, 7–9 – form 3; 4–6 – form M; 10, 11 – covers; 12 – form 2

Figure 161
Figure 161

Finds from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–11, 13–15 glass; 12.16, 17 – clay; 18–29 non-ferrous metal. 1–17 – beads; 18, 19 – metal scrap; 20 – a fragment of an unclear object; 21 – pendant; 22 – neck-ring fragment; 23, 24 – the fragments of tube; 25 – ring; 26 – the fragment of bracelet; 27, 28 – pendants; 29 – plaque from the head attire

Figure 162
Figure 162

Finds from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–4, 6–17, 19–22 – iron; 5, 18 – non-ferrous metal; 1, 7, 7a, 8.10, 11, 12, 19, 20, 22 – uncertain objects; 2 – top of the handle; 3,4 – the tongues of buckles; 5, 9, 13,14 – buckles and buckle fragments; 6 –plaque on the belt; 15 – fragments of the rings from the chain armor (?); 16, 18 – needles (?); 17 – tweezers; 21 – arrow

Figure 163
Figure 163

Findings from iron from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1, 3 – rivets; 2 – chain armor fragment; 3 – 16 – knives and fragments of knives

Figure 164
Figure 164

Findings from iron from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1, 2 – rivets; 3–7, 10 – prickers; 8.9 – fragment of horse bit; 11, 14 – fragments of axes; 12, 13, 17, 19 – uncertain objects; 15, 16 – hooks; 17 – rod

Figure 165
Figure 165

Clay finds from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–11 – spindle whorls; 12 – the fragment of nozzle from furnace

Figure 166
Figure 166

Clay finds from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–4.6-10 – spindle whorls; 5 – uncertain objects

Figure 167
Figure 167

Finds from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–3, 5–14 – clay; 4, 5 – stone; 1,3,6,11, 14 – uncertain objects; 2 – toy fragment; 4, 5, – whetstones; 7–10, 12,13 – fragments of crucibles

Figure 168
Figure 168

Finds from the Yurievskaia Gorka settlement: 1–5 non-ferrous metal; 6–9 – stone; 10–14 – clay; 1–5 – metal scrap; 6–9 – molds for casting of non-ferrous metal objects; 10–14 – ladle for pouring molten metal and fragments of ladles

Figure 169
Figure 169

Things from the burials of the Yurievskaia Gorka burial site: 1, 4 – burial 3; 2 – burial 5; 3 – burial 2; 1 – bronze spiral; 2 – iron arrow; 3 – the fragment of bronze bracelet; 4 – clay spindle whorl

Figure 170
Figure 170

Yurievskaia Gorka burial site: 1 – 8 – fixed burials; a, b, c – destroyed burials

Figure 171