Hellenistic Judaism was diverse in thought, practice, and social organization. One issue that exemplifies its complexity is animal sacrifice. This chapter examines one group's view of sacrifice, namely the Essenes as described by Josephus. A textual analysis of Ant. 18.19 is performed in order to understand its overall context. The chapter argues for the possible connection of the Essenes with the larger movement associated with the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS). If, in fact, this latter connection can be made, then insight concerning the cultic ideology of the entire DSS movement (which includes the later Qumran community) can be determined. There are no less than two streams of thought concerning the cultic ideology. With this in mind, Josephus' description also needs to be investigated alongside the texts of the DSS movement, most notably the sectarian texts of the DSS.