Anna Seghers was the only female participant in the so-called Expressionism debate. She was among the artists and writers who voiced their concerns openly. She defends Modernism in two open letters to Georg Lukács, who originally provided theoretical justification of the Doctrine of Socialist Realism. Although a loyal communist Seghers was not to be deterred from using Modernist techniques in Transit and Das Siebte Kreuz, her most important exile novels. Especially in Transit she depicts the plight of the refugees by using montage, fragmentation and stream of consciousness technique.