Traditional approaches to European citizenship emphasize a break with the nation-state model of citizenship. Theorists in this paradigm have used the idea of European citizenship to refer to postnational or supranational identity. They imagine the future of the Euro-Polity with the help of new concepts. After a brief review of theories and concepts, this article critically examines another conception of European citizenship. It evaluates the future of European citizenship understood in terms of a continuity with nation-state identity and citizenship. The scope of civic membership is defined with reference to a socio-historical analysis of its genesis, highlighting its specificity by presenting the fundamental concepts on which it is based (rights and duties, political identity, democratic pluralism, moral code and social cohesion).