ContentsAcknowledgements IXList of Illustrations XIContributors and Editors XIIAn Introduction: Political Representation Communities, Ideas and Institutions in Europe (c. 1200–c. 1690) 1Mario Damen, Jelle Haemers and Alastair J. MannTop-down or Bottom-up? Princes, Communities and RepresentationAssemblies of Estates and Parliamentarism in Late Medieval Europe 19Peter HoppenbrouwersPolitical Representation and the Fiscal State in Late Medieval and Early Modern Castile 54María Asenjo-GonzálezForms of Political Representation in Late Medieval Northern Italy Merits and Shortcomings of the City-State Paradigm (14th–early 16th Century) 69Marco GentileRepresentation in Later Medieval and Early Modern Ireland 85Coleman A. DennehySpeaking in the Name of Collective Action, Claim-making, and the Development of Pre-modern Representative Institutions 106Tim NeuPrelates, Nobles and Patricians: The Composition of the Representative InstitutionsThe King wishes and commands?” Reassessing Political Assembly in Scotland, c.1286–1329 125Michael PenmanOfficers of State and Representation in the Pre-modern Scottish Parliament 142Alastair J. MannThe Nobility in the Estates of the Late Medieval Duchy of Brabant 161Mario DamenRepresentation by Numbers How Attendance and Experience Helped Holland to Control the Dutch States General (1626–1630) 182Ida NijenhuisControlling the State: Ideas and DiscoursesThe Antwerp Clerk Jan van Boendale and the Creation of a Brabantine Ideology 205Robert SteinRituals of Unanimity and Balance: Deliberation in 15th- to 16th-century Hainaut A Fool’s Game? 225Marie Van EeckenrodeSpeech Acts and Political Communication in the Estates General of Valois and Habsburg Burgundy c. 1370–1530 Towards a Shared Political Language 240Jan Dumolyn and Graeme SmallParliament, War and the “Public Sphere” in Late Medieval England The Experience of Lancastrian Kent 267David GrummittWho Has a Say? The Conditions for the Emergence and Maintenance of Political Participation in Europe before 1800 285Wim BlockmansConclusion Reconsidering Political Representation in Europe, 1400–1700 309Mario Damen, Jelle Haemers and Alastair J. MannSelective Bibliography 319Index 321