Free access


  1. 0.1Tisha be-Av, Sefer Minhagim, Amsterdam: Herts Levi Rofe, 1723 VII
  2. 1.1Military camp of Rameses II at Qedesh (Abu Simbel), mid-13th century b c e. Within the rectangular enclosure is a two-part tent: a square inner part for the pharaoh, whose golden throne is flanked by winged cherubim, as is the ark representing a throne for Yahweh in the inner sanctum of the tabernacle; and an outer part serving as a reception room 8
  3. 1.2Layout and orientation of the tabernacle, compared with Rameses II’s military tent at Abu Simbel, mid-13th century b c e. The layout, proportions, and eastward orientation of the Egyptian camp provide a close parallel to those of the tabernacle 9
  4. 1.3Reconstruction of the horned sacrificial altar at Beersheba, 9th–8th centuries b c e 15
  5. 1.4Decorated portable wooden chest (0.83 m. long, 0.61 m. wide, 0.64 m. high) with rings and carrying poles, originally holding ritual objects, from the tomb of Tutankhamen, ruled 1332–1323 b c e 16
  6. 2.1Temple of Solomon, model by Leen Ritmeyer, Yeshiva University Museum 29
  7. 2.2Bronze wheeled stand, Cyprus, c. 1225–1110 b c e. British Museum 36
  8. 2.3Boundary stone, Babylon, Kassite dynasty, c. 1125–1100 b c e. British Museum 41
  9. 2.4Incense altar, Megiddo, 9th century b c e. Israel Museum, Jerusalem 44
  10. 3.1Herodian Temple Mount, model by Michael Avi Yonah, Israel Museum, Jerusalem 56
  11. 3.2Inscription from the Herodian Temple: “Let no foreigner enter within the parapet and the partition which surrounds the Temple precincts. Anyone caught [violating] will be held accountable for his ensuing death.” Istanbul Archaeological Museum 63
  12. 3.3Arch of Titus, Rome, c. 81 CE, relief of the Spoils of Jerusalem, showing the menorah and table of the showbread taken from the Temple in Jerusalem 65
  13. 3.4Arch of Titus Rome, c. 81 CE, relief of the Spoils of Jerusalem, reconstructed and colorized by the Yeshiva University Arch of Titus Project 66
  14. 4.1Model of the Herodian Temple Shrine, Israel Museum, Jerusalem 73
  15. 4.2Model of the Herodian Temple, southern wall, Israel Museum, Jerusalem 76
  16. 4.3Tomb of the Patriarchs, Hebron 77
  17. 4.4Geometric bas relief fragment from within the Hulda Gate of the Herodian Temple 78
  18. 4.5Herodian Temple Mount, southwest corner, with Robinson’s Arch 79
  19. 4.6Dedicatory inscription by [S]paris son of Akeson of Rhodes who donated pavement to the Herodian Temple 79
  20. 4.7Aerial view of the Temple Mount 84
  21. 4.8Reconstructed opus sectile pavement thought to derive from the Herodian Temple 86
  22. 4.9Model of the Herodian Temple by Leen Ritmeyer 93
  23. 5.1The Synagogue of Magdala, Galilee, 1st century C E 98
  24. 5.2Hammath Tiberias B Synagogue mosaic, 5th century 107
  25. 5.3Dura Europos Synagogue, Syria, c. 256 CE, model created under the direction of Rachel Wischnitzer, Yeshiva University Museum 108
  26. 5.4Kefar Baram Synagogue, Upper Galilee, 5th century 110
  27. 5.5Umm al-Qanatir Synagogue, Golan Heights, 6th century 112
  28. 5.6Torah Shrine Aedicula, Nabratein Synagogue, Upper Galilee, 3rd century 112
  29. 5.7Seven branched menorah, Hammath Tiberias A Synagogue, 5th century 113
  30. 5.8Beth Alpha Synagogue mosaic, Jezreel Valley, 6th century 115
  31. 5.9Model of the Beth Alpha Synagogue, 6th century, model created under the direction of Rachel Wischnitzer, Yeshiva University Museum 116
  32. 5.10Synagogue of Ostia Antica, Port of Rome, Torah Shrine, 6th century 119
  33. 6.1Capital with menorahs, Corinth, 5–6th century CE 122
  34. 6.2Column drum with a cross superimposed on a menorah, Laodicea, 5–6th century CE (also on image tombstone) 123
  35. 6.3Synagogue and apse, Sardis, 4–7th century CE 124
  36. 6.4Synagogue aediculae, Sardis 125
  37. 6.5Synagogue remains, Priene, 5–7th century CE 127
  38. 6.6Synagogue niche, Priene 127
  39. 6.7Plaque with a menorah, Priene 128
  40. 6.8Plaque with menorah and birds, Priene Synagogue 129
  41. 6.9Synagogue menorah plaque, Andriake, 4–6th century CE 130
  42. 6.10Synagogue, Andriake 131
  43. 7.1Ben Ezra Synagogue, Cairo, 11th century, carved wooden ark door quoting Ps. 118 138
  44. 7.2Ben Ezra Synagogue, Cairo, interior 139
  45. 8.1Synagogue of Santa Cruz, Seville, 14th century 154
  46. 8.2Santa María La Blanca, Toledo, interior, 1205 155
  47. 8.3Synagoga Mayor, Segovia, interior, 13th century 156
  48. 8.4Synagogue of Isaac Mehab, Cordóba, 1314/5 157
  49. 8.5El Tránsito Synagogue, Toledo, ark wall, c. 1357 160
  50. 8.6Lorca Synagogue, first half of the 15th century 161
  51. 8.7Lorca Synagogue, Cathedra, first half of the 15th century 162
  52. 8.8Tomar Synagogue, 15th century, interior 163
  53. 9.1Worms Synagogue, 11th century, exterior view, reconstructed 170
  54. 9.2Worms Synagogue, 11th century, interior view, reconstructed 170
  55. 9.3Interior of the Altneuschul, Prague, Czech Republic, c. 1270, interior view with the banner of the Prague Jewish community 172
  56. 9.4Altneuschul, Prague, Czech Republic, c. 1270, exterior 173
  57. 9.5Albrecht Altdorfer, interior of the Regensburg Synagogue, engraving, 1519 178
  58. 9.6Pinkas Synagogue, Prague, Czech Republic, 1535, exterior view 179
  59. 9.7Pinkas Synagogue, Prague, Czech Republic, 1535, interior view 181
  60. 10.1Isidor Kaufmann, Portal of the Rabbis (entrance door and west wall, view from the prayer house, Gwoździec Synagogue, mid-17th century; polychromy: 1650–1729). Painting c. 1897/1898, Magyar Nemzeti Galeria, Budapest 185
  61. 10.2Gwoździec Synagogue (Ukrainian: Hvizdets’), built: mid-17th century; polychromy: 1650–1729, view from the southeast. Albumen print by Alois Breyer, 1910–13. Collection Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Gift of Alois Breyer, Baden bei Wien, 1937 186
  62. 10.3Ioannes Baptista Villalpandus and Hieronymus Pradus, Temple of Jerusalem plan, nine-bay ground plan, In Ezechielem explanationes et apparatus urbis ac templi Hierosolimitani. Commentarii et emaginibus illustratus opus (Rome, 1604) 188
  63. 10.4J.J. Leon (Jacob Judah Aryeh Leon [Templo]), Temple of Solomon, Retrato del Templo de Selomoh (Middleburg: Symon Moulert, 1642), color-engraving, foldout 189
  64. 10.5Gwoździec Synagogue (Ukrainian: Hvizdets’), mid-17th century; polychromy: 1650–1729, longitudinal section (C-D), view toward the south, bimah. India ink and watercolor by Alois Breyer, 1910–1913, Collection Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Gift of Alois Breyer, Baden bei Wien, 1937 193
  65. 10.6Synagogue, Hebrew illuminated manuscript, Mahzor of Italian rite, northern Italy, probably Reggio, Emilia, 1465–1470, interior view. Part II, G. Weill Collection, Jerusalem (first Part I, National Library of Israel, Jerusalem, Ms. Heb. 8 4450), fol. 1r 194
  66. 10.7Chodorów Synagogue (Ukrainian: Khodoriv), built: mid-17th century; polychromy: 1714–47, Lion and Unicorn, west wall painting. Albumen print by Alois Breyer, 1910–1913, Collection Tel Aviv Museum of Art, Gift of Alois Breyer, Baden bei Wien, 1937 196
  67. 10.8Solomon Yudovin, A Hasidic Zaddik, Slavuta (Ukraine), 1912–1913, albumen print. The Isidore and Anne Falk Information Center for the Jewish Art and Life Wing, Israel Museum, Jerusalem: 03-816-9. The title as inscribed by Yudovin 204
  68. 10.9Marc Chagall, The Volozhin Yeshiva, illustration to the Yiddish poem “Weariness” by Abraham Walt (pseudonym: A. Lyesin), in A. Lyesin, Collected Poems. (New York, 1938), 1:104 205
  69. 10.10Sir Frank Brangwyn (1867–1956), The Synagogue, Belz, c. 1935, dry point, 17 x 25 cm. The British Council Collection, London, P2695 206
  70. 11.1Wedding stone from the old synagogue in Eppingen 211
  71. 11.2Wedding ceremony (note the cup being thrown to the wedding stone) Johann Christoph Georg Bodenschatz, Kirchliche Verfassung der heutigen Juden sonderlich derer in Deutschland (Frankfurt am Main and Leipzig: Johann Friedrich Beckers, 1748–1749) vol. 4, after p. 126 212
  72. 11.3New Year prayer, Paul Christian Kirchner, Sebastian Jungendres, Jüdisches Ceremoniel, oder Beschreibung dererjenigen Gebräuche … Nicht weniger aus den besten Scribenten so wol, als aus Erzehlung glaubwürdiger Personen und selbst eigener Erfahrung, um vieles vermehret und mit Anmerkungen erläutert (Nürnberg: Monath: 1724) after p. 108 213
  73. 11.4Inscriptions from the synagogue in Unterlimpurg, painted 1739 214
  74. 11.5Inscriptions from the synagogue in Georgensgmünd, painted in the 18th century 215
  75. 11.6German synagogue, Bernard Picart, Cérémonies et coutumes religieuses de tous les peuples du monde, 8 vols. (Amsterdam, J. F. Bernard, 1737), Vol. 7, Suplement et corrections, after p. 12 216
  76. 12.1Square between Portuguese and High German synagogue complex, The Netherlands, unknown 222
  77. 12.2Interior of first Portuguese Synagogue, Amsterdam, Jan Veenhuysen, 1662 222
  78. 12.3Engraving from Jacob Judah Leon De Templo Hierosolymitano, libri IV, Helmstedt, 1665 223
  79. 12.4Emanuel de Witte, Interior of the Portuguese Synagogue of Amsterdam, 1680 224
  80. 12.5Portuguese Synagogue, Amsterdam 225
  81. 12.6Charenton Temple, France, unknown, 1648, interior 226
  82. 12.7Jewish Savannah on the Surinam River, Brussels, 1839. Pierre Jacques Benoit 232
  83. 12.8Touro Synagogue, Newport, RI, 1763. Architect: Peter Harrison 235
  84. 12.9Touro Synagogue, Newport, RI, 1763. Architect: Peter Harrison, interior 235
  85. 13.1The Ancient Synagogue of Aleppo, Syria, early 20th century, the interior and prayer benches 240
  86. 13.2Simon Kanoui, The Great Synagogue of Oran, Algeria, 1950: forefront and entrance 242
  87. 13.3The Central Synagogue of Benghazi, Libya, early 20th century, reading podium and the central courtyard surrounded by columns 244
  88. 13.4Asad Afandi, The Hurva Synagogue, Jerusalem, mid-19th century 246
  89. 13.5Unknown architect, La-Geriba Synagogue, Djerba, Tunisia, mid-20th century: the richly ornamented and well lit prayer hall 247
  90. 13.6Victor Valensi, The Great Synagogue in Tunis, Tunisia, mid-20th century: forefront and entrance 248
  91. 13.7Simon Kanoui, The Great Synagogue of Oran, Algeria, 1920: interior and central reading podium 253
  92. 13.8Tomb of Ezekiel, Al Kifl, Iraq, 1932: Jews standing in front of the main structure 256
  93. 14.1Paradesi Synagogue, Kochi-Mattancherry, Kerala, India, built 1568; repaired 1660s; enlarged and altered in 18th century; restored in 20th century, 2004, clock tower exterior 260
  94. 14.2Parur Synagogue, Parur (Paravur), Kerala, India, built 1164; rebuilt 1616; rebuilt 1662; rebuilt early 19th century; restored 2010–13, 2012, gatehouse during restoration 262
  95. 14.3Parur Synagogue, Parur (Paravur), Kerala, India, built 1164; rebuilt 1616; rebuilt 1662; rebuilt early 19th century; restored 2010–13, 2013, breezeway 263
  96. 14.4Chendamangalam Synagogue, Chendamangalam (Chendamangalam), Kerala, India, built 1420 or 1565; rebuilt 1614; rebuilt 1661; rebuilt early 19th century; restored 2004–5, 2010, interior, including tebah and hekhal 264
  97. 14.5Kadavumbagam Synagogue, Kochi-Ernakulam, Kerala, India, original synagogue dating perhaps to 13th century, rebuilt in Kochi-Ernakulam in early 18th and early 19th centuries; 2015, gallery 266
  98. 14.6Parur Synagogue, Parur (Paravur), Kerala, India, built 1164; rebuilt 1616; rebuilt 1662; rebuilt early 19th century; restored 2010–13, 2013, meḥizah and second tebah on gallery level 267
  99. 14.7Ohel David Synagogue, Pune, Maharashtra, India, 1867, 2012, exterior 269
  100. 14.8Magen David Synagogue, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, 1861, 2009, exterior 270
  101. 14.9Beth El Synagogue, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, 1860s, 2017, interior 271
  102. 14.10Shaar Harahamin Synagogue, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, built 1796; rebuilt mid-19th century, 2004, exterior 272
  103. 14.11Beth Ha-Elohim Synagogue, Pen, Maharashtra, India, 1893, 2008, exterior 273
  104. 15.1Cherasco, Piedmont, Italy, Synagogue, possibly 1797, interior view 279
  105. 15.2Casale Monferrato, Italy, Synagogue, interior view of ark wall 281
  106. 15.3Giuseppe del Rosso, Synagogue, Siena, Italy, 1786, interior view 281
  107. 15.4Marco Treves, Mariano Falcini and Vincente Micheli, Tempio Maggiore Israelitico (Great Synagogue), Florence, Italy, 1874–82, façade 283
  108. 15.5Armanni and Costa, architects, Tempio Israelitico (Great Synagogue), Rome, Italy 1904, façade 284
  109. 15.6Ponevezh Yeshiva, Bnei Braq, Israel 285
  110. 16.1Eduard Knoblauch and Friedrich August Stüler, New Synagogue on Oranienbergerstrasse, Berlin, 1866 293
  111. 16.2Henry Fernbach, Central Synagogue (Congregation Ahavath Chesed), New York, 1872 294
  112. 16.3Emmanuel Klotz, Great Synagogue (Velká Synagoga), Plzen, Czech Republic, 1892 297
  113. 16.4Emmanuel Klotz, Great Synagogue (Velká Synagoga), Plzen, Czech Republic, completed 1892, nave showing women’s balcony and the Torah ark 298
  114. 16.5Wilhelm Stiassny, Jubilee Synagogue/Jerusalem Synagogue, Prague (Jubilejní synagoga/Jerusalemska synagoga) 300
  115. 16.6Peter Jürgensen, Jügen Bachmann, Friedberger Anlage Synagogue/irg Frankfurt Synagogue, Frankfurt am Main, 1907 301
  116. 16.7Robert D. Kohn. Congregation Emanu-El, New York, 1929 304
  117. 16.8Charles B. Meyers Associates, Yeshiva College (now Yeshiva University), New York, 1928 305
  118. 16.9Julian Zachariewicz. Czernowitz Temple (now Kinopalats Chernivtsi), 1878 306
  119. 17.1Richard Neutra, Vienna-Hietzing Synagogue Project, 1924 309
  120. 17.2Eric Mendelsohn, B‘nai Amoona, St. Louis, MO, 1947, model 313
  121. 17.3Eric Mendelsohn, Park Synagogue, Cleveland, OH, dome 314
  122. 17.4Eric Mendelsohn, Park Synagogue, Cleveland, OH, interior 315
  123. 17.5Percival Goodman, Fairmont Temple, Cleveland, OH, 1957, interior with sculpture by Ibram Lassaw 316
  124. 17.6Percival Goodman, Temple Beth Sholom, Miami, FL, 1956 317
  125. 17.7Frank Lloyd Wright, Beth Shalom Synagogue, Elkins Park, PA, 1959 318
  126. 17.8Angelo di Castro, Synagogue of Livorno, Italy, 1962 322
  127. 17.9Angelo di Castro, Synagogue of Livorno, Italy, 1962, interior 323
  128. 17.10Zvi Hecker, Synagogue at the military academy campus in Mitzpeh Ramon, Israel, 1969–71 325
  129. 17.11Philip Katz, Congregation Emanu-El B’ne Jeshurun, Milwaukee, WI, 2010 330
  130. 18.1770 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, NY, façade, 1930s 338
  131. 18.2Beis HaMidrash HaGadol, Jerusalem, Israel, completed 2000 (also on image tombstone) 341
  132. 18.3Synagogue, Belz, Ukraine, 1843 341
  133. 18.4Synagogue, Kiryas Yoel, NY, 2011, interior 348
  134. 18.5Kiryas Yoel, NY, 2007 348
  135. 19.1Wooden Sukkah, decorated with oil paintings, Fischach, southern Germany, shortly after 1837 354
  136. 19.2Initial word panel “Aamitz” from the Laud Mahzor, southern Germany, c. 1290 355
  137. 19.3Sukkah, Isaiah de Trani the Younger, Pisqey Isaiah, 1374, Italy 357
  138. 19.4A scene of the festival of Sukkot from a northern Italian mahzor, province of Emilia, c. 1465–1470 359
  139. 19.5Initial word panel Akhtir, Hammelburg Mahzor, Germany, c. 1348 360
  140. 19.6Sukkah of the Signs, New York, NY, 2010. Lower left: interior of mosque in Somalian refugee camp, Yemen, 2013 367
  141. 20.1Courtyard Eruv. From Johann Bodenschatz, Kirchliche Verfassung der heutigen deutschen Juden 371
  142. 20.2Eruv line, New Haven, CT 374
  143. 20.3Ruth Schreiber, Enter the Eruv, 2010. Tempered glass, Perspex, motion sensors, and LEDs 377
  144. 20.4Mel Alexenberg, Purim in Sodom, 1984. Poles, ropes, and ceramic vessels 377

Jewish Religious Architecture

From Biblical Israel to Modern Judaism



All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 10 10 6
PDF Downloads 0 0 0