Figures and Tables

in Hellenistic and Roman Terracottas
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Figures

1.1 Plan of Nea Paphos (after Dobosz, 2013: pl. 1.1) 9

1.2 Plan of the House of Orpheus (plan: M. Chamberlain and A. Agapiou) 10

1.3 PHH 169, 173 and 224; Aphrodite standing and fastening her strophion (photo: Department of Antiquities, Cyprus) 13

1.4 ΟΔ 3391; Aphrodite standing and fastening her strophion from the House of Dionysos (photo: Department of Antiquities, Cyprus) 14

1.5 PHH 1081; Thigh or arm of a large figurine, wearing a band in the shape of a coiled serpent (photo: S.A. Rusmigo) 15

1.6 PHH 9; Aphrodite (photo: S.A. Rusmigo) 15

1.7 PHH 118; Venus Pudica (photo: S.A. Rusmigo) 17

1.8 PHH 41; Aphrodite with Eros (photo: S.A. Rusmigo) 17

1.9 PHH 1462; Eros (photo: Department of Antiquities, Cyprus) 18

1.10 PHH 523; Dionysos (photo: D. Michaelides) 19

1.11 PHH 1639; Bust with Isiac features (photo: S.A. Rusmigo) 19

1.12 PHH 54; Tyche of Alexandria; clear fingerprints are preserved on the inside surface of this terracotta (photo: D. Ioannou) 20

1.13 PHH 53; Mask (photo: D. Ioannou) 21

1.14 PHH 32; Male grotesque figure (photo: S.A. Rusmigo) 21

1.15 a. PHH 1637, b. PHH 1638, c. PHH 1062; Deers (photos: S.A. Rusmigo) 22

1.16 a. PHH 1621, b. PHH 1624, c. PHH 1625, front, d. PHH 1625, back; Dogs of the so-called Maltese spitz or terrier type (photos: S.A. Rusmigo) 22

1.17 PHH 1688; Young man at the back of a chariot (photo: S.A. Rusmigo) 23

1.18 PHH 39; Male bust (photo: S.A. Rusmigo) 23

1.19 PHH 1772; Head of an African (photo: S.A. Rusmigo) 24

1.20 Terracotta figurine fabrics were recorded using a USB digital microscope, field-of-view: 0.4 cm. a. PHH 120, b. PHH 118, c. PHH 1770 and d. PHH 1645 26

1.21 Scatter plot based on pXRF data, using two ratios: potassium (K) / silicon (Si) and calcium (Ca) / iron (Fe), the first being of mineralogical, and the second of chemical significance. Samples are labelled according to the colour group, to which they were allocated macroscopically 27

1.22 Principal component analysis plot using pXRF data. Samples labelled according to their thematic representation 28

1.23 Principal component analysis plot using NAA data. Samples labelled according to their thematic representation 29

1.24 Three-dimensional scatter plot based on pXRF measurements for chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn) and potassium (K). Samples labelled according to their thematic representation 29

1.25 PHH 10; Base with feet of standing figure. The back view shows, on the left-hand side, a small fragment of the back mould still adhering to the front one (photos: S.A. Rusmigo and V. Trigas) 32

1.26 PHH 52; Legs and drapery of a standing figure. The craftsperson used his/her fingernail to shape particular elements, like drapery (photos: V. Trigas and M. Dikomitou-Eliadou) 33

1.27 PHH 1928; Cornucopia? (photo: S.A. Rusmigo) 34

1.28 PHH 1936; Fragmentary base (photo: S.A. Rusmigo) 34

1.29 PHH 64; Small terracotta altar (photo: S.A. Rusmigo) 36

2.1 Map of Cyprus showing all sites mentioned in the text 45

2.2 Nicosia, CM D 267. Courtesy of the Department of Antiquities (photo: G. Koiner) 48

2.3 Nicosia, CM D 380. Courtesy of the Department of Antiquities (photo: N. Reitinger) 49

2.4 Nicosia, Cyprus Museum D 348. Courtesy of the Department of Antiquities (photo: G. Koiner) 49

2.5 Nicosia, Cyprus Museum D 239. Courtesy of the Department of Antiquities (photo: N. Reitinger) 50

2.6 Nicosia, Cyprus Museum D 233. Courtesy of the Department of Antiquities (photo: N. Reitinger) 50

2.7 Nicosia, Cyprus Museum D 419. Courtesy of the Department of Antiquities (photo: N. Reitinger) 51

2.8 Nicosia, Cyprus Museum D 131. Courtesy of the Department of Antiquities (photo: G. Koiner) 52

2.9 Nicosia, Cyprus Museum D 101. Courtesy of the Department of Antiquities (photo: N. Reitinger) 54

2.10 Nicosia, Cyprus Museum D 104. Courtesy of the Department of Antiquities (photo: N. Reitinger) 55

2.11 Nicosia, Cyprus Museum D 207. Courtesy of the Department of Antiquities (photo: N. Reitinger) 56

3.1 Map of Larnaca showing the first presumed location of the sanctuary of Artemis Paralia. This is actually to be located far more to the South, as demonstrated in Maillard 2016. From Nicolaou, 1976: 8, fig. 1 61

3.2 Terracotta figurine wearing a kalathos in plated rush (Musée du Louvre, AM 327). H: 7.1 cm. From Caubet, Fourrier & Queyrel, 1998: 547, no. 921 63

3.3 Terracotta figurine wearing a high kalathos decorated with sphinxes and griffins (Musée du Louvre, AO 22243). H: 11.5 cm. From Caubet, Fourrier & Queyrel, 1998: 531, no. 869 64

3.4 Terracotta figurine wearing a large necklace (Musée du Louvre, AM 1726). H: 11 cm. From Caubet, Fourrier & Queyrel, 1998: 511, no. 818 64

3.5 Terracotta group of a seated goddess, flanked by two acolytes (Musée du Louvre, AO 22238). H: 20.5 cm. From Caubet, Fourrier & Queyrel, 1998: 500, no. 794 65

3.6 Fragment of a terracotta group representing a young girl holding a half-opened box, disclosing a crown (Musée du Louvre, AM 125). H: 17 cm. From Caubet, Fourrier & Queyrel, 1998: 521, no. 843 65

3.7 Terracotta group of two women sharing a bench and a veil (Musée du Louvre, MNB 1302). H: 11.6 cm. From Caubet, Fourrier & Queyrel, 1998: 512, no. 822 66

3.8 Reconstruction of the so-called Stackelberg group (drawing: C. Florimont) (Musée du Louvre, MNB 1723, AO 22864, N III 3325, AM 248). H (reconstructed): 17.5 cm. From Caubet, Fourrier & Queyrel, 1998: 572, no. 957 67

4.1 Map of western Cyprus 72

4.2 Map of Polis Chrysochous 73

4.3 Arsinoe – Workshop Complex, Terracotta of Apollo kitharodos 75

4.4 Arsinoe – Workshop Complex, Terracotta of Eros holding kithara 76

4.5 Arsinoe – Workshop Complex, Terracotta of Artemis dadophoros 77

4.6 Arsinoe – Workshop Complex, Fragment from a Dioscuri Group 78

4.7 Arsinoe – Hellenistic sanctuary, Terracotta of Tanagra type 80

4.8 Arsinoe – Hellenistic sanctuary, Terracotta of Artemis Kynegetis 80

4.9 Arsinoe – Hellenistic sanctuary, Terracotta of Apollo kitharodos 81

4.10 Yialia-Photies, Limestone statuette of enthroned female figure 83

4.11 a–b. Yialia-Photies, Terracotta figurines of dancers 84

4.12 Yialia-Photies, Terracotta figurine of a harp player 85

4.13 Yialia-Photies, Terracotta figurine of a harp player 85

5.1 Map of Cyprus with Marion and Arsinoe (Karageorghis, 1982: after fig. 89, 115) 89

5.2 Satellite view of Polis area with place names (Childs, Smith & Padgett, 2012: after Map 3) 90

5.3 Polis-Peristeries Sanctuary, left; Polis-Maratheri Sanctuary, right (photo: Princeton Cyprus Expedition) 91

5.4 Polis-Petrerades, Area E.G0, left; Polis-Petrerades, Area E.F2, right (photo: Princeton Cyprus Expedition) 91

5.5 Hellenistic Sculpture from Polis-Petrerades, Area E.F2 (photo: author) 92

5.6 R22694 + R22697 + R22969 – Figure, Cybele Throne, Polis-Petrerades, Area E.F2 (photo: author) 93

5.7 Hellenistic Figurines from Polis-Petrerades, Area E.F2 (photo: author) 93

5.8 Archaic and Classical Votives, Polis-Peristeries and Polis-Maratheri Sanctuaries (photo: author) 95

5.9 Late Fourth Century – Early Hellenistic Votives, Polis-Maratheri Sanctuary (photo: author) 95

5.10 R1547 – Terracotta Patrix, Polis-Petrerades, Area E.F2 (photo: author) 97

5.11 Moulds and Mould Impressions, Polis-Petrerades, Area E.F2 (photo: author) 98

6.1 The topography of the acropolis at Amathous. Copyright: École française d’Athènes, Manuela Wurch-Kozelj and T. Kozelj 102

6.2 Upper part of the terracotta group of Aphrodite and Eros (photo: I. Tassignon) 103

6.3 Upper part of a terracotta group (photo: I. Tassignon) 103

6.4 Terracotta bust with Eros (photo: I. Tassignon) 103

6.5 Side view of the group (photo: I. Tassignon) 103

6.6 Limestone group from the palace, front view (photo: I. Tassignon) 105

6.7 Limestone group from the palace, side view (photo: I. Tassignon) 105

6.8 Bust from the sanctuary © P. Collet, École française d’Athènes 107

6.9 Arm of a statue from the sanctuary (photo: I. Tassignon) 108

7.1 Tomb 916 plan 113

7.2 Terracotta figurines no. 16 (left) and no. 51 (right). Courtesy of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus 115

7.3 Terracotta figurine no. 51 (detail of the coloured decoration). Courtesy of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus 116

7.4 Terracotta figurine no. 67–14 (base and preserved lower part) 117

7.5 Terracotta female head no. 49 117

7.6 Seated terracotta figurine no. 50 117

7.7 Semi-nude terracotta figurine of Aphrodite type, no. 53. Courtesy of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus 118

7.8 Torso and right arm of terracotta figurine, no. 67–18 119

7.9 Small group terracotta figurines: no. 10 (left), no. 11 (centre), no. 15 (right) 119

7.10 Terracotta of miniature theatrical mask (hegemon therapon), no. 9 120

7.11 Terracotta of (Dionysos?) herm, no. 67–15 121

8.1 Map of Cyprus with all the sites mentioned in the text 132

8.2 General view of trench AE31, with the hearth in the north-east corner and the sherds of the pithoid jar in the centre of the trench 133

8.3 Close-up of the cobblestones with the terracotta figurine E8 as it was discovered 134

8.4 Figurine E12 135

8.5 Figurine E10 135

8.6 Figurine E21 136

8.7 Figurine E8 137

8.8 Figurine E18 138

8.9 Figurine E20 138

8.10 Figurines E16–17, E19 139

8.11 Figurine E14 140

8.12 Figurine E4 141

8.13 Figurine E5–6 141

9.1 Map of Cyprus with all sites mentioned in the text 147

9.2 Heads of funerary terracottas from ancient Marion/Arsinoe. From left to right: a. AN1890.696 (H: 15.2 cm), b. AN1890.698 (H: 13.8 cm), c. AN1890.696x (H: 13.5). Copyright: Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford 147

9.3 Heads of funerary terracottas from ancient Marion/Arsinoe: a. AN1890.697, b. AN1890.699. Copyright: Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford 148

9.4 Animal figurines from Rizokarpaso-Tsambres, tomb 16. From left to right:

a. AN1938.1340, horse (H. 10 cm), b. AN1938.44, goat (H: 6.4 cm), c. AN1938.46, bull (H: 10.6), d. AN1948.1341, ram (H: 11.4 cm). Copyright: Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford 151

9.5 Horse-and-rider figurines from Rizokarpaso-Tsambres. From left to right:

a. AN1938.1335, tomb 16 (H: 13.6 cm), b. AN1938.1415.b, tomb 10 (H: 10.5 cm), c. AN1938.1334, tomb 16 (H: 14.3 cm). Copyright: Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford 151

9.6 Kourotrophos figurines from Rizokarpaso-Tsambres, tomb 16. From left to right: a. AN1938.1348 (H: 16.3 cm), b. AN1938.1347 (H: 18.9 cm, c. AN1962.41, head (H: 5.5 cm), d. AN1938.1349 (H: 12.3 cm). Copyright: Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford 152

9.7 Votive terracottas from the Apollo sanctuary at Amargetti. From left to right: a. AN1888.1504 (H: 17.3 cm), b. AN1888.1505 (H: 18.1 cm), c. AN1888.1511, male (H: 12.5 cm). Copyright: Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford 155

9.8 Rider-and-horse plaquette from Salamis, AN1896–1908 C.559 (H: 7.2 cm). Copyright: Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford 156

9.9 Greek-style Hellenistic figurines from Cyprus. From left to right: a. AN1949.1032 (H: 20.8 cm), b. AN1989.568 (H: c. 15 cm), c. AN1946.112, from Salamis (H: c. 19 cm). Copyright: Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford 157

9.10 Plaquette of Aphrodite or Apollo from Pyla-Vikla, AN1960.649 (H: 12 cm). Copyright: Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford 158

9.11 Eros and temple boy figures: a. AN1938.1431 (H: 31 cm), b. 1884.233, possibly from Kourion (H: 18.3 cm). Copyright: Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford 159

10.1 Bronze animal-headed figurine group from Petrovouni (Hellner, D-DAI-ATH-NM 5782) 166

10.2 Plan of the sanctuary of Despoina, Lykosoura (plan: D.E. Coslett) 167

10.3 Animal-headed terracotta figurines from the Sanctuary of Despoina, Lykosoura (left two figures: drawing: K.A.P. Iselin after Jost 1985: pl. 4, nos. 3–4; right figure after Kourouniotes 1912: fig. 23) 168

10.4 The Damophon cult group, Sanctuary of Despoina, Lykosoura (Dickins 1906/1907: pl. XII) 169

10.5 a: Veil of Despoina, from the Damophon cult group, Lykosoura (J. Matthew Harrington, Nefasdicere at English Wikipedia [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC BY 2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons). b: Details of the figural relief from Despoina’s veil (Dickins 1906/1907: pl. XIV) 170

10.6 Distribution map of figurines wearing masks from Iron Age Cyprus (map: D.E. Coslett) 172

10.7 Sixth-century zoomorphic masker statuettes from the sanctuary at Golgoi, Cyprus. Left: limestone figure with stag (?) mask, 26 cm high, 74.51.2538; right: limestone figure wearing bull mask, 21.4 cm high, 74.51.2515, The Metropolitan Museum of Art (The Cesnola Collection, purchased by subscription, 1874–76) 172

10.8 Cypro-Archaic bull masker terracotta figurines from the rural sanctuaries at Athienou-Malloura (left), inv. no. AM-1170, Athienou Kallinikeio Municipal Museum, and Ayia Irini (right), inv. no. 2170, Cyprus Museum (left: photo: Athienou Archaeological Project; right: photo: author, used by permission of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus) 173

10.9 Cypro-Archaic terracotta masking group, Sanctuary of Apollo Hylates, Kourion, inv. nos. T1674, T1774A, Episkopi Local Kourion Museum. (photo: author, used by permission of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus) 174

10.10 Cypro-Archaic terracotta masked figurines, Amathous necropolis, inv. nos. T289, no. 6; T200, no. 1, Limassol District Archaeological Museum (photo: author, used by the permission of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus) 174

11.1 Topographic plan of the city of Pherai (Ephorate of Antiquities of Magnesia) 181

11.2 A small pottery kiln of a ceramic workshop at Pherai (Ephorate of Antiquities of Magnesia) 182

11.3 Hellenistic pottery workshops of Pherai in the exhibition at the New Wing of the “Athanassakeion” Archaeological Museum of Volos (Ephorate of Antiquities of Magnesia) 183

11.4 a. A mould for the production of terracotta figurines from a workshop of Pherai, and b. its positive cast (Archaeological Museum of Volos, inv. no. BE 12097) 184

11.5 a. A negative imprint from a workshop of Pherai, and b. its positive cast (Archaeological Museum of Volos, inv. no. BE 12095) 185

11.6 Modern terracotta figurines in Nicholas Rodios’ pottery workshop on the island of Skopelos (photo: A. Doulgeri-Intzesiloglou) 186

11.7 Female bust (protome) from Pherai (Archaeological Museum of Volos, inv. no. BE 37141) 187

11.8 Female figurine from Pherai (Archaeological Museum of Volos, inv. no. M 4549, 004) 187

11.9 Heads of female figurines from Pherai (Archaeological Museum of Volos, inv. nos. BE 46028 and BE 48018) 188

11.10 Head of a figurine of an old satyr (Archaeological Museum of Volos, inv. nos. BE 37094, 002) 189

12.1 Figurine BE 4549,004. Tin foil has been detected on the ears 193

12.2 Tin foil is visible on the hair of figurine BE 29845, Tachoula site, Pherai 193

12.3 XRF spectrum showing the presence of tin on figurine BE 29845 193

12.4 SEM (BSE) photomicrograph of figurine ID 27093, Stamouli site 194

12.5 SEM (BSE) photomicrograph of figurine ID 27093. Measurement of the thickness of the tin foil. See also comment 35 194

12.6 SEM (BSE) photomicrograph of organic binding medium detected in figurine ID 27093 195

12.7 Spectrum of the organic binding medium detected in figurine ID 27093 195

12.8 Stamouli site. Ceramic sherd, ID 27152, with remains of Egyptian blue 197

12.9 SEM (BSE) photomicrograph of Eb anisotropic crystals on ceramic sherd, ID 27152 197

12.10 Apostolina site, BE 45948. Egyptian blue ball found in a lead workshop 197

12.11 SEM (BSE) photomicrograph of sample ID 32494, showing the presence of yellow cinnabar 198

12.12 XRF spectrum of sample ID 32494, showing the presence of yellow cinnabar 198

13.1 Map indicating the Eretria-Amarynthos area in Euboea, Greece 204

13.2 Student with diptych. Eretria Museum, inv. no. 15847. Imported from Athens or Boeotia. H: 0.097 m. Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports 205

13.3 Student with diptych. Eretria Museum, inv. no. 20321. Similar to inv. no. 15847. H: 0.088 m. Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports 205

13.4 Student with diptych. Eretria Museum, inv. no. 15886. H: 0.089 m. Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports 206

13.5 Female figure holding a diptych. Eretria Museum, inv. no. 15906. H. 0.097 m. Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports 206

13.6 Female figure holding a diptych. Eretria Museum, inv. no. 20322. H: 0.07 m. Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports 207

13.7 Two identical male figurines with diptych. Eretria Museum, inv. nos. 20305/A–B. H: a. 0.095 m; b. 0.097 m. Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports 208

14.1 Slight variation of the (digitised) drawing from Winter (1903) 3.1, fig. 169, 1 216

14.2 Slight variation of the (digitised) drawing from Winter (1903) 3.1, fig. 169, 4: own addition of jointed knees 216

14.3 Slight variation of the (digitised) drawing from Winter (1903) 3.1, fig. 168, 6 (supplementation on arms) 217

15.1 Distribution of representations according to medium 225

15.2 Distribution of the terracottas according to the contexts of their discovery 225

15.3 1. Head of clay figurine wearing a veil, 3.5 cm, Louvre Museum, inv. no. Cp5298, Cl. N. Martin (see also Jeammet, 2003: fig. 27, 124); 2. Profile of the same head; 3. Clay female dancers wearing a veil rolled-up on the forehead, 18 cm, Louvre Museum, inv. no. MNC535, Cl. N. Martin 226

15.4 Geographic distribution of representations of women wearing a kind of mask made of cloth 227

15.5 Women with a bulging peak of hair. 1. Dancer in terracotta, 22 cm, Boeotia (?) Louvre Museum, inv. no. CA2126; 2. Dancer in terracotta, profile. 24.3 cm, Boeotia (?), Louvre Museum, inv. no. MNC730; 3. Dancer in terracotta, 25 cm, Boeotia (?), Louvre Museum, inv. no. MNC731, Cl. N. Martin 230

15.6 Geographic distribution of representations of women wearing a bulging peak of hair 230

15.7 Hydria from Apollonia Pontica, detail, beginning of the 4th century BCE, Sozopol Museum (Hermary & Tsetskhladze, 2012: fig. 9, 249). Cl. L. Damelet for CCJ 232

16.1 Map indicating approximate location of sites where Boeotian soft youths have been found 238

16.2 Soft youth with rooster. National Archaeological Museum, Athens 5612. Bought in Thebes, c. 450–420 BCE. National Archaeological Museum, Athens (photo: A. Rosenberg). Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports / Archaeological Receipts Fund 239

16.3 Archaeological Museum, Thebes 20049. From Halai, Boeotia, c. 420–390 BCE. National Archaeological Museum, Athens (photo: A. Rosenberg). Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports / Archaeological Receipts Fund 240

16.4 Archaeological Museum, Thebes 20060. From Halai, Boeotia, c. 450–420 BCE. National Archaeological Museum, Athens (photo: A. Rosenberg). Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports / Archaeological Receipts Fund 241

16.5 Fragmentary soft youth with rooster. National Archaeological Museum, Athens 10271/79. From the Sanctuary of the Kabiroi, middle of the fourth century BCE. National Archaeological Museum, Athens (photo: A. Rosenberg). Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports / Archaeological Receipts Fund 242

16.6 Archaeological Museum, Thebes 20062. From Halai, Boeotia, c. 420–390 BCE. National Archaeological Museum, Athens (photo: A. Rosenberg). Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports / Archaeological Receipts Fund 243

16.7 Soft youth with strigil and rooster. National Archaeological Museum, Athens 10287. From the Sanctuary of the Kabiroi, end of the fifth century / beginning of the fourth century BCE. National Archaeological Museum, Athens (photo: A. Rosenberg). Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports / Archaeological Receipts Fund 244

16.8 National Archaeological Museum, Athens 10271/76. From the Sanctuary of the Kabiroi, middle of the fourth century BCE. National Archaeological Museum, Athens (photo: A. Rosenberg). Copyright: Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports / Archaeological Receipts Fund 245

17.1 Location of Thasos, Epidamnos-Dyrrhachion and other sites mentioned in the text 252

17.2 Artemision of Epidamnos-Dyrrhachion: shoulder busts with special headdress (Durrës, Archaeological Museum) (photo 1–5: G. Naessens/UMR 8164; drawing 6: N. Vasia/Durrës) 253

17.3 Examples of other representations of feminine figures with the same headdress: 1–2, protomai from Spina (after Araneo, 1987: 43, nos. 55–56); 3, protome from Rhodes (after Higgins, 1954: pl. 41, no. 240); 4, marble head from Asia Minor (after Reeder, 1995: 140, no. 9); 5, protome from Locri (after Higgins, 1954: pl. 166, no. 1208); 6–7, terracotta statue heads, from a rural sanctuary in Lucania (photo: M. Osanna); 8, Apulian red figured vase (after Todisco 2012: pl. 188, no. 2) 254

17.4 Brides binding the mitra in the iconography of red figured vases, details of bridal preparation scenes: 1–2, pyxides (after Sabetai, 1997: figs. 1 and 12); 3, skyphos (after Todisco, 2012: pl. 25, no. 2); 4, hydria (after Sabetai, 1997: fig. 13); 5, pelike (after Todisco, 2012: pl. 130, no. 1); 6, bell crater (after Todisco, 2012: pl. 10, no. 2) 255

17.5 Artemision of Thasos, female figurines (Thasos, Archaeological Museum) (photo: P. Collet/École française d’Athènes) 255

17.6 Preparation of the bride in the iconography of red figured vases: 1, pyxis (after Delivorrias, 1984: no. 212); 2, lebes gamikos (after Kaltsas & Shapiro, 2008: 318, no. 142); 3, lekythos (after Delivorrias, 1984: no. 210); 4, pyxis (after Delivorrias, 1984: no. 806); 5, loutrophoros (after Sabetai, 2008: 295, fig. 5) 256

17.7 Artemision in Epidamnos-Dyrrhachion: red figure lekythoi (Agrinion group) with representation of the seated bride (Durrës, Archaeological Museum) (photo: G. Naessens/UMR 8164) 257

18.1 Figurine fragments of kneeling women from the Artemision of Dyrrhachion, Albania. Copyright: G. Naessens Halma – UMR 8164 260

18.2 Figurine of seated nude female without seat, from the tomb L-XIIIa of the Ladikas’ Ground in Thasos. Copyright: G. Naessens Halma – UMR 8164 261

18.3 Figurine of nude woman in a shell, with mirror (from Winter, 1903: 202, no. 2) 262

18.4 Figurine of nude woman in a shell with alabatron (from Winter, 1903: 204, no. 2) 263

18.5 Figurine of nude woman in a shell with Eros and with a box (from Winter, 1903: 202, no. 5) 263

18.6 Figurine of nude woman in a shell with Eros and a mirror? (from Winter, 1903: 202, no. 3) 264

18.7 Figurine of nude woman with Eros and a mirror (from Winter, 1903: 202, no. 6) 264

18.8 Plastic vase with nude bust of woman (from Winter, 1903: 203, no. 3) 265

18.9 Plastic vase with nude bust of woman (from Winter, 1903: 203, no. 2) 266

19.1 Plan of the acropolis of Pergamon, the excavation area of the “Stadtgrabung” is in the lower part. Additional so-called “Gassensondagen” were undertaken halfway up the acropolis, above the “Stadtgrabung” section (not listed in the plan), Pergamon excavation (design: U. Wulf; drawing: U. Wulf. & A. Attila; additions: T. Zimmer) 273

19.2 Plan of the “Stadtgrabung” Pergamon excavation (design: U. Wulf; drawing: U. Wulf & A. Attila) 274

19.3 Eros, from Pergamon, “Stadtgrabung” (H: about 23.5 cm); photomontage, head in the Museum of Bergama. Head (photo: E. Steiner, Pergamon excavation) Body (photo: author)276

19.4 Head of Aphrodite, from Pergamon, “Stadtgrabung” (H: 5 cm) (photo: author)277

19.5 Grieving old woman, from Pergamon, “Stadtgrabung” (H: about 18.5 cm); photomontage, head in the Museum of Bergama. Head (photo: E. Steiner, Pergamon excavation). Body (photo: author)278

19.6 Mask, from Pergamon, “Stadtgrabung” (H: 15.3 cm) (photo: author)279

19.7 Actor, from Pergamon, “Stadtgrabung” (H: 11.4 cm) (photo: author)279

19.8 Head of a boy (Eros?), from Pergamon, Stadtgrabung (H: 2.8 cm) (photo: author)281

19.9 Head of Ariadne, from Pergamon, “Stadtgrabung” (H: 7 cm) (photo: E. Steiner, Pergamon excavation)282

19.10 Head of a peasant or slave, from Pergamon, “Stadtgrabung” (H: 3.2 cm) (photo: author)283

19.11 Two female heads, from Pergamon, “Stadtgrabung” (H: 6.9 cm; 4.8 cm) (photo: author)283

20.1 Greek and Lucanian sites of southern Italy mentioned in text map: J. Trelogan) 290

20.2 Plan of excavation at production area at Sant’Angelo Vecchio (courtesy of J.C. Carter) 291

20.3 Distribution of main mould series produced at Sant’Angelo Vecchio within urban center of Metapontion map: J. Trelogan) 292

20.4 Distribution of main mould series produced at Sant’Angelo Vecchio within territory of Metapontion map: J. Trelogan) 293

20.5 Small-scale figurine of standing female holding cross-torch, basket of fruit, and oinochoe (inv. no. 319980, SA 79.0411.01) (photo: C. Raho) 294

20.6 Reconstruction of large-scale figurine of standing female holding cross-torch, basket of fruit, and oinochoe (drawing: M. Barretta) 295

20.7 Reconstruction of plaque of banqueter with seated female, child, and horse (drawing: M. Barretta) 296

20.8 Plaque of banqueter flanked by Ionic capital (SA 79.0510.01) (photo: C. Williams) 297

20.9 Plaque of Zeus holding scepter and lighting bolt (inv. no. 319913, SA 79.0509.01) (photo: C. Raho) 299

20.10 Plaque of dancing Nymph and Pan (inv. no. 320003, SA 80.0010.01) (photo: C. Raho) 299

20.11 Reconstruction of large-scale figurine of Artemis (drawing: M. Barretta) 301

21.1 General plan of Pompeii 306

21.2 House of Marcus Fabius Rufus: the archaeological site, “saggio 3” 306

21.3 House of Marcus Fabius Rufus: saggio 3, sector B, northern section 307

21.4 House of Marcus Fabius Rufus: louterion, graphic reconstruction 307

21.5 Fragments of terracotta figurines from the house of Marcus Fabius Rufus in Pompeii (see also Table 21.1) 309

21.6 House of Marcus Fabius Rufus: small clay head with a ‘melon’ hairstyle (Table 21.1, no. 1) 311

21.7 House of Marcus Fabius Rufus: small veiled clay head with the middle-parting hairstyle 311

21.8 House of Marcus Fabius Rufus: draped clay figurine 311

21.9 House of Marcus Fabius Rufus: fragment of left side of a pinax depicting a Nereid riding a hippocampus 312

21.10 House of Marcus Fabius Rufus: floral appliqués and a pomegranate 313

21.11 House of Marcus Fabius Rufus: patera with plastic application 313

22.1 a.–b. Ostia, clay togati a. inv. no. 5888 and b. inv. no. 3507 (photos: author with the permission of the Ministero per i Beni e le Attivita’ Culturali – Parco Archeologico Ostia Antica) 316

22.2 The making of a togatus (project: E. Martelli; graphic realisation: A. García) 317

22.3 Ostia, distribution of clay togati in the funerary and domestic spheres (map: adapted from Heinzelmann 2000 and Pannuzi 2007; project: E. Martelli; graphic realisation: A. García) 317

22.4 Ostia, relief on a sarcophagus from the Isola Sacra necropolis (project: E. Martelli; graphic realisation: A. García; after Calza, 1940: 197, fig. 100) 318

22.5 Distribution of the clay togati along the Italian Peninsula (project: E. Martelli; graphic realisation: A. García) 319

22.6 a.–b. Comparison between a marble bust of Trajan in Munich, Glyptothek and the similar hairstyle on clay togatus inv. no. 5888 (Fig. 22.1a) from Ostia (drawings: A. García after Wünsche 2007: 136 and 137) 320

22.7 a. Ostia, funerary contexts. Necropolis along the via Calza – via dei Romagnoli, so-called “Tomba B”. Clay togatus inv. no. 5889 was placed in fragments on top of the tomb (modified from Floriani Squarciapino, 1961: 168, fig. 23; project: E. Martelli; drawing: A. García) 320

22.7 b. Ostia, funerary contexts. Necropolis along the via Calza – via dei Romagnoli, so-called “Tomba B”. Reconstruction of the niche containing a cinerary vessel with togatus inv. no. 5888 as a grave offering (project: Elena Martelli; graphic realisation: A. García) 321

22.7 c. Ostia, funerary contexts. Necropolis along the via ostiensis. Clay figurines recovered in a small enclosure (map adapted from Floriani Squarciapino, 1954; project: E. Martelli; graphic realisation: A. García) 321

22.8 a.–c. Pompeii. Clay togati inv. nos. 20741, 20744 and 20766 recovered at the intersection between via dell’Abbondanza and via della Sonatrice (courtesy of the Ministero per i Beni e le Attivita’ Culturali – Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio per il Comune di Napoli) 323

22.9 a. Moregine (Campania), Building B. Clay figurine of a vicomagister inv. no. 85201 (drawing: A. García after Mastroroberto, 2003: fig. V.59); b. Ostia, Caseggiato dei Triclini (I,XII,1). Clay togatus inv. no. 4621 (photo: the author, with the permission of the Ministero per i Beni e le Attivita’ Culturali – Parco Archeologico Ostia Antica) 323

23.1 Distribution map of cemeteries and sanctuaries where figurines have been found and number of figurines by site (map: S. de Larminat & S. Haroutunian) 330

23.2 Figurines found in the sanctuary of Thysdrus. From left to right: woman with a mirror and a small box, empty-handed woman with the inscription P. Felix Octavius on her back, Tanit, Apollo, dove (from Merlin, 1912: pl. LXXVII) 333

23.3 Figurines found in the sanctuary of Pupput. From left to right: dove, woman, woman with a cake and an oenochoe, Tanit, Apollo, dove (from Merlin, 1912: pl. LXXVI) 333

23.4 Drawing of a Venus with an Amor and a dolphin found in the necropolis of Hadrumetum (from de la Blanchère & Gauckler, 1897: pl. XXX.27) 334

23.5 Composition of the inventory of figurines discovered in Roman Africa (image: S. de Larminat) 335

23.6 Composition of the 42 closed and contextualised sets with figurines identified in Africa Proconsularis (image: S. de Larminat) 337

23.7 Figurine of Bes and Attis discovered in a necropolis of Hadrumetum (from Choppard & Hannezo, 1893: pl. XVII.2) 338

23.8 Figurine of an Amor leaning on a column discovered up-side down in the fill of a child’s grave at Pupput (photo: M. Griesheimer) 338

24.1 Gingerbread-man type terracotta figurine from Karanis 343

24.2 Plan of excavated units at Karanis. ArcGis map compiled by Drew Wilburn and Ryan Reynolds after original plans of the Michigan University Excavation at Karanis (Kelsey Museum, Ann Arbor, Michigan) 348

24.3 Plan of excavated units at Karanis. ArcGis map compiled by Drew Wilburn and Ryan Reynolds after original plans of the Michigan University Excavation at Karanis (Kelsey Museum, Ann Arbor, Michigan) 349

25.1 Distribution map with Central and Eastern Mediterranean sites 361

25.2 Isis lactans, from Kharayeb (after Chéhab, 1953–1954: pl. XXXII 3) 363

25.3 “Baubo”, from Kharayeb (after Chéhab, 1953–1954: pl. XXX 4) 364

25.4 Bes, from Kharayeb (after Chéhab, 1953–1954: pl. VI) 364

25.5 Harpocrates with cornucopia, from Kharayeb (after Chéhab, 1953–1954: pl. III 3) 365

25.6 Harpocrates riding a goose, from Kharayeb (after Chéhab, 1953–1954: pl. V 4) 365

25.7 Harpocrates riding a horse, Museum of the American University of Beirut, inv. no. 623 (after Sartre, 1998: 163) 365

25.8 Tambourine player, from Kharayeb (after Chéhab, 1953–1954: pl. XLIV 2) 366

25.9 “Mantle dancer”, from Kharayeb (after Chéhab, 1953–1954: pl. XCVIII 2) 366

25.10 Isiac attendant, from Kharayeb (after Chéhab, 1953–1954: pl. LXVIII 2) 367

25.11 Grotesque figurine, from Kharayeb (after Chéhab, 1953–1954: pl. XI 4) 367

26.1 Map of the southern Levant with main sites cited (prepared by A. Regev-Gisis) 372

26.2 Apis Bull from Tel Anafa in northern Israel, late second century BCE. Courtesy of Sharon Herbert and the Tel Anafa Excavations (photo: Y. Yulovitz) 374

26.3 Isiac figure, probably of the type called “Isis Aphrodite”, from Maresha in southern Israel, third to second centuries BCE. Courtesy of A. Kloner and the Israel Antiquities Authority (photo: P. Jacobs) 374

26.4 Nude old woman (“Baubo”) riding on a boar, from Maresha in southern Israel, third to second centuries BCE. Courtesy of A. Kloner and the Israel Antiquities Authority (photo: C. Amit) 375

26.5 Boy wearing a kausia, from Maresha in southern Israel, third to second centuries BCE. Courtesy of A. Kloner and the Israel Antiquities Authority (photo: P. Jacobs) 376

26.6 Cybele from Tel Dor on the Israeli coast, third century BCE. Courtesy of E. Stern and the Tel Dor project (photo: Z. Radovan) 377

26.7 Cybele from Maresha in southern Israel, third to second centuries BCE. Courtesy of I. Stern and the Archaeological Seminars (photo: A. Stern) 377

26.8 Kourotrophos from Maresha in southern Israel, third to second centuries BCE. Courtesy of A. Kloner and the Israel Antiquities Authority (photo: C. Amit) 378

26.9 Dioscuri from Maresha in southern Israel, third to second centuries BCE. Courtesy of A. Kloner and the Israel Antiquities Authority (photo: P. Jacobs) 378

26.10 Man wearing a pointed cap from Tel Anafa in northern Israel, late second century BCE. Courtesy of S. Herbert and the Tel Anafa Excavations (photo: J. B. Wilcox) 379

27.1 Map of Syria in the Hellenistic period, showing sites mentioned in the text. (adapted from a map drawn by P. Walker) 384

27.2 a. Rider’s head from Kourion (Young & Young, mould 39), and b. Persian rider head from Jebel Khalid JK 93.176 384

27.3 Contour map of site of Jebel Khalid (drawing: B Rowney) 385

27.4 Persian rider from Jebel Khalid, JK 90.638 386

27.5 Horse’s head from Persian rider, JK 95.245 387

27.6 Head of Persian rider, JK 10.949 387

27.7 Heads of Persian riders (drawing: J. Sellers) 388

27.8 Head of moulded horse-and-rider JK 05.366 (drawing: J. Sellers) 389

27.9 Graph showing distribution of Persian rider fragments over the Jebel Khalid site 389

27.10 Head and torso of Persian rider carrying object, JK 87.254 391

27.11 Persian rider carrying child, JK 87.206 (drawing J. Sellers) 392

28.1 Map of Mesopotamia. Courtesy of the Archive Centro Scavi Torino 396

28.2 Seleucia on the Tigris, schematic plan of the city. Courtesy of the Archive Centro Scavi Torino 396

28.3 Seleucia on the Tigris, resting Herakles (H: 11.3 cm. inv. no. S11, 434), terracotta. Courtesy of the Archive Centro Scavi Torino 397

28.4 Seleucia on the Tigris, incense burner (H: 20 cm. inv. no. S11, 301), terracotta. Courtesy of the Archive Centro Scavi Torino 398

28.5 Seleucia on the Tigris, nude woman (H: 9 cm. inv. no. S9, 739), terracotta. Courtesy of the Archive Centro Scavi Torino 399

28.6 Seleucia on the Tigris, semi-nude reclining woman (H: 8.4 cm. inv. no. S9, 737), terracotta. Courtesy of the Archive Centro Scavi Torino 399

28.7 Seleucia on the Tigris, seated child (H: 11.2 cm. inv. no. S6, 107), terracotta. Courtesy of the Archive Centro Scavi Torino 400

29.1 Khirbet es-Samrā site map. The ancient cemetery and the excavated Site-A to Site-E 403

29.2 The different types of plaster objects (scaled in cm units) 404

29.3 Examples of plaster objects found in situ inside and outside the burial chamber (cist) 409

29.4 The lamenting woman figurines 410

Tables

21.1 A catalogue of the terracotta figurines (see also Fig. 21.5) 308

23.1 Table of figurines present in each sanctuary (table: S. de Larminat) 330

23.2 Table of the different categories and types of figurines discovered in necropoleis and sanctuaries (table: S. de Larminat) 331

24.1 Group of terracotta figurines from Roman Karanis 343

24.2 Finds recovered in Area A262, Karanis 345

24.3 Finds recovered in Building A228, Karanis 347

24.4 Finds recovered in Building A136, Karanis 350

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